Human mesenchymal stem cell sheets in xeno-free media for possible allogenic applications.
ABSTRACT: Cell-based therapies are increasingly focused on allogeneic stem cell sources because of several advantages in eliminating donor variability (e.g., aging and disease pathophysiology) affecting stem cell quality and in cell-banked sourcing of healthy donors to enable "off-the-shelf" products. However, allogeneic cell therapy is limited by host patient immunologic competence and inconsistent performance due to cell delivery methods. To address allogeneic cell therapy limitations, this study developed a new allogeneic stem cell sheet using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSC) that present low antigenicity (i.e., major histocompatibility complex, MHC). Optimal conditions including cell density, passage number, and culture time were examined to fabricate reliable hUC-MSC sheets. MHC II antigens correlated to alloimmune rejection were barely expressed in hUC-MSC sheets compared to other comparator MSC sheets (hBMSC and hADSC). hUC-MSC sheets easily graft spontaneously onto subcutaneous tissue in immune-deficient mice within 10 minutes of placement. No sutures are required to secure sheets to tissue because sheet extracellular matrix (ECM) actively facilitates cell-target tissue adhesion. At 10 days post-transplantation, hUC-MSC sheets remain on ectopic target tissue sites and exhibit new blood vessel formation. Furthermore, implanted hUC-MSC sheets secrete human HGF continuously to the murine target tissue. hUC-MSC sheets described here should provide new insights for improving allogenic cell-based therapies.
Project description:Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) formed robust cell sheets by engineering the cells with soluble cell adhesive molecules (CAMs), which enabled unique approaches to harvest large area hADSC sheets. As a soluble CAM, fibronectin (FN) (100?pg/ml) enhanced the cell proliferation rate and control both cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate interactions. Through this engineering of FN, a transferrable hADSC sheet was obtained as a free-stranding sheet (122.6 mm2) by a photothermal method. During the harvesting of hADSC sheets by the photothermal method, a collagen layer in-between cells and conductive polymer film (CP) was dissociated, to protect cells from direct exposure to a near infrared (NIR) source. The hADSC sheets were applied to chronic wound of genetically diabetic db/db mice in vivo, to accelerate 30% faster wound closure with a high closure effect (?wc) than that of control groups. These results indicated that the engineering of CAM and collagens allow hADSC sheet harvesting, which could be extended to engineer various stem cell sheets for efficient therapies.
Project description:The integration of stem cell technology and cell sheet engineering improved the potential use of cell sheet products in regenerative medicine. This review will discuss the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell sheet-based tissue engineering. Besides their adhesiveness to plastic surfaces and their extensive differentiation potential in vitro, MSCs are easily accessible, expandable in vitro with acceptable genomic stability, and few ethical issues. With all these advantages, they are extremely well suited for cell sheet-based tissue engineering. This review will focus on the use of MSC sheets in osteogenic tissue engineering. Potential application techniques with or without scaffolds and/or grafts will be discussed. Finally, the importance of osteogenic induction of these MSC sheets in orthopaedic applications will be demonstrated.
Project description:Post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) following pancreatic resection is a life-threatening surgical complication. Cell sheets were prepared and harvested using temperature-responsive culture dishes and transplanted as patches to seal POPF. Two different mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets were compared in terms of the preventative ability for pancreatic leakage in a rat model. Both rat adipose-derived stem cell (rADSC) and bone marrow-derived stem cell (rBMSC) sheets were transplanted. Those rADSC and rBMSC sheets are created without enzymes and thus maintained their cell-cell junctions and adhesion proteins with intact fibronectin on the basal side, as well as characteristics of MSCs. The rats with post-pancreatectomy rADSC- or rBMSC-sheet patches had significantly decreased abdominal fluid leakage compared with the control group, demonstrated by MR image analysis and measurement of the volume of abdominal fluid. Amylase level was significantly lower in the rats with rADSC-sheet and rBMSC-sheet patches compared with the control groups. The rADSC sheet patches had increased adhesive and immune-cytokine profiles (ICAM-1, L-selectin, TIMP-1), and the rBMSC sheets had reduced immune reactions compared to the control. This is first project looking at the feasibility of tissue engineering therapy using MSC-sheets as tissue patches preventing leakage of abdominal fluid caused by POPF.
Project description:Multilayered cell sheets have been produced from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for investigating their adhesion properties onto native porcine heart tissue. Once MSCs reached confluence after a 7-day culture on a temperature-responsive culture dish, a MSCs monolayer spontaneously detached itself from the dish, when the culture temperature was reduced from 37 to 20°C. The basal extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of the single cell sheet are preserved, because this technique requires no proteolytic enzymes for harvesting cell sheet, which become a basic building block for assembling a multilayer cell sheet. The thickness of multilayered cell sheets made from three MSC sheets was found to be approximately 60 ?m. For investigating the adhesion properties of the basal and apical sides, the multilayered cell sheets were transplanted onto the surface of the heart's left ventricle. Multilayered cell sheets were histological investigated at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after transplantation by hematoxylin eosin (HE) and azan dyes to determine required time for the adhesion of the multilayered sheets following cell-sheet transplantation. The results showed that only the basal side of multilayered cell sheets significantly enhanced the sheets adhesion onto the surface of heart 30 minutes after transplantation. This study concluded that (1) cell sheets had to be transplanted with its basal side onto the surface of heart tissue and (2) at least 30 minutes were necessary for obtaining the histological adhesion of the sheets to the heart tissue. This study provided clinical evidence and parameters for the successful application of MSC sheets to the myocardium and allowed cell sheet technology to be adapted clinical cell-therapy for myocardial diseases.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) constitute one of the most powerful tools for therapeutic angiogenesis in infarcted hearts. However, conventional MSC transplantation approaches result in insufficient therapeutic effects due to poor retention of graft cells in severe ischemic diseases. Cell sheet technology has been developed as a new method to prolong graft cell retention even in ischemic tissue. Recently, we demonstrated that hypoxic pretreatment enhances the therapeutic efficacy of cell sheet implantation in infarcted mouse hearts. In this study, we investigated whether hypoxic pretreatment activates the therapeutic functions of bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) sheets and improves cardiac function in rabbit infarcted hearts following autologous transplantation. Production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was increased in BM-MSC monolayer sheets and it peaked at 48 h under hypoxic culture conditions (2% O2). To examine in vivo effects, preconditioned autologous BM-MSC sheets were implanted into a rabbit old myocardial infarction model. Implantation of preconditioned BM-MSC sheets accelerated angiogenesis in the peri-infarcted area and decreased the infarcted area, leading to improvement of the left ventricular function of the infarcted heart. Importantly, the therapeutic efficacy of the preconditioned BM-MSC sheets was higher than that of standardly cultured sheets. Thus, implantation of autologous preconditioned BM-MSC sheets is a feasible approach for enhancing therapeutic angiogenesis in chronically infarcted hearts.
Project description:Transplantation of allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is a promising treatment for heart failure. We have shown that epicardial placement of cell sheets markedly increases donor cell survival and augments therapeutic effects compared with the current methods. Although immune rejection of intramyocardially injected allogeneic MSCs have been suggested, allogeneic MSCs transplanted on the heart surface (virtual space) may undergo different courses. This study aimed to elucidate immunologic response against epicardially placed allogeneic MSCs, rejection or acceptance of these cells, and their therapeutic effects for heart failure.At 4 weeks after coronary artery ligation, Lewis rats underwent epicardial placement of MSC sheets from syngeneic Lewis or allogeneic Fischer 344 rats or sham treatment. At days 3 and 10 after treatment, similar ratios (≈50% and 30%, respectively) of grafted MSCs survived on the heart surface in both MSC sheet groups. By day 28, survival of syngeneic MSCs was substantially reduced (8.9%); survival of allogeneic MSCs was more extensively reduced (0.2%), suggesting allorejection. Correspondingly, allogeneic MSCs were found to have evoked an immunologic response, albeit low level, as characterized by accumulation of CD4(+) T cells and upregulation of interleukin 6. Despite this alloimmune response, the allogeneic MSC sheet achieved myocardial upregulation of reparative factors, enhanced repair of the failing myocardium, and improved cardiac function to the equivalent degree observed for the syngeneic MSC sheet.Allogeneic MSCs placed on the heart surface evoked an immunologic response; however, this allowed sufficient early phase donor cell survival to induce equivalent therapeutic benefits to syngeneic MSCs. Further development of this approach toward clinical application is warranted.
