Quality of Life and Life Satisfaction in Former Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Sport participation has many physical and psychosocial benefits, but there is also an inherent risk of injury, subsequent osteoarthritis and psychological challenges that can negatively impact quality of life (QOL). Considering the multifaceted impacts of sport participation on QOL across the lifespan, there is a need to consolidate and present the evidence on QOL in former sport participants. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate QOL and life satisfaction in former sport participants, and determine what factors are associated with QOL and life satisfaction in this population. METHODS:Eight electronic databases were systematically searched in July 2018 to retrieve all articles that evaluated QOL or life satisfaction in former sport participants. Two authors independently screened titles/abstracts and full texts, extracted data, and appraised methodological quality using a modified Downs and Black Checklist. Random-effects meta-analysis estimated pooled mean and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) for Mental Component Scores (MCS) and Physical Component Scores (PCS) derived from the SF-12, SF-36, VR-12 and VR-36 measures. MCS and PCS were pooled for all former sport participants, as well as professional- and collegiate-athlete subgroups. Data that were inappropriate for meta-analysis (i.e. EQ-5D, PROMIS and life-satisfaction outcomes) were collated and reported descriptively. RESULTS:Seventeen articles evaluated QOL or life satisfaction in a total of 6692 former athletes [eight studies (n?=?4255) former professional athletes; six studies (n?=?1946) former collegiate athletes; two studies (n?=?491) included both] with a mean age ranging from 21 to 66 years. Most studies were cross-sectional (15 of 17 articles) and 12 studies had a moderate risk of bias (n?=?1 high-risk, n?=?4 low-risk). Unpublished data were provided for five studies. Meta-analysis of seven studies resulted in a pooled PCS mean (95% CI) of 50.0 (46.6-53.3) [former professional athletes from two studies: 46.7 (42.1-51.2), former collegiate athletes from five studies: 51.2 (48.4-53.9)] and a pooled MCS of 51.4 (50.5-52.2) [former professional athletes: 52.7 (51.3-54.2), former collegiate athletes: 50.9 (50.0-51.8)]. Factors associated with worse QOL or life satisfaction in former athletes included involuntary retirement from sport (three studies), collision/high-contact sport compared with low/no-contact sport (three studies), three or more concussions compared with no/fewer concussions (two studies), increased body mass index (BMI) (worse PCS, three studies), and osteoarthritis or musculoskeletal issues (worse PCS and MCS, three studies; worse PCS but not MCS, two studies). CONCLUSIONS:Former athletes had similar PCS and better MCS, compared to general-population norms. Former athletes with impaired PCS reported better MCS than population norms, highlighting the need to use an instrument that differentiates between physical and mental components of QOL in former sport participants. Factors associated with worse QOL that may explain between-study variation include involuntary retirement, collision/high contact sports, concussion, BMI and osteoarthritis. PROSPERO:CRD42018104319.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is a dearth of research on the current health of former collegiate athletes.<h4>Purpose</h4>To examine the current health and related correlates in a cohort of former collegiate athletes who played in a diverse range of men's and women's sports with various levels of contact.<h4>Study design</h4>Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.<h4>Methods</h4>Former collegiate athletes (N = 3657) were asked to complete an online questionnaire addressing sports history, medical history, and demographics. The questionnaire also included the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), which yielded 2 composite scores for physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health. The VR-12 PCS and MCS scores were compared with published US normative data using t tests and analyses of variance.<h4>Results</h4>Mean PCS and MCS scores of the 797 respondents with complete data (21.9% of target sample; average, 14.5 years since last played collegiate sport) were 53.0 ± 6.1 and 51.7 ± 9.4, respectively. When stratified by age and sex, PCS and MCS scores were similar to normative scores in the United States. Lower PCS scores were associated with sustaining ?3 concussions, playing in collision sports during college, and sustaining a career-ending injury (all, P < .001). No association was found between concussion and MCS scores (P = .06). Among former collegiate athletes, prevalent medical conditions included anxiety (16.2%), hypercholesterolemia/high cholesterol (10.6%), and depression (10.4%). Additionally, 5.8% screened positive for alcohol dependence, and 5.8% screened positive for disordered eating (eg, binge eating, purging). These findings were more prevalent than those reported by the World Health Organization as representative of the US population. Conversely, there was a lower prevalence of depression, bipolar disorders, and attention deficit disorder, with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD), than in the World Health Organization US population data sample.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Former collegiate athletes appear similar to the general US population on many aspects of mental and physical health. However, observed health deficits associated with previous sports injuries warrant ongoing monitoring of the health and well-being of former collegiate athletes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sports participants are faced with the decision to continue or cease play when injured. The implications of playing sport while injured on joint health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between having played sport while injured and HRQoL, osteoarthritis, and persistent joint pain; and compare findings in elite and recreational cricketers. METHODS:The Cricket Health and Wellbeing Study cohort was used for this study. Inclusion criteria were: age???18?years, played ?1 cricket season. Questionnaire data collected included a history of playing sport injured, SF-8 (physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores), physician-diagnosed osteoarthritis, and persistent joint pain (most days of the last month). Multivariable linear regressions and logistic regressions were performed. Continuous covariates were handled using fractional polynomials. Models were adjusted for age, sex, cricket-seasons played, playing status, joint injury, and orthopaedic surgery. All participants (n =?2233) were included in HRQoL analyses, only participants aged ?30?years (n =?2071) were included in osteoarthritis/pain analyses. RESULTS:Of the 2233 current and former cricketers (mean age: 51.7 SD 14.7, played 30 IQR 24 cricket seasons, 60% were current cricketers, 62% played recreationally; median PCS: 51.4 IQR 9.0; MCS: 54.3 IQR 8.6) 1719 (77%) had played sport while injured. People who had played sport injured reported worse adjusted PCS (Effect(95% CI): -?1.78(-?2.62, -?0.93) and MCS (-?1.40(-?2.25, -?0.54), had greater odds of osteoarthritis (adjusted OR(95% CI): 1.86(1.39, 2.51) and persistent joint pain (2.34(1.85, 2.96)), compared to people who had not played sport injured. Similar relationships were observed regarding PCS, osteoarthritis and pain in elite and recreational subgroups. Playing injured was only related to worse MCS scores for elite cricketers (-?2.07(-?3.52, -?0.63)); no relationship was observed in recreational cricketers (-?0.70(-?1.79, 0.39)). CONCLUSION:Cricketers that had played sport injured had impaired HRQoL, increased odds of osteoarthritis and persistent joint pain, compared to those who had not played sport injured. Playing sport injured was only related to impaired mental-components of HRQoL in elite cricketers. The long-term impact of playing while injured on musculoskeletal health, should be considered when advising athletes on their ability to compete following injury.
Project description:A controversial theory proposes that playing tackle football before the age of 12 causes later in life brain health problems. This theory arose from a small study of 42 retired National Football League (NFL) players, which reported that those who started playing tackle football at a younger age performed worse on selected neuropsychological tests and a word reading test. The authors concluded that these differences were likely due to greater exposure to repetitive neurotrauma during a developmentally sensitive maturational period in their lives. Several subsequent studies of current high school and collegiate contact/collision sports athletes, and former high school, collegiate, and professional tackle football players have not replicated these findings. This narrative review aims to (i) discuss the fundamental concepts, issues, and controversies surrounding existing research on age of first exposure (AFE) to contact/collision sport, and (ii) provide a balanced interpretation, including risk of bias assessment findings, of this body of evidence. Among 21 studies, 11 studies examined former athletes, 8 studies examined current athletes, and 2 studies examined both former and current athletes. Although the literature on whether younger AFE to tackle football is associated with later in life cognitive, neurobehavioral, or mental health problems in former NFL players is mixed, the largest study of retired NFL players (N = 3,506) suggested there was not a significant association between earlier AFE to organized tackle football and worse subjectively experienced cognitive functioning, depression, or anxiety. Furthermore, no published studies of current athletes show a significant association between playing tackle football (or other contact/collision sports) before the age of 12 and cognitive, neurobehavioral, or mental health problems. It is important to note that all studies were judged to be at high overall risk of bias, indicating that more methodologically rigorous research is needed to understand whether there is an association between AFE to contact/collision sports and later in life brain health. The accumulated research to date suggests that earlier AFE to contact/collision sports is not associated with worse cognitive functioning or mental health in (i) current high school athletes, (ii) current collegiate athletes, or (iii) middle-aged men who played high school football. The literature on former NFL players is mixed and does not, at present, clearly support the theory that exposure to tackle football before age 12 is associated with later in life cognitive impairment or mental health problems.
Project description:Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age.To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete's perception of injury related to specialization.Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision.A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P < .001). The age of single-sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P < .001). Current HS (39.9%) and collegiate athletes (42.1%) recalled a statistically greater incidence of sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P < .001). The majority (61.7%) of professional athletes indicated that they believed specialization helps the athlete play at a higher level, compared with 79.7% of HS and 80.6% of collegiate athletes (P < .001). Notably, only 22.3% of professional athletes said they would want their own child to specialize to play only 1 sport during childhood/adolescence.This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current HS athletes specialized, on average, 2 years earlier than current collegiate and professional athletes surveyed. These data challenge the notion that success at an elite level requires athletes to specialize in 1 sport at a very young age.
Project description:PURPOSE:To examine and compare the role of self-assessed sport and physical activity involvement on the health-related quality of life among undergraduate student-athletes and general undergraduate college students. DESIGN:Cross-sectional survey. Data set was examined for differences in physical and mental health by self-assessed sport and physical activity level. SETTING:Large Midwestern University in the fall of 2016. PARTICIPANTS:A combined data set representing undergraduate Division I student athletes (n = 842) and general undergraduate students (n = 1322). MEASURES:Veterans RAND 12 Item Health Survey (VR-12), as measure of health-related quality of life, comprised of physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS). Self-assessed sport and physical activity level categorized as Division I athlete, club athlete, intramural player, student who works out regularly, or student who is physically inactive. ANALYSIS:Standard univariable statistics described the study population. Two-sample t tests and ?2 tests were conducted, as appropriate, to compare Division I student-athletes to the general undergraduate group. Multivariable linear regression models were then built to assess associations between physical activity level and year in school with VR-12 outcomes, after adjusting for sex. All pairwise interactions were considered for inclusion in the final models. Adjusted least-square means were calculated for all variables in the model; pairwise comparisons were adjusted for multiple comparisons via Tukey-Kramer adjustment criteria. A linear test for trend was also conducted for the association between VR-12 MCS and increasing physical activity. RESULTS:Significant differences in MCS were noted between levels of sport and physical activity; however, such differences were not detected in PCS. After controlling for sex, a positive relationship between increased sport and physical activity level and greater MCS was found. CONCLUSIONS:This study represents the first prospective assessment of health-related quality of life among undergraduate athletes and general college students. Higher levels of sport and physical activity were associated with more positive mental health in these populations.
Project description:Background: Although approximately half of myasthenia gravis (MG) patents achieve remission, for the remaining group MG is often a life-long disease. Better understanding of the determinants of Quality of Life (QoL) in MG is needed to optimize treatment goals in chronic cases. Materials and Methods: We performed a single center cross-sectional study in 339 MG adult patients (64.9% women), with ocular or generalized disease. SF-36 and a structured questionnaire was administered, including information on previous and current MG severity, medications, comorbidities, education, occupation and BMI of the patient. Mean disease duration was 7.5 + 9.3 years. Current age was 51.6 + 18.3 years, 55% had Early-Onset (<50 years) MG. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in mean SF-36 subscores between women and men. Worse MGFA class was related to lower QoL in physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) subscore (p = 0.000 for both). Patients with MGFA I-II class had significantly better QoL in physical and mental subscores than patients with more severe MG (p < 0.005). Late-onset MG patients had worse QoL than EOMG in physical score domain PCS (p = 0.049). Overweight and obese patients had lower PCS (p = 0.002) and MCS (p = 0.038) than patients with normal BMI. University education was related to statistically higher PCS (p = 0.015) and MCS (p = 0.006). QoL in currently employed was better in PCS and MCS (p = 0.000), with white collar workers reporting higher PCS (p = 0.049) than the remaining group. Patients living with family evaluated their MCS (p = 0.015) better than living alone. Moderate physical activity (twice a week) improved PCS (p = 0.045). Conclusion: Our study confirmed that greater severity of symptoms, age, age of onset but also BMI, type of work, education status and physical activity affect QoL in MG.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate and compare physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in former elite and recreational cricketers with upper extremity (UE), lower extremity (LE) or no joint pain. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional cohort. SETTING:Despite the high prevalence of joint pain in former athletes, the impact of UE pain and LE pain on PA and HRQoL and potential differences between former recreational and elite athletes are poorly understood. PARTICIPANTS:703 former cricketers aged ?18 years (mean age 58.7, SD 12.9, played an average of 30 (IQR 20-40) seasons, 72% of whom had played at a recreational level) were recruited through the Cricket Health and Wellbeing Study and met eligibility requirements (UE pain, LE pain or no joint pain (defined as pain on most days of the past month)). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form collected weekly metabolic equivalents (METS), while the Short-Form 8 collected physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores. Kruskal-Wallis tests with Dunn's post-hoc and multivariable linear regressions were performed. RESULTS:Weekly METS were similar in former cricketers with UE pain (median (IQR) 2560 (722-4398)), LE pain (2215 (527-3903)) and no pain (2449 (695-4203), p=0.39). MCS were similar between groups (UE pain 56.0 (52.1-60.0); LE pain 55.2 (51.1-59.4); no pain 54.7 (50.7-58.7), p=0.38). PCS were more impaired in former cricketers with UE pain (49.8 (44.9-54.8)) or LE pain (46.7 (41.0-51.9)) compared with no pain (54.2 (51.5-56.9), p<0.0001). Former cricketers with LE pain reported worse PCS than those with UE pain (p=0.04). Similar relationships were observed in former elite and recreational cricketers. CONCLUSION:Despite impaired physical components of HRQoL in former cricketers with UE pain or LE pain, pain was not related to PA levels or mental components of HRQoL. Physical components of HRQoL were most impaired in those with LE pain, and findings were similar among former elite and recreational cricketers.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Racial disparities are evident in colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis with black patients experiencing worse outcomes than Hispanics and whites, yet mediators of these disparities are not fully known. The aim of this study is to identify variables that contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and overall survival in CRC.<h4>Methods</h4>Using SF-12 questionnaires, we assessed HR-QoL in 1132 CRC patients by calculating their physical (PCS) and mental composite summary (MCS) scores. Associations between poor PCS/MCS and sociodemographic factors were estimated and survival differences were identified by race/ethnicity.<h4>Results</h4>Hispanic patients who never married were at greater risk of poor PCS (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.11-6.49; P = 0.028) than were currently married patients. College education was associated with a decreased risk of poor PCS in Hispanic and white, but not black, patients. Gender was significantly associated with poor MCS among white patients only. CRC patients who reported a poor PCS or MCS had poor survival, with differences in median survival times (MSTs) by race. The effect of PCS was strongest in white CRC patients with a difference in overall MST of > 116 months between those with favorable versus poor physical HR-QoL. Black patients who reported poor Physical and Mental HR-QoL showed significant risk of a poor outcome.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings suggest that racial/ethnic disparities in CRC survival may be related to differences in HR-QoL. Identified mediators of HR-QoL could supplement current CRC management strategies to improve patients' survival.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To study longitudinal recovery trajectories of white matter after sports-related concussion (SRC) by performing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on collegiate athletes who sustained SRC.<h4>Methods</h4>Collegiate athletes (n = 219, 82 concussed athletes, 68 contact-sport controls, and 69 non-contact-sport controls) were included from the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education Consortium. The participants completed clinical assessments and DTI at 4 time points: 24 to 48 hours after injury, asymptomatic state, 7 days after return-to-play, and 6 months after injury. Tract-based spatial statistics was used to investigate group differences in DTI metrics and to identify white-matter areas with persistent abnormalities. Generalized linear mixed models were used to study longitudinal changes and associations between outcome measures and DTI metrics. Cox proportional hazards model was used to study effects of white-matter abnormalities on recovery time.<h4>Results</h4>In the white matter of concussed athletes, DTI-derived mean diffusivity was significantly higher than in the controls at 24 to 48 hours after injury and beyond the point when the concussed athletes became asymptomatic. While the extent of affected white matter decreased over time, part of the corpus callosum had persistent group differences across all the time points. Furthermore, greater elevation of mean diffusivity at acute concussion was associated with worse clinical outcome measures (i.e., Brief Symptom Inventory scores and symptom severity scores) and prolonged recovery time. No significant differences in DTI metrics were observed between the contact-sport and non-contact-sport controls.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Changes in white matter were evident after SRC at 6 months after injury but were not observed in contact-sport exposure. Furthermore, the persistent white-matter abnormalities were associated with clinical outcomes and delayed recovery time.
Project description:<h4>Context</h4>Mandated concussion education has aimed to improve student-athlete knowledge; however, some collegiate student-athletes continue to not disclose concussion. Concussion knowledge may not be the only factor influencing reporting, as student-athlete sex, sport, and pressure from external stakeholders (eg, coaches, teammates, fans, parents or family) have all been documented as influencing collegiate concussion-reporting behavior.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine factors associated with concussion nondisclosure in collegiate student-athletes.<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional study.<h4>Setting</h4>Four National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and two Division II universities.<h4>Patients or other participants</h4>A total of 1125 collegiate student-athletes completed the survey, and 741 provided viable responses and were included for data analysis.<h4>Main outcome measure(s)</h4>We used a 10- to 15-minute electronic or paper-and-pencil survey that asked about personal and sport demographics, diagnosed concussions and nondisclosed concussion history, concussion knowledge, and level of agreement regarding pressure to play after a head impact experienced during collegiate sport participation. Significant univariable factors were entered into a multivariable logistic regression analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Sex (P = .005), sport-risk type (P < .001), diagnosed concussion history (P < .001), concussion knowledge (P = .017), and pressure from coaches (P < .001), teammates (P < .001), fans (P = .024), and parents or family (P = .003) were factors associated with concussion nondisclosure in individual univariable logistic regressions. After we conducted multivariable analyses, male sex (P = .001), high concussion-risk sport participation (P = .048), diagnosed concussion history (P < .001), increased concussion knowledge (P = .013), and experiencing pressure from coaches to continue playing after sustaining a hit to the head (P = .002) were factors associated with concussion nondisclosure in collegiate student-athletes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that concussion-education programs should go beyond the identification of signs and symptoms to include the dangers of continuing to play, long-term consequences, and transparency about concussion protocols. Comprehensive concussion-education programs should involve coaches and athletes to improve the reporting culture.