Small molecule FAK activator promotes human intestinal epithelial monolayer wound closure and mouse ulcer healing.
ABSTRACT: GI mucosal healing requires epithelial sheet migration. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) stimulates epithelial motility. A virtual screen identified the small drug-like FAK mimic ZINC40099027, which activates FAK. We assessed whether ZINC40099027 promotes FAK-Tyr-397 phosphorylation and wound healing in Caco-2 monolayers and two mouse intestinal injury models. Murine small bowel ulcers were generated by topical serosal acetic acid or subcutaneous indomethacin in C57BL/6J mice. One day later, we began treatment with ZINC40099027 or DMSO, staining the mucosa for phosphorylated FAK and Ki-67 and measuring mucosal ulcer area, serum creatinine, ALT, and body weight at day 4. ZINC40099027 (10-1000?nM) dose-dependently activated FAK phosphorylation, without activating Pyk2-Tyr-402 or Src-Tyr-419. ZINC40099027 did not stimulate proliferation, and stimulated wound closure independently of proliferation. The FAK inhibitor PF-573228 prevented ZINC40099027-stimulated wound closure. In both mouse ulcer models, ZINC40099027accelerated mucosal wound healing. FAK phosphorylation was increased in jejunal epithelium at the ulcer edge, and Ki-67 staining was unchanged in jejunal mucosa. ZINC40099027 serum concentration at sacrifice resembled the effective concentration in vitro. Weight, creatinine and ALT did not differ between groups. Small molecule FAK activators can specifically promote epithelial restitution and mucosal healing and may be useful to treat gut mucosal injury.
Project description:Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause gastric ulcers and gastritis. No drug that treats GI injury directly stimulates mucosal healing. ZINC40099027 (ZN27) activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and heals acute indomethacin-induced small bowel injury. We investigated the efficacy of ZN27 in rat and human gastric epithelial cells and ongoing aspirin-associated gastric injury. ZN27 (10 nM) stimulated FAK activation and wound closure in rat and human gastric cell lines. C57BL/6J mice were treated with 300 mg/kg/day aspirin for five days to induce ongoing gastric injury. One day after the initial injury, mice received 900 µg/kg/6 h ZN27, 10 mg/kg/day omeprazole, or 900 µg/kg/6 h ZN27 plus 10 mg/kg/day omeprazole. Like omeprazole, ZN27 reduced gastric injury vs. vehicle controls. ZN27-treated mice displayed better gastric architecture, with thicker mucosa and less hyperemia, inflammation, and submucosal edema, and lost less weight than vehicle controls. Gastric pH, serum creatinine, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and renal and hepatic histology were unaffected by ZN27. Blinded scoring of pFAK-Y-397 immunoreactivity at the edge of ZN27-treated lesions demonstrated increased FAK activation, compared to vehicle-treated lesions, confirming target activation in vivo. These results suggest that ZN27 ameliorates ongoing aspirin-associated gastric mucosal injury by a pathway involving FAK activation. ZN27-derivatives may be useful to promote gastric mucosal repair.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> Cell migration is an essential process in skin wound healing. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) enhances wound healing by photoactivating a photosensitizer with a specific wavelength of light. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel expressed in multiple layers of keratinocytes. Recent studies showed that the activation of CFTR-related downstream signaling affects skin wound healing. We examined whether indocyanine green (ICG)-mediated PDT-enhanced cell migration is related to CFTR activation. <b>Approach:</b> The spatial and temporal expression levels of CFTR and proteins involved in focal adhesion, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin, were evaluated during cell migration <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> for wound healing. <b>Results:</b> ICG-PDT-conditioned medium collected from cells exposed to 5 J/cm<sup>2</sup> near-infrared light in the presence of 100 μg/mL ICG activated CFTR and enhanced HaCaT cell migration. The expression of phosphorylated FAK Tyr861 and phosphorylated paxillin in focal adhesions was spatially and temporally regulated in parallel by ICG-PDT-conditioned medium. Curcumin, a nonspecific activator of CFTR, further increased PDT-enhanced cell migration, whereas inhibition of CFTR and FAK delayed cell migration. The involvement of CFTR in ICG-PDT-enhanced skin wound healing was confirmed in a mouse back skin wound model. <b>Innovation:</b> CFTR is a potential new therapeutic target in ICG-PDT to enhance wound healing. <b>Conclusion:</b> ICG-PDT-enhanced cell migration may be related to activation of the CFTR and FAK pathway. Conditioned medium collected from ICG-PDT may be useful for treating patients with chronic skin ulcer by regulating CFTR expression in keratinocytes.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), increases focal adhesion formation and is chemotactic for human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the present study we identified the major sites of VEGF-induced FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and investigated the mechanism mediating this pathway in the action of VEGF. VEGF increased the focal adhesion localization of FAK phosphorylated at Tyr-397 (Y397) and Y861 but stimulated a marked increase in phosphorylation at Y861 without significantly affecting the total level of phospho-Y397 FAK. Inhibition of Src with the specific inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2) completely blocked VEGF-induced Y861 phosphorylation without decreasing the level of phospho-Y397 FAK. We also examined the role of Src in mediating endothelial functions of VEGF in which FAK has been implicated as having a role. PP2 markedly inhibited VEGF-induced chemotaxis and wound-healing cell migration. The Src inhibitor also decreased the anti-apoptotic effect of VEGF determined by surface staining of annexin V but did not increase FAK proteolysis or prevent the VEGF-dependent inhibition of FAK proteolysis. In contrast, the specific PtdIns 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 induced apoptosis and markedly decreased p125(FAK) expression and increased FAK proteolysis but had little effect on Y861 phosphorylation. These findings identify Src-dependent FAK phosphorylation at Y861 as a novel VEGF-induced signalling pathway in endothelial cells and suggest that this pathway might be involved in the mechanisms mediating VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and anti-apoptosis.
Project description:Although physiological functions of the CCK-B/gastrin receptor are well explored, little is known about its role during healing. Here, we evaluated the role of this receptor in the rat oxyntic mucosa following the introduction of a cryoulcer. In this model, we located and quantified CCK-B/gastrin receptors by reverse transcriptase PCR and receptor autoradiography. Rats with cryoulcers were treated with placebo, omeprazole, the CCK-B/gastrin receptor antagonist YF-476, omeprazole plus YF-476, gastrin-17, and gastrin 17 plus YF-476. During wound healing, CCK-B/gastrin receptors were specifically expressed and localized to the regenerative mucosal ulcer margin. This high expression was limited in time, and the pattern of expression of CCK-B/gastrin receptors correlated closely with the proliferative activity of the regenerative mucosa. Functionally, omeprazole and gastrin-17 caused profound hypergastrinemia, increased cell proliferation in the mucosal ulcer margin and accelerated the late ulcer healing phase. These effects were completely reversed by cotherapy with YF-476. These in vivo and vitro data suggest that CCK-B/gastrin receptors in regenerative rat gastric oxyntic mucosa enhance trophic effects during wound healing.
Project description:Alveolar type II epithelial cells (ATII) are instrumental in early wound healing in response to lung injury, restoring epithelial integrity through spreading and migration. We previously reported in separate studies that focal adhesion kinase-1 (FAK) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 promote epithelial repair mechanisms. However, potential interactions between these two pathways were not previously considered. In the present study, we found that wounding of rat ATII cells promoted increased association between FAK and CXCR4. In addition, protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) increased its association with this heteromeric complex, while apoptosis signal regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) dissociated from the complex. Cell migration following wounding was decreased when PP5 expression was decreased using shRNA, but migration was increased in ATII cells isolated from ASK1 knockout mice. Interactions between FAK and CXCR4 were increased upon depletion of ASK1 using shRNA in MLE-12 cells, but unaffected when PP5 was depleted. Furthermore, we found that wounded rat ATII cells exhibited decreased ASK1 phosphorylation at Serine-966, decreased serine phosphorylation of FAK, and decreased association of phosphorylated ASK1 with FAK. These changes in phosphorylation were dependent upon expression of PP5. These results demonstrate a unique molecular complex comprising CXCR4, FAK, ASK1, and PP5 in ATII cells during wound healing.
Project description:Resolution of intestinal inflammation and wound repair are active processes that mediate epithelial healing at mucosal surfaces. Lipid molecules referred to as specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) play an important role in the restorative response. Resolvin E1 (RvE1), a SPM derived from omega-3 fatty acids, has been reported to dampen intestinal inflammation by promoting anti-inflammatory responses including increased neutrophil spherocytosis and macrophage production of IL-10. Despite these observations, a role for RvE1 in regulating intestinal epithelial cell migration and proliferation during mucosal wound repair has not been explored. Using an endoscopic biopsy-based wound healing model, we report that RvE1 is locally produced in response to intestinal mucosal injury. Exposure of intestinal epithelial cells to RvE1 promoted wound repair by increasing cellular proliferation and migration through activation of signaling pathways including CREB, mTOR, and Src-FAK. Additionally, RvE1-triggered activation of the small GTPase Rac1 led to increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell-matrix adhesion, and cellular protrusions at the leading edge of migrating cells. Furthermore, in situ administration of RvE1-encapsulated synthetic targeted polymeric nanoparticles into intestinal wounds promoted mucosal repair. Together, these findings demonstrate that RvE1 functions as a prorepair lipid mediator by increasing intestinal epithelial cell migration and proliferation, and highlight potential therapeutic applications for this SPM to promote mucosal healing in the intestine.
Project description:The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness of conservative electrocoagulation followed by porcine fibrin sealant (FS) as a protective hemostatic technique for wounded microvessels in promoting the healing of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)-induced ulcer, and preventing esophageal strictures that follow ESD. A total of 203 patients with early esophageal cancer or precancerous lesions were retrospectively analyzed. The 1-month ulcer healing and stricture rates were compared between the two groups (combined hemostats and electrocautery groups). The 1-month complete healing rate was 77.0% in the combined hemostats group and 52.6% in the electrocautery group (P=0.003). The use of FS and a smaller resected range (<3/4 circumference) was associated with a better 1-month healing rate. For patients with a ?3/4 circumference mucosal defect, the esophageal stricture rate was 31.6% (6/19) in the combined hemostats group and 25.0% (2/8) in the electrocautery group. There was no difference in the stricture rate (P=0.737) and dilation time (P=0.733) between the two groups. In conclusion, the application of conservative electrocoagulation followed by porcine FS as a wound-protection technique promoted ESD-induced ulcer healing in the esophagus. However, this combined hemostatic technique was not superior to the conventional hemostatic method in preventing post-ESD stricture in patients with large esophageal mucosal defects.
Project description:Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in signalling pathways mediated by integrins and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Upon stimulation FAK is phosphorylated on six tyrosine residues. Here we report the site-specific phosphorylation by low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is known to induce integrin-independent FAK phosphorylation, and compare this with the effect of thrombin, which phosphorylates FAK via integrin alphaIIbbeta3. Stimulation with LDL reveals (i) a major role for Tyr-925 phosphorylation which surpasses the phosphorylation of the other residues, including Tyr-397, in rate and extent, (ii) alphaIIbbeta3-independent phosphorylation of Tyr-925 and Tyr-397, and (iii) complex formation between FAK and the Src-kinase Fgr but not with c-Src. These patterns differ profoundly from those induced by thrombin. LDL-induced phosphorylation of Tyr-925 and Tyr-397 was inhibited by 60-75% by receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of members of the LDL receptor family. Thus these findings reveal a novel mechanism of FAK phosphorylation by signalling cascades involving a member of the LDL receptor family.
Project description:The effect of rebamipide, a mucosal protective drug, on small intestinal mucosal injury caused by indomethacin was examined using a rat model. Indomethacin administration (10 mg/kg, p.o.) induced intestinal mucosal injury was accompanied by an increase in the numbers of intestinal bacteria particularly Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunum and ileum. Rebamipide (30 and 100 mg/kg, p.o., given 5 times) was shown to inhibit the indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury and decreased the number of Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in the jejunal mucosa to normal levels. It was also shown that the detection rate of segmented filamentous bacteria was increased by rebamipide. PCR array analysis of genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress and wound healing showed that indomethacin induced upregulation and downregulation of 14 and 3 genes, respectively in the rat jejunal mucosa by more than 5-fold compared to that of normal rats. Rebamipide suppressed the upregulated gene expression of TNF? and Duox2 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study confirmed that disturbance of intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in indomethacin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury, and suggests that rebamipide could be used as prophylaxis against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs -induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury, by modulating microbiota and suppressing mucosal inflammation in the small intestine.
Project description:During wound healing, the migration of keratinocytes onto newly restored extracellular matrix aims to reestablish continuity of the epidermis. The application of amniotic membrane (AM) to chronic, deep traumatic, non-healing wounds has proven successful at stimulating re-epithelialization. When applied on epithelial cell cultures, AM activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (JNK1/2), with the overexpression and phosphorylation of c-Jun along the wound edge. The effect of AM on the migration of cells was investigated by studying critical proteins involved in the focal adhesions turn-over: Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), Paxillin and Vinculin. In Mv1Lu and HaCaT cells, validated models for cell migration and wound healing, AM affected the expression and activation of Paxillin, but did not affect Vinculin expression, both factors which integrate into focal adhesions. Moreover, AM regulation also affected FAK activity through phosphorylation. Finally, we have determined that AM regulation of focal adhesions involves both JNK and MEK MAP kinase signaling pathways. This data provides a molecular background to understand how AM regulates critical cell and molecular aspects of cell migration, organizing and directing the movement of cells by the continuous formation, maturation, and turnover of focal adhesion structures at the migration leading edge.