A human gut bacterial genome and culture collection for improved metagenomic analyses.
ABSTRACT: Understanding gut microbiome functions requires cultivated bacteria for experimental validation and reference bacterial genome sequences to interpret metagenome datasets and guide functional analyses. We present the Human Gastrointestinal Bacteria Culture Collection (HBC), a comprehensive set of 737 whole-genome-sequenced bacterial isolates, representing 273 species (105 novel species) from 31 families found in the human gastrointestinal microbiota. The HBC increases the number of bacterial genomes derived from human gastrointestinal microbiota by 37%. The resulting global Human Gastrointestinal Bacteria Genome Collection (HGG) classifies 83% of genera by abundance across 13,490 shotgun-sequenced metagenomic samples, improves taxonomic classification by 61% compared to the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) genome collection and achieves subspecies-level classification for almost 50% of sequences. The improved resource of gastrointestinal bacterial reference sequences circumvents dependence on de novo assembly of metagenomes and enables accurate and cost-effective shotgun metagenomic analyses of human gastrointestinal microbiota.
Project description:Metagenomic analyses have indicated that the female bladder harbors an indigenous microbiota. However, there are few cultured reference strains with sequenced genomes available for functional and experimental analyses. Here we isolate and genome-sequence 149 bacterial strains from catheterized urine of 77 women. This culture collection spans 78 species, representing approximately two thirds of the bacterial diversity within the sampled bladders, including Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Detailed genomic and functional comparison of the bladder microbiota to the gastrointestinal and vaginal microbiotas demonstrates similar vaginal and bladder microbiota, with functional capacities that are distinct from those observed in the gastrointestinal microbiota. Whole-genome phylogenetic analysis of bacterial strains isolated from the vagina and bladder in the same women identifies highly similar Escherichia coli, Streptococcus anginosus, Lactobacillus iners, and Lactobacillus crispatus, suggesting an interlinked female urogenital microbiota that is not only limited to pathogens but is also characteristic of health-associated commensals.
Project description:A rapidly increasing flow of genomic data requires the development of efficient methods for obtaining its compact representation. Feature extraction facilitates classification, clustering and model analysis for testing and refining biological hypotheses. "Shotgun" metagenome is an analytically challenging type of genomic data - containing sequences of all genes from the totality of a complex microbial community. Recently, researchers started to analyze metagenomes using reference-free methods based on the analysis of oligonucleotides (k-mers) frequency spectrum previously applied to isolated genomes. However, little is known about their correlation with the existing approaches for metagenomic feature extraction, as well as the limits of applicability. Here we evaluated a metagenomic pairwise dissimilarity measure based on short k-mer spectrum using the example of human gut microbiota, a biomedically significant object of study.We developed a method for calculating pairwise dissimilarity (beta-diversity) of "shotgun" metagenomes based on short k-mer spectra (5 ? k ? 11). The method was validated on simulated metagenomes and further applied to a large collection of human gut metagenomes from the populations of the world (n=281). The k-mer spectrum-based measure was found to behave similarly to one based on mapping to a reference gene catalog, but different from one using a genome catalog. This difference turned out to be associated with a significant presence of viral reads in a number of metagenomes. Simulations showed limited impact of bacterial genetic variability as well as sequencing errors on k-mer spectra. Specific differences between the datasets from individual populations were identified.Our approach allows rapid estimation of pairwise dissimilarity between metagenomes. Though we applied this technique to gut microbiota, it should be useful for arbitrary metagenomes, even metagenomes with novel microbiota. Dissimilarity measure based on k-mer spectrum provides a wider perspective in comparison with the ones based on the alignment against reference sequence sets. It helps not to miss possible outstanding features of metagenomic composition, particularly related to the presence of an unknown bacteria, virus or eukaryote, as well as to technical artifacts (sample contamination, reads of non-biological origin, etc.) at the early stages of bioinformatic analysis. Our method is complementary to reference-based approaches and can be easily integrated into metagenomic analysis pipelines.
