Nutrigenomic effect of conjugated linoleic acid on growth and meat quality indices of growing rabbit.
ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid was detected in rabbit caecotrophs, due to the presence of microbial lipid activity in rabbit cecum. However, the effect of CLA as a functional food in growing rabbit is not well established. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of CLA on production, meat quality, and its nutrigenomic effect on edible parts of rabbit carcass including skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Therefore, seventy five weaned V-Line male rabbits, 30 days old, were randomly allocated into three dietary treatments receiving either basal control diet, diet supplemented with 0.5% (CLAL), or 1% CLA (CLAH). Total experimental period (63 d) was segmented into 7 days adaptation and 56 days experimental period. Dietary supplementation of CLA did not alter growth performance, however, the fat percentage of longissimus lumborum muscle was decreased, with an increase in protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were not increased in CLA treated groups. There was tissue specific sensing of CLA, since subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression of PPARA was downregulated, however, CPT1A tended to be upregulated in liver of CLAL group only (P = 0.09). In skeletal muscle, FASN and PPARG were upregulated in CLAH group only (P ?0.01). Marked cytoplasmic vacuolation was noticed in liver of CLAH group without altering hepatocyte structure. Adipocyte size was decreased in CLA fed groups, in a dose dependent manner (P <0.01). Cell proliferation determined by PCNA was lower (P <0.01) in adipose tissue of CLA groups. Our data indicate that dietary supplementation of CLA (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12- CLA) at a dose of 0.5% in growing rabbit diet produce rabbit meat rich in PUFA and lower fat % without altering growth performance and hepatocyte structure.
Project description:This study focused on the mechanisms that fatty acid conjugating strains - Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and Bifidobacterium breve DPC 6330 - influence lipid metabolism when ingested with ?-linolenic acid (ALA) enriched diet. Four groups of BALB/c mice received ALA enriched diet (3% (w/w)) either alone or in combination with B. breve NCIMB 702258 or B. breve DPC 6330 (109 CFU/day) or unsupplemented control diet for six weeks. The overall n-3 PUFA score was increased in all groups receiving the ALA enriched diet. Hepatic peroxisomal beta oxidation increased following supplementation of the ALA enriched diet with B. breve (P?<?0.05) and so the ability of the strains to produce c9t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was identified in adipose tissue. Furthermore, a strain specific effect of B. breve NCIMB 702258 was found on the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Liver triglycerides (TAG) were reduced following ALA supplementation, compared with unsupplemented controls (P?<?0.01) while intervention with B. breve further reduced liver TAG (P?<?0.01), compared with the ALA enriched control. These data indicate that the interactions of the gut microbiota with fatty acid metabolism directly affect host health by modulating n-3 PUFA score and the ECS.
Project description:Mixtures of the two major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers trans-10,cis-12-CLA and cis-9,trans-11-CLA are used as over the counter supplements for weight loss. Because of the reported adverse effects of CLA on insulin sensitivity in some mouse studies, we sought to compare the impact of dietary t10c12-CLA and c9t11-CLA on liver, adipose tissue, and systemic metabolism of adult lean mice. We fed 8 week-old C57Bl/6J male mice with low fat diets (10.5% Kcal from fat) containing 0.8% t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA for 9 or 38 days. Diets containing c9t11-CLA had minimal impact on the endpoints studied. However, 7 days after starting the t10c12-CLA diet, we observed a dramatic reduction in fat mass measured by NMR spectroscopy, which interestingly rebounded by 38 days. This rebound was apparently due to a massive accumulation of lipids in the liver, because adipose tissue depots were visually undetectable. Hepatic steatosis and the disappearance of adipose tissue after t10c12-CLA feeding was associated with elevated plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance, compared to mice fed a control diet or c9t11-CLA diet. Unexpectedly, despite being insulin resistant, mice fed t10c12-CLA had normal levels of blood glucose, without signs of impaired glucose clearance. Hepatic gene expression and fatty acid composition suggested enhanced hepatic de novo lipogenesis without an increase in expression of gluconeogenic genes. These data indicate that dietary t10c12-CLA may alter hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism indirectly, in response to the loss of adipose tissue in mice fed a low fat diet.
Project description:Dietary recommendations by health authorities have been advising of the importance of diminishing saturated fatty acids (SFA) consumption and replacing them by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly omega-3. Therefore, there have been efforts to enhance food fatty acid profiles, helping them to meet human nutritional recommendations. Ruminant meat is the major dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) source, but it also contains SFA at relatively high proportions, deriving from ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA. Additionally, lipid metabolism in ruminants may differ from other species. Recent research has aimed to modify the fatty acid profile of meat, and other animal products. This review summarizes dietary strategies based on the n-3 PUFA supplementation of ruminant diets and their effects on meat fatty acid composition. Additionally, the role of n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue (AT) development and in the expression of key genes involved in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism is discussed. It has been demonstrated that linseed supplementation leads to an increase in ?-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whilst fish oil and algae increase DHA content. Dietary PUFA can alter AT adiposity and modulate lipid metabolism genes expression, although further research is required to clarify the underlying mechanism.
Project description:The effects of maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development and hepatic lipid metabolism were investigated in chick embryos. A total of 180 Arbor Acres female broiler breeders (36 wk old) were randomly divided into the following 3 dietary treatment groups: a basic diet (control), a basic diet containing 0.5% CLA (CLA1), and a basic diet containing 1.0% CLA (CLA2). The females were fed for 8 wk, and the eggs from each group were collected and hatched during the last 2 wk. The results showed that the addition of dietary CLA increased the broken egg rate and reduced the fertilization rate and the egg hatchability (P < 0.05). CLA enrichment decreased the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and increased the saturated fatty acids in the yolk sac (P < 0.05). The yolk sac weight, body weight, and body length had a linear decrease with CLA supplementation (P < 0.05). In the developing chick embryo (at E14) and newly hatched chick (D0), the serum triglyceride concentration decreased with maternal CLA supplementation and was accompanied by a reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue deposition. In addition, maternal CLA supplementation mediated the hepatic lipid metabolism by decreasing the mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and increasing the mRNA expression of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR?), liver fatty acid-binding protein, adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase in embryonic chick livers (P < 0.05). A drop in SREBP-1c protein expression and an increase in the protein expression of p-AMPK? and PPAR? were also observed in the liver of chick embryo (P < 0.05). In conclusion, maternal CLA supplementation regulated the fatty acid composition in the yolk sac, and mediated embryonic chick development and hepatic lipometabolism, and these effects may be related to the AMPK pathway. These findings suggest the potential ability of maternal CLA supplementation to reduce fat deposition in chick embryos.
Project description:Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes in two immune organs, spleen (SPL) and bone marrow cells (BMC). Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM), white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and liver (LIV), were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S), or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P), tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P). In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. The LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Surprisingly, the spleen showed a major response to HFD-P (82 genes differed from LFD, mostly immune genes), while it was not affected at all by HFD-S (0 genes differed from LFD). In conclusion, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in distinct manners in different organs. Remarkably, dietary PUFA, but not saturated fat, prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen, opening the possibility that PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression in this organ.
Project description:The dietary fatty acid 10,12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes weight loss by increasing fat oxidation, but its effects on atherosclerosis are less clear. We recently showed that weight loss induced by 10,12 CLA in an atherosclerosis-susceptible mouse model with characteristics similar to human metabolic syndrome is accompanied by accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages within subcutaneous adipose tissue. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss was associated with an atheroprotective phenotype. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice were made obese with 12 weeks of a high-fat, high-sucrose diet feeding (HFHS: 36% fat, 36% sucrose, 0.15% added cholesterol), then either continued on the HFHS diet with or without caloric restriction (CR), or switched to a diet with 1% of the lard replaced by either 9,11 CLA or 10,12 CLA for 8 weeks. Atherosclerosis and lipid levels were quantified at sacrifice. Weight loss in mice following 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR as a weight-matched control group had improved cholesterol and triglyceride levels, yet only the 10,12 CLA-treated mice had improved en face and aortic sinus atherosclerosis. 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice had increased lesion macrophage content, with enrichment of surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) alternative macrophages, which may contribute to the anti-atherosclerotic effect of 10,12 CLA.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with different n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on growth performance, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in Heigai pigs. A total of 54 Heigai finishing pigs (body weight: 71.59 ± 2.16 kg) were randomly divided into three treatments with six replications (three pigs per replication) and fed diets containing different n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios: 8:1, 5:1, and 3:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 8:1 had the highest feed to gain ratio (p < 0.01), carcass weight (p < 0.05), redness a* (p < 0.01), and yellowness b* (p < 0.01). Fatty acid compositions in longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were significantly changed (p < 0.01). Notably, the meat from the pigs fed with the low dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio had higher n-3 PUFA contents (p < 0.01) and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (p < 0.01). The triglyceride and total cholesterol contents were significantly decreased in SAT from the pigs fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 (p < 0.05) and 3:1 (p < 0.01). Reducing n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio upregulated the expression of HSL (p < 0.05), CPT1 (p < 0.01), and FABP4 (p < 0.01) but downregulated ATGL (p < 0.01) expression. These results demonstrate that the lower n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio regulates meat quality and enhances the deposition of n-3 PUFA in Heigai pigs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are receiving increasing attention because of their beneficial effects on human health, with milk and meat products derived from ruminants as important sources of CLA in the human diet. SCD gene is responsible for some of the variation in CLA concentration in adipose tissues, and PPARgamma, PPARalpha and SREBP1 genes are regulator of SCD gene. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the feeding system on fatty acid composition, CLA content and relative gene expression of Delta9-desaturase (SCD), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARgamma), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha, (PPARalpha) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP1) in Rasa Aragonesa light lambs in semitendinous muscle. Forty-four single-born male lambs were used to evaluate the effect of the feeding system, varying on an intensity gradient according to the use of concentrates: 1. grazing alfalfa, 2. grazing alfalfa with a supplement for lambs, 3. indoor lambs with grazing ewes and 4. drylot. RESULTS: Both grazing systems resulted in a higher concentration of vaccenic acid (VA), CLA, CLA/VA acid ratio, and a lower oleic content, oleic acid (C18:1)/stearic acid (C18:0) ratio, PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio and SCD expression compared to other diets. In addition feeding system affected the fatty acid composition and SCD expression, possibly due to CLA concentration or the PUFA n-6/n-3 ratio. Both expression of the SCD gene and the feeding system were important factors affecting CLA concentration in the animal's semitendinous muscle. PPARgamma, PPARalpha and SREBP1 expression seemed to be unaffected by the feeding system. Although no significant results were found, PPARgamma, PPARalpha and SREBP1 showed similar expression pattern as SCD. Moreover, the correlation results between SCD expression and PPARgamma (p < 0.01), as well as SREBP1 (p < 0.01) expression, may suggest that these genes were affecting SCD expression in a different way. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicated that the feeding system is the main factor affecting the fatty acid composition and SCD gene expression, which is also affected by CLA and possibly by n-6/n-3 PUFAs.
Project description:Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are suggested to modulate immune function, but the effects of dietary fatty acids composition on gene expression patterns in immune organs have not been fully characterized. In the current study we investigated how dietary fatty acids composition affects the total transcriptome profile, and especially, immune related genes, in bone marrow cells (BMC) and spleen (SPL). Four tissues with metabolic function, skeletal muscle (SKM), white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and liver (LIV), were investigated as a comparison. Following 8 weeks on low fat diet (LFD), high fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S), or HFD rich in PUFA (HFD-P), tissue transcriptomics were analyzed by microarray and metabolic health assessed by fasting blood glucose level, HOMA-IR index, oral glucose tolerance test as well as quantification of crown-like structures in WAT. Interestingly, SKM and BMC were relatively inert to the diets, whereas the two adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) were mainly affected by HFD per se (both HFD-S and HFD-P). In particular, WAT gene expression was driven closer to that of the immune organs SPL and BMC by HFDs. Remarkably, the spleen, showed a major response to HFD-P, but not to HFD-S, whereas the LIV exhibited different responses to both of the HFDs. Further, HFD-P corrected the metabolic phenotype induced by HFD-S. Hence, the quantity and composition of dietary fatty acids affected the transcriptome in a distinct manner. Especially, PUFA prompted a specific regulation of immune related genes in the spleen. Thus, PUFA can regulate immune function by influencing gene expression. Overall design: Mice were fed three different diets (low fat diet, high fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids and high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids) for height weeks. Six tissues (skeletal muscle, bone marrow cells, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, spleen and liver) were harvasted and analysed using microarray with 4 biological replicates per tissue and diet except for LIV/LFD and LIV/HFD-S with 5 replicates each and SPL/LFD with 3 replicates
Project description:SCOPE:The fatty acid profile of dietary lipids is reflected in mammary adipose tissue and may influence mammary gland biology and cancer risk. To determine the effects of fish consumption on breast adipose tissue fatty acids, we conducted a study of fish versus n-3 PUFA supplements in women at increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS:High risk women were randomized to comparable doses of marine n-3 PUFAs as canned salmon + albacore or capsules for 3 months. Pre- and posttreatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by GC. Dietary fish (n = 12) and n-3 PUFA capsules (n = 13) yielded increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma (p < 0.0001), erythrocyte membranes (p < 0.0001), and breast fat (p < 0.01) at 3 months. Women taking capsules had higher plasma and erythrocyte membrane EPA changes (?four versus twofold, p = 0.002), without significant differences in DHA. Increases in breast adipose EPA, DHA were similar for both groups. Higher BMI correlated with smaller changes in plasma, erythrocyte membrane EPA, and breast adipose EPA, DHA. Adherence was excellent at 93.9% overall and higher in the fish arm (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION:Fish provides an excellent source of n-3 PUFAs that increases breast adipose EPA, DHA similar to supplements and represents a well-tolerated intervention for future studies of the impact of n-3 PUFAs and dietary patterns on breast cancer.