Small molecule FAK activator promotes human intestinal epithelial monolayer wound closure and mouse ulcer healing.
ABSTRACT: GI mucosal healing requires epithelial sheet migration. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) stimulates epithelial motility. A virtual screen identified the small drug-like FAK mimic ZINC40099027, which activates FAK. We assessed whether ZINC40099027 promotes FAK-Tyr-397 phosphorylation and wound healing in Caco-2 monolayers and two mouse intestinal injury models. Murine small bowel ulcers were generated by topical serosal acetic acid or subcutaneous indomethacin in C57BL/6J mice. One day later, we began treatment with ZINC40099027 or DMSO, staining the mucosa for phosphorylated FAK and Ki-67 and measuring mucosal ulcer area, serum creatinine, ALT, and body weight at day 4. ZINC40099027 (10-1000 nM) dose-dependently activated FAK phosphorylation, without activating Pyk2-Tyr-402 or Src-Tyr-419. ZINC40099027 did not stimulate proliferation, and stimulated wound closure independently of proliferation. The FAK inhibitor PF-573228 prevented ZINC40099027-stimulated wound closure. In both mouse ulcer models, ZINC40099027accelerated mucosal wound healing. FAK phosphorylation was increased in jejunal epithelium at the ulcer edge, and Ki-67 staining was unchanged in jejunal mucosa. ZINC40099027 serum concentration at sacrifice resembled the effective concentration in vitro. Weight, creatinine and ALT did not differ between groups. Small molecule FAK activators can specifically promote epithelial restitution and mucosal healing and may be useful to treat gut mucosal injury.
Project description:Resolution of intestinal inflammation and wound repair are active processes that mediate epithelial healing at mucosal surfaces. Lipid molecules referred to as specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) play an important role in the restorative response. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), a SPM derived from omega-3 fatty acids, has been reported to dampen intestinal inflammation by promoting anti-inflammatory responses including increased neutrophil spherocytosis and macrophage production of IL-10. Despite these observations, a role for RvE1 in regulating intestinal epithelial cell migration and proliferation during mucosal wound repair has not been explored. Using an endoscopic biopsy-based wound healing model, we report that RvE1 is locally produced in response to intestinal mucosal injury. Exposure of intestinal epithelial cells to RvE1 promoted wound repair by increasing cellular proliferation and migration through activation of signaling pathways including CREB, mTOR, and Src-FAK. Additionally, RvE1-triggered activation of the small GTPase Rac1 led to increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell-matrix adhesion, and cellular protrusions at the leading edge of migrating cells. Furthermore, in situ administration of RvE1-encapsulated synthetic targeted polymeric nanoparticles into intestinal wounds promoted mucosal repair. Together, these findings demonstrate that RvE1 functions as a prorepair lipid mediator by increasing intestinal epithelial cell migration and proliferation, and highlight potential therapeutic applications for this SPM to promote mucosal healing in the intestine.
Project description:Objective: Cell migration is an essential process in skin wound healing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) enhances wound healing by photoactivating a photosensitizer with a specific wavelength of light. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel expressed in multiple layers of keratinocytes. Recent studies showed that the activation of CFTR-related downstream signaling affects skin wound healing. We examined whether indocyanine green (ICG)-mediated PDT-enhanced cell migration is related to CFTR activation. Approach: The spatial and temporal expression levels of CFTR and proteins involved in focal adhesion, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin, were evaluated during cell migration in vitro and in vivo for wound healing. Results: ICG-PDT-conditioned medium collected from cells exposed to 5 J/cm2 near-infrared light in the presence of 100 μg/mL ICG activated CFTR and enhanced HaCaT cell migration. The expression of phosphorylated FAK Tyr861 and phosphorylated paxillin in focal adhesions was spatially and temporally regulated in parallel by ICG-PDT-conditioned medium. Curcumin, a nonspecific activator of CFTR, further increased PDT-enhanced cell migration, whereas inhibition of CFTR and FAK delayed cell migration. The involvement of CFTR in ICG-PDT-enhanced skin wound healing was confirmed in a mouse back skin wound model. Innovation: CFTR is a potential new therapeutic target in ICG-PDT to enhance wound healing. Conclusion: ICG-PDT-enhanced cell migration may be related to activation of the CFTR and FAK pathway. Conditioned medium collected from ICG-PDT may be useful for treating patients with chronic skin ulcer by regulating CFTR expression in keratinocytes.