Project description:Renal fibrosis is one of the largest global health care problems, and microvascular (MV) injury is important in the development of progressive fibrosis. Although conventional cell therapy suppresses kidney injury via the role of vasoprotective cytokines, the effects are limited due to low retention of administered cells. We recently described that transplantation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-transgenic mesothelial cell sheets showed a remarkable cell survival and strong therapeutic effects in a rat renal fibrosis model. Due to the translational hurdles of transgenic cells, we here applied this technique for allogeneic transplantation using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSC sheets were transplanted onto the kidney surface of a rat renal ischemia-reperfusion-injury model and the effects were compared between those in untreated rats and those receiving intravenous (IV) administration of the cells. We found that donor-cell survival was superior in the cell sheet group relative to the IV group, and that the cell sheets secreted HGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) up to day 14. Transplantation of cell sheets increased the expression of activated HGF/VEGF receptors in the kidney. There was no evidence of migration of transplanted cells into the kidney parenchyma. Additionally, the cell sheets significantly suppressed renal dysfunction, MV injury, and fibrosis as compared with that observed in the untreated and IV groups. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the MSC sheet protected MV density in the whole kidney according to three-dimensional microcomputed tomography. In conclusion, MSC sheets strongly prevented renal fibrosis via MV protection, suggesting that this strategy represents a potential novel therapy for various kidney diseases. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:1330&1341.
Project description:Structural bone allografts are widely used in the clinic to treat critical sized bone defects, despite lacking the osteoinductive characteristics of live autografts. To address this, we generated revitalized structural allografts wrapped with mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell (MSC) sheets, which were produced by expanding primary syngenic bone marrow derived cells on temperature-responsive plates, as a tissue-engineered periosteum. In vitro assays demonstrated maintenance of the MSC phenotype in the sheets, suggesting that short-term culturing of MSC sheets is not detrimental. To test their efficacy in vivo, allografts wrapped with MSC sheets were transplanted into 4-mm murine femoral defects and compared to allografts with direct seeding of MSCs and allografts without cells. Evaluations consisted of X-ray plain radiography, 3D microCT, histology, and biomechanical testing at 4- and 6-weeks post-surgery. Our findings demonstrate that MSC sheets induce prolonged cartilage formation at the graft-host junction and enhanced bone callus formation, as well as graft-host osteointegration. Moreover, a large periosteal callus was observed spanning the allografts with MSC sheets, which partially mimics live autograft healing. Finally, biomechanical testing showed a significant increase in the structural and functional properties of MSC sheet grafted femurs. Taken together, MSC sheets exhibit enhanced osteogenicity during critical sized bone defect repair, demonstrating the feasibility of this tissue engineering solution for massive allograft healing.
Project description:To determine whether cell sheets generated with long-term passaged (P10) aging human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) could be used for bone tissue regeneration as tissue engineered periosteum in a femoral allograft mouse model similar to fresh passaged (P3) young MSCs. At 3 weeks after transplantation of MSC sheets, results showed more bony callus formed between allograft and host bone ends in both young P3 MSC and aged P10 MSC sheet-wrapped groups when compared to allograft alone. At 6 weeks, while both MSC sheet-wrapped allografts showed more bony callus formation when compared to allograft alone groups, the bony callus size in aged P10 MSC sheet groups was significantly less than young P3 MSC sheet groups. Biomechanical testing confirmed that P3 MSC sheet-grafted femurs had the highest biomechanical strength in the three groups. Histology sections showed that the area of the chondriod callus in the aged P10 MSC sheet groups was significantly larger than in P3 MSC sheet groups. Finally, a significant increase of chondro-osteoclast activity was observed in the P3 MSC sheet-grafted femur. Our data demonstrates that extensive long-term culture-induced MSC aging impaired their osteogenic ability and subsequent bony callus formation, and could be used to induce cartilaginous callus formation.
Project description:Owing to the recent progress in regenerative medicine technology, clinical trials that harnessed the regeneration and immune modulation potentiality of stem cells for treating IBD have shown promising results. We investigated the feasibility and utility of intraluminal endoscopic transplantation of rat MSC sheets in murine models of experimental colitis for targeted delivery of stem cells to lesions. We isolated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) from EGFP-transgenic rats and fabricated the cells in sheet forms using temperature-responsive culture dishes. The MSC sheets were endoscopically transplanted to the inflamed area in electrocoagulation and DNBS colitis model. The effect of the transplantation was verified using endoscopic scoring and histological analysis. In the electrocoagulation model, the AD-MSC group showed significantly decreased ulcer size in the transplanted regions. In the DNBS colitis model, the AD-MSC group showed decreased inflammation and colitis in the transplanted regions. Histologic analysis showed that the MSC sheets had successfully attached to the inflamed mucosa in both the electrocoagulation and DNBS colitis model. Our results show that endoscopic transplantation of MSC sheets could be a new effective mode of stem cell therapy for IBD treatment.