Identification of Genes/Proteins Related to Submergence Tolerance by Transcriptome and Proteome Analyses in Soybean.
ABSTRACT: Flooding can lead to yield reduction of soybean. Therefore, identification of flooding tolerance genes has great significance in production practice. In this study, Qihuang 34, a highly-resistant variety to flooding stress, was selected for submergence treatments. Transcriptome and proteome analyses were conducted, by which twenty-two up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs)/differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) associated with five KEGG pathways were isolated. The number of the DEGs/DEPs enriched in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was the highest. Four of these genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR, suggesting that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis may be activated to generate energy for plant survival under anaerobic conditions. Thirty-eight down-regulated DEGs/DEPs associated with six KEGG pathways were identified under submergence stress. Eight DEGs/DEPs enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were assigned to peroxidase, which catalyzes the conversion of coumaryl alcohol to hydroxy-phenyl lignin in the final step of lignin biosynthesis. Three of these genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR. The decreased expression of these genes led to the inhibition of lignin biosynthesis, which may be the cause of plant softening under submergence stress for a long period of time. This study revealed a number of up-/down-regulated pathways and the corresponding DEGs/DEPs, by which, a better understanding of the mechanisms of submergence tolerance in soybean may be achieved.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Low temperature (LT) often occurs at the seedling stage in the early rice-growing season, especially for direct seeded early-season indica rice, and using flooding irrigation can mitigate LT damage in rice seedlings. The molecular mechanism by which flooding mitigates the damage induced by LT stress has not been fully elucidated. Thus, LT stress at 8?°C, LT accompanied by flooding (LTF) and CK (control) treatments were established for 3 days to determine the transcriptomic, proteomic and physiological response in direct seeded rice seedlings at the seedling stage.<h4>Results</h4>LT damaged chloroplasts, and thylakoid lamellae, and increased osmiophilic bodies and starch grains compared to CK, but LTF alleviated the damage to chloroplast structure caused by LT. The physiological characteristics of treated plants showed that compared with LT, LTF significantly increased the contents of rubisco, chlorophyll, PEPCK, ATP and GA<sub>3</sub> but significantly decreased soluble protein, MDA and ABA contents. 4D-label-free quantitative proteomic profiling showed that photosynthesis-responsive proteins, such as phytochrome, as well as chlorophyll and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were significantly downregulated in LT/CK and LTF/CK comparison groups. However, compared with LT, phytochrome, chlorophyllide oxygenase activity and the glucan branching enzyme in LTF were significantly upregulated in rice leaves. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies identified 72,818 transcripts and 5639 proteins, and 4983 genes that were identified at both the transcriptome and proteome levels. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were significantly enriched in glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and metabolic pathways.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Through transcriptomic, proteomic and physiological analyses, we determined that a variety of metabolic pathway changes were induced by LT and LTF. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated that DEGs and DEPs were associated with photosynthesis pathways, antioxidant enzymes and energy metabolism pathway-related proteins. Our study provided new insights for efforts to reduce the damage to direct seeded rice caused by low-temperature stress and provided a breeding target for low temperature flooding-resistant cultivars. Further analysis of translational regulation and metabolites may help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which flooding mitigates low-temperature stress in direct seeded early indica rice at the seedling stage.
Project description:Flooding severely limits plant growth even for some aquatic plants. Although much work has been done on submergence response of some important crop plants, little is known about the response mechanism of aquatic plants, i.e. lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). In this study, we investigated the genome-wide regulation lotus genes in response to submergence stress by high-throughput mRNA sequencing. A total of 4002 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in lotus upon submergence stress. Among them, 1976 genes were up-regulated and 2026 down-regulated. Functional annotation of these genes by Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that they were mainly involved in processes of oxidation-reduction, abiotic stimuli, cellular metabolism and small molecule metabolism. Based on these data, previous work and quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) validation, we constructed a cooperative regulation network involved in several important DEGs in regards to the antioxidant system, disease resistance, hypoxia resistance and morphological adaptation. Further work confirmed that several innate immunity genes were induced during submergence and might confer higher resistance to lotus rot disease. In conclusion, these results provide useful information on molecular mechanisms underlying lotus responses to submergence stress.