Project description:Antibiotic therapy can lead to the disruption of gut microbiota community with possible negative outcomes for human health. One of the diseases for which the treatment scheme commonly included antibiotic intake is Helicobacter pylori infection. The changes in taxonomic and functional composition of microbiota in patients can be assessed using "shotgun" metagenomic sequencing. Ten stool samples were collected from 4 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection before and directly after the H. pylori eradication course. Additionally, for two of the subjects, the samples were collected 1 month after the end of the treatment. The samples were subject to "shotgun" (whole-genome) metagenomic sequencing using Illumina HiSeq platform. The reads are deposited in the ENA (project ID: PRJEB18265).
Project description:Reference genomes are essential for metagenomic analyses and functional characterization of the human gut microbiota. We present the Culturable Genome Reference (CGR), a collection of 1,520 nonredundant, high-quality draft genomes generated from >6,000 bacteria cultivated from fecal samples of healthy humans. Of the 1,520 genomes, which were chosen to cover all major bacterial phyla and genera in the human gut, 264 are not represented in existing reference genome catalogs. We show that this increase in the number of reference bacterial genomes improves the rate of mapping metagenomic sequencing reads from 50% to >70%, enabling higher-resolution descriptions of the human gut microbiome. We use the CGR genomes to annotate functions of 338 bacterial species, showing the utility of this resource for functional studies. We also carry out a pan-genome analysis of 38 important human gut species, which reveals the diversity and specificity of functional enrichment between their core and dispensable genomes.
Project description:Alcoholism is associated with significant changes in gut microbiota composition. Metagenomic sequencing allows to assess the altered abundance levels of bacterial taxa and genes in a culture-independent way. We collected 99 stool samples from the patients with alcoholic dependence syndrome (n=72) and alcoholic liver cirrhosis (n=27). Each of the samples was surveyed using "shotgun" (whole-genome) sequencing on SOLiD platform. The reads are deposited in the ENA (project ID: PRJEB18041).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microbiota that co-enrich during efforts to recover pathogens from foodborne outbreaks interfere with efficient detection and recovery. Here, dynamics of co-enriching microbiota during recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream samples linked to an outbreak are described for three different initial enrichment formulations used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Enrichment cultures were analyzed using DNA extraction and sequencing from samples taken every 4 h throughout 48 h of enrichment. Resphera Insight and CosmosID analysis tools were employed for high-resolution profiling of 16S rRNA amplicons and whole genome shotgun data, respectively. RESULTS:During enrichment, other bacterial taxa were identified, including Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Streptococcus spp. Surprisingly, incidence of L. monocytogenes was proportionally greater at hour 0 than when tested 4, 8, and 12 h later with all three enrichment schemes. The corresponding increase in Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus spp.indicated these taxa co-enriched in competition with L. monocytogenes during early enrichment hours. L. monocytogenes became dominant after 24 h in all three enrichments. DNA sequences obtained from shotgun metagenomic data of Listeria monocytogenes at 48 h were assembled to produce a consensus draft genome which appeared to have a similar tracking utility to pure culture isolates of L. monocytogenes. CONCLUSIONS:All three methods performed equally well for enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes. The observation of potential competitive exclusion of L. mono by Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus in early enrichment hours provided novel information that may be used to further optimize enrichment formulations. Application of Resphera Insight for high-resolution analysis of 16S amplicon sequences accurately identified L. monocytogenes. Both shotgun and 16S rRNA data supported the presence of three slightly variable genomes of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, the draft assembly of a consensus genome of L. monocytogenes from shotgun metagenomic data demonstrated the potential utility of this approach to expedite trace-back of outbreak-associated strains, although further validation will be needed to confirm this utility.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The salivary microbiota is a potential diagnostic indicator of several diseases. Culture-independent techniques are required to study the salivary microbial community since many of its members have not been cultivated. METHODS: We explored the bacterial community composition in the saliva sample using metagenomic whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing, the extraction of 16S rRNA gene fragments from metagenomic sequences (16S-WGS) and high-throughput sequencing of PCR-amplified bacterial 16S rDNA gene (16S-HTS) regions V1 and V3. RESULTS: The hierarchical clustering of data based on the relative abundance of bacterial genera revealed that distances between 16S-HTS datasets for V1 and V3 regions were greater than those obtained for the same V region with different numbers of PCR cycles. Datasets generated by 16S-HTS and 16S-WGS were even more distant. Finally, comparison of WGS and 16S-based datasets revealed the highest dissimilarity.The analysis of the 16S-HTS, WGS and 16S-WGS datasets revealed 206, 56 and 39 bacterial genera, respectively, 124 of which have not been previously identified in salivary microbiomes. A large fraction of DNA extracted from saliva corresponded to human DNA. Based on sequence similarity search against completely sequenced genomes, bacterial and viral sequences represented 0.73% and 0.0036% of the salivary metagenome, respectively. Several sequence reads were identified as parts of the human herpesvirus 7. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the salivary metagenome may have implications in diagnostics e.g. in detection of microorganisms and viruses without designing specific tests for each pathogen.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The gastrointestinal tracts of animals are home to large, complex communities of microbes. The compositions of these communities ultimately reflect the coevolution of microorganisms with their animal host and are influenced by the living environment, diet and immune status of the host. Gut microbes have been shown to be important for human disease and health, but little research exists in the gut microbiome of the Amur tiger, which is one of the most endangered species in the world. RESULTS:In this study, we present the use of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing to analyze the composition and functional structures of the gut microbiota in captive Amur tigers. Our results showed a high abundance of four major phyla in captive Amur tigers, including Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Moreover, at the genus level, Escherichia, Collinsella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in the captive Amur tiger fecal metagenome. At the species level, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium ulcerans and Fusobacterium varium were the species with highest abundances in the captive Amur tiger gut microbiota. The primary functional categories of the Amur tiger faecal metagenome were associated mainly with Carbohydrate metabolism, Membrane transport and Amino acid metabolism based on the KEGG pathway database. The comparative metagenomic analyses showed that the captive Amur tiger fecal metagenome had a lower abundance of Spirochaetes, Cyanobacteria and Ascomycota than other animals, and the primary functional categories were primarily associated with carbohydrate metabolism subsystems, clustering-based subsystems and protein metabolism. CONCLUSIONS:We presented here for the first time the use of the shotgun metagenomic sequencing approach to study the composition and functional structures of the gut microbiota in captive Amur tiger.
Project description:Metagenomics seeks to understand microbial communities and assemblages by DNA sequencing. Technological advances in next generation sequencing technologies are fuelling a rapid growth in the number and scope of projects aiming to analyze complex microbial environments such as marine, soil or the gut. Recent improvements in longer read lengths and paired-sequencing allow better resolution in profiling microbial communities. While both 454 sequencing and Illumina sequencing have been used in numerous metagenomic studies, SOLiD sequencing is not commonly used in this area, as it is believed to be more suitable in the context of reference-guided projects.To investigate the performance of SOLiD sequencing in a metagenomic context, we compared taxonomic profiles of SOLiD mate-pair sequencing reads with Sanger paired reads and 454 single reads. All sequences were obtained from the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, which was amplified from microbial DNA extracted from a human fecal sample. Additionally, from the same fecal sample, complete genomic microbial DNA was extracted and shotgun sequenced using SOLiD sequencing to study the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the existing microbial metabolism. We found that the microbiota composition of 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained using Sanger, 454 and SOLiD sequencing provide results comparable to the result based on shotgun sequencing. Moreover, with SOLiD sequences we obtained more resolution down to the species level. In addition, the shotgun data allowed us to determine a functional profile using the databases SEED and KEGG.This study shows that SOLiD mate-pair sequencing is a viable and cost-efficient option for analyzing a complex microbiome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that SOLiD sequencing has been used in a human sample.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease results from alterations in the immune system and intestinal microbiota. The role of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in maintaining gut homeostasis is well known and its perturbation often causes gastrointestinal disorders including IBD. The epithelial specific adaptor protein (AP)-1B is involved in the establishment of the polarity of IECs. Deficiency of the AP-1B ? subunit (Ap1m2-/-) leads to the development of chronic colitis in mice. However, how this deficiency affects the gut microbes and its potential functions remains elusive. To gain insights into the gut microbiome of Ap1m2-/- mice having the colitis phenotype, we undertook shotgun metagenomic sequencing analysis of knockout mice. We found important links to the microbial features involved in altering various physiological pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, nutrient transportation, oxidative stress, and bacterial pathogenesis (cell motility). In addition, an increased abundance of sulfur-reducing and lactate-producing bacteria has been observed which may aggravate the colitis condition.