Project description:Following damage to the intestinal epithelium, restoration of epithelial barrier integrity is triggered by a robust proliferative response. In other tissues, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates many of the cellular processes that are critical for epithelial homeostasis and restitution, including cell migration, proliferation and survival. However, few studies to date have determined how FAK contributes to mucosal wound healing in vivo.To examine the role of FAK in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and during injury, we generated intestinal epithelium (IE)-specific conditional FAK knockout mice. Colitis was induced with dextran-sulfate-sodium (DSS) and intestinal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. While intestinal development occurred normally in mice lacking FAK, FAK-deficient animals were profoundly susceptible to colitis. The loss of epithelial FAK resulted in elevated p53 expression and an increased sensitivity to apoptosis, coincident with a failure to upregulate epithelial cell proliferation. FAK has been reported to function as a mechanosensor, inducing cyclin D1 expression and promoting cell cycle progression under conditions in which tissue/matrix stiffness is increased. Collagen deposition, a hallmark of inflammatory injury resulting in increased tissue rigidity, was observed in control and FAK knockout mice during colitis. Despite this fibrotic response, the colonic epithelium in FAK-deficient mice exhibited significantly reduced cyclin D1 expression, suggesting that proliferation is uncoupled from fibrosis in the absence of FAK. In support of this hypothesis, proliferation of Caco-2 cells increased proportionally with matrix stiffness in vitro only under conditions of normal FAK expression; FAK depleted cells exhibited reduced proliferation concomitant with attenuated cyclin D1 expression.In the colon, FAK functions as a regulator of epithelial cell survival and proliferation under conditions of mucosal injury and a mechanosensor of tissue compliance, inducing repair-driven proliferation in the colonic epithelium through upregulation of cyclin D1.
Project description:GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, as well as dendritic cell differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn's disease in humans and colitis in murine models has mainly been considered to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF-deficient (GM-CSF(-/-)) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type mice, caused marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF(-/-) mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF(-/-) mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF(-/-) mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Nonhematopoietic cells, and not myeloid cells, produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury, as revealed by bone marrow chimera and dendritic cell-depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell-produced GM-CSF has a novel nonredundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium.
Project description:Although physiological functions of the CCK-B/gastrin receptor are well explored, little is known about its role during healing. Here, we evaluated the role of this receptor in the rat oxyntic mucosa following the introduction of a cryoulcer. In this model, we located and quantified CCK-B/gastrin receptors by reverse transcriptase PCR and receptor autoradiography. Rats with cryoulcers were treated with placebo, omeprazole, the CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist YF-476, omeprazole plus YF-476, gastrin-17, and gastrin 17 plus YF-476. During wound healing, CCK-B/gastrin receptors were specifically expressed and localized to the regenerative mucosal ulcer margin. This high expression was limited in time, and the pattern of expression of CCK-B/gastrin receptors correlated closely with the proliferative activity of the regenerative mucosa. Functionally, omeprazole and gastrin-17 caused profound hypergastrinemia, increased cell proliferation in the mucosal ulcer margin and accelerated the late ulcer healing phase. These effects were completely reversed by cotherapy with YF-476. These in vivo and vitro data suggest that CCK-B/gastrin receptors in regenerative rat gastric oxyntic mucosa enhance trophic effects during wound healing.
Project description:BACKGROUND: With the recent development of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), large oesophageal cancers can be removed with a single procedure, with few limits on the resectable range. However, after aggressive ESD, a major complication that arises is postoperative inflammation and stenosis that can considerably affect the patient's quality of life. AIMS: To examine a novel treatment combining ESD and the endoscopic transplantation of tissue-engineered cell sheets created using autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells, in a clinically relevant large animal model. METHODS: Oral mucosal epithelial cells, harvested from beagle dogs, were cultured under normal conditions at 37 degrees C, on temperature-responsive dishes. After ESD (5 cm in length, 180 degrees in range), cell sheets were harvested by a simple reduction in temperature to 20 degrees C, and transplanted by endoscopy. RESULTS: The transplanted cell sheets were able to adhere to and survive on the underlying muscle layers in the ulcer sites, providing an intact, stratified epithelium. Four weeks after surgery, complete wound healing, with no observable stenosis, was seen in the animals receiving autologous cell sheet transplantation. By contrast, noticeable fibrin mesh and host inflammation, consistent with the intermediate stages of wound healing, were observed in the control animals that received only ESD. CONCLUSIONS: These findings in a clinically relevant canine model show the effectiveness of a novel combined endoscopic approach for the potential treatment of oesophageal cancers that can effectively enhance wound healing and possibly prevent postoperative oesophageal stenosis.
Project description:Wound healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa is essential for the maintenance of gut homeostasis and integrity. Enteric glial cells play a major role in regulating intestinal barrier function, but their role in mucosal barrier repair remains unknown. The impact of conditional ablation of enteric glia on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mucosal damage and on healing of diclofenac-induced mucosal ulcerations was evaluated in vivo in GFAP-HSVtk transgenic mice. A mechanically induced model of intestinal wound healing was developed to study glial-induced epithelial restitution. Glial-epithelial signaling mechanisms were analyzed by using pharmacological inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies, and genetically engineered intestinal epithelial cells. Enteric glial cells were shown to be abundant in the gut mucosa, where they associate closely with intestinal epithelial cells as a distinct cell population from myofibroblasts. Conditional ablation of enteric glia worsened mucosal damage after DSS treatment and significantly delayed mucosal wound healing following diclofenac-induced small intestinal enteropathy in transgenic mice. Enteric glial cells enhanced epithelial restitution and cell spreading in vitro. These enhanced repair processes were reproduced by use of glial-conditioned media, and soluble proEGF was identified as a secreted glial mediator leading to consecutive activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and focal adhesion kinase signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. Our study shows that enteric glia represent a functionally important cellular component of the intestinal epithelial barrier microenvironment and that the disruption of this cellular network attenuates the mucosal healing process.
Project description:CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that regulates inflammatory responses and tissue repair. Here, we show that normal mice treated with anti-CD47 antibodies, and Cd47-null mice have impaired intestinal mucosal wound healing. Furthermore, intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific loss of CD47 does not induce spontaneous immune-mediated intestinal barrier disruption but results in defective mucosal repair after biopsy-induced colonic wounding or Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced mucosal damage. In vitro analyses using primary cultures of CD47-deficient murine colonic IEC or human colonoid-derived IEC treated with CD47-blocking antibodies demonstrate impaired epithelial cell migration in wound healing assays. Defective wound repair after CD47 loss is linked to decreased epithelial β1 integrin and focal adhesion signaling, as well as reduced thrombospondin-1 and TGF-β1. These results demonstrate a critical role for IEC-expressed CD47 in regulating mucosal repair and raise important considerations for possible alterations in wound healing secondary to therapeutic targeting of CD47.
Project description:A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. Although epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and ?-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 has an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and ?-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing.
Project description:Alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) are instrumental in early wound healing in response to lung injury, restoring epithelial integrity through spreading and migration. We previously reported in separate studies that focal adhesion kinase-1 (FAK) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 promote epithelial repair mechanisms. However, potential interactions between these two pathways were not previously considered. In the present study, we found that wounding of rat ATII cells promoted increased association between FAK and CXCR4. In addition, protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) increased its association with this heteromeric complex, while apoptosis signal regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) dissociated from the complex. Cell migration following wounding was decreased when PP5 expression was decreased using shRNA, but migration was increased in ATII cells isolated from ASK1 knockout mice. Interactions between FAK and CXCR4 were increased upon depletion of ASK1 using shRNA in MLE-12 cells, but unaffected when PP5 was depleted. Furthermore, we found that wounded rat ATII cells exhibited decreased ASK1 phosphorylation at Serine-966, decreased serine phosphorylation of FAK, and decreased association of phosphorylated ASK1 with FAK. These changes in phosphorylation were dependent upon expression of PP5. These results demonstrate a unique molecular complex comprising CXCR4, FAK, ASK1, and PP5 in ATII cells during wound healing.