Project description:Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is a relic aquatic plant with two types of leaves, which have distinct rigidity of petioles. Here we assess the difference from anatomic structure to the expression of genes and proteins in two petioles types, and identify key pathways involved in petiole rigidity formation in sacred lotus. Anatomically, great variation between the petioles of floating and vertical leaves were observed. The number of collenchyma cells and thickness of xylem vessel cell wall was higher in the initial vertical leaves' petiole (IVP) compared to the initial floating leaves' petiole (IFP). Among quantified transcripts and proteins, 1021 and 401 transcripts presented 2-fold expression increment (named DEGs, genes differentially expressed between IFP and IVP) in IFP and IVP, 421 and 483 proteins exhibited 1.5-fold expression increment (named DEPs, proteins differentially expressed between IFP and IVP) in IFP and IVP, respectively. Gene function and pathway enrichment analysis displayed that DEGs and DEPs were significantly enriched in cell wall biosynthesis and lignin biosynthesis. In consistent with genes and proteins expressions in lignin biosynthesis, the contents of lignin monomers precursors were significantly different in IFP and IVP. These results enable us to understand lotus petioles rigidity formation better and provide valuable candidate genes information on further investigation.
Project description:Flooding is a common and critical disaster in agriculture, because it causes defects in plant growth and even crop loss. An increase in herbivore populations is often observed after floods, which leads to additional damage to the plants. Although molecular mechanisms underlying the plant responses to flooding have been identified, how plant defence systems are affected by flooding remains poorly understood. Herein, we show that submergence deactivates wound-induced defence against herbivore attack in Arabidopsis thaliana. Submergence rapidly suppressed the wound-induced expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis genes, resulting in reduced JA accumulation. While plants exposed to hypoxia in argon gas exhibited similar reduced wound responses, the inhibitory effects were initiated after short-term submergence without signs for lack of oxygen. Instead, expression of ethylene-responsive genes was increased after short-term submergence. Blocking ethylene signalling by ein2-1 mutation partially restored suppressed expression of several wound-responsive genes by submergence. In addition, submergence rapidly removed active markers of histone modifications at a gene locus involved in JA biosynthesis. Our findings suggest that submergence inactivates defence systems of plants, which would explain the proliferation of herbivores after flooding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Research on the submergence stress of rice has concentrated on the quiescence strategy to survive in long-term flooding conditions based on Submergence-1A (SUB1A). In the case of the ripening period, it is important that submergence stress can affect the quality as well as the survival of rice. Therefore, it is essential to understand the changes in the distribution of assimilation products in grain and ripening characteristics in submergence stress conditions. However, such studies have been insufficient at the physiological and molecular biological levels. RESULTS:We confirmed that the distribution rate of assimilation products in grain was decreased by submergence treatment. These results were caused by an increase in the distribution rate of assimilation products to the stem according to escape strategy. To understand this phenomenon at the molecular level, we analyzed the relative expression levels of genes related to sucrose metabolism, and found that the sucrose phosphate synthase gene (OsSPS), which induces the accumulation of sucrose in tissues, was decreased in the seeds and leaves, but not in the stems. Furthermore, the sucrose transporter gene (OsSUT) related to sucrose transport decreased in the seeds and leaves, but increased in stems. We also analyzed the biological metabolic processes related to starch and sucrose synthesis, carbon fixation, and glycolysis using the KEGG mapper with selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in seeds, stems, and leaves caused by submergence treatment. We found that the expression of genes for each step related to starch and D-glucose synthesis was down-regulated in the seeds and leaves but up-regulated in the stem. CONCLUSION:The results of this study provide basic data for the development of varieties and corresponding technologies adapted to submergence conditions, through understanding the action network of the elements that change in the submergence condition, as well as information regarding useful DEGs.
Project description:Weak stem mechanical strength severely restrains cut flowers quality and stem weakness can be alleviated by calcium (Ca) treatment, but the mechanisms underlying Ca-mediated enhancement of stem mechanical strength remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analysis of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) inflorescence stems treated with nanometer Ca carbonate (Nano-CaCO?). In total, 2643 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 892 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were detected between the Control and nano-CaCO? treatment. Among the 892 DEPs, 152 were coregulated at both the proteomic and transcriptomic levels, and 24 DEPs related to the secondary cell wall were involved in signal transduction, energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and lignin biosynthesis, most of which were upregulated after nano-CaCO? treatment during the development of inflorescence stems. Among these four pathways, numerous differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) related to lignin biosynthesis were identified. Furthermore, structural observations revealed the thickening of the sclerenchyma cell walls, and the main wall constitutive component lignin accumulated significantly in response to nano-CaCO? treatment, thereby indicating that Ca can enhance the mechanical strength of the inflorescence stems by increasing the lignin accumulation. These results provided insights into how Ca treatment enhances the mechanical strength of inflorescence stems in P. lactiflora.
Project description:Short-term water submergence to soybean (Glycine max L.) create hypoxic conditions hindering plant growth and productivity. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered a stress-signalling and stress-evading molecule, however, little is known about its role during flooding stress. We elucidated the role of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso L-cysteine (CySNO) as NO donor in modulation of flooding stress-related bio-chemicals and genetic determinants of associated nitrosative stress to Daewon and Pungsannamul soybean cultivars after 3 h and 6 h of flooding stress. The results showed that exogenous SNP and CysNO induced glutathione activity and reduced the resulting superoxide anion contents during short-term flooding in Pungsannamul soybean. The exo- SNP and CysNO triggered the endogenous S-nitrosothiols, and resulted in elevated abscisic acid (ABA) contents in both soybean cultivars overtime. To know the role of ABA and NO related genes in short-term flooding stress, the mRNA expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR1), NO overproducer1 (NOX1) and nitrate reductase (NR), Timing of CAB expression1 (TOC1), and ABA-receptor (ABAR) were assessed. The transcripts accumulation of GSNOR1, NOX1, and NR being responsible for NO homeostasis, were significantly high in response to early or later phases of flooding stress. ABAR and TOC1 showed a decrease in transcript accumulation in both soybean plants treated with exogenous SNP and CySNO. The exo- SNP and CySNO could impinge a variety of biochemical and transcriptional programs that can mitigate the negative effects of short-term flooding stress in soybean.
Project description:Heterosis has been widely exploited as an approach to enhance crop traits during breeding. However, its underlying molecular genetic mechanisms remain unclear. Recent advances in RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) have provided an opportunity to conduct transcriptome profiling for heterosis studies. We used RNA-seq to analyze the flower transcriptomes of two F1 hybrid soybeans (HYBSOY-1 and HYBSOY-5) and their parents. More than 385 million high-quality reads were generated and aligned against the soybean reference genome. A total of 681 and 899 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between HYBSOY-1 and HYBSOY-5 and their parents, respectively. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were categorized into four major expression categories with 12 expression patterns. Furthermore, gene ontology (GO) term analysis showed that the DEGs were enriched in the categories metabolic process and catalytic activity, while Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis found that metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were enriched in the two F1 hybrids. Comparing the DEGs of the two F1 hybrids by GO term and KEGG pathway analyses identified 26 common DEGs that showed transgressive up-regulation, and which could be considered potential candidate genes for heterosis in soybean F1 hybrids. This identification of an extensive transcriptome dataset gives a comprehensive overview of the flower transcriptomes in two F1 hybrids, and provides useful information for soybean hybrid breeding. These findings lay the foundation for future studies on molecular mechanisms underlying soybean heterosis.
Project description:The mechanical strength of inflorescence stems is an important trait in cut flowers. Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a pivotal role in maintaining stem strength, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we treated herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) with ethyl glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), an effective Ca2+ chelator, and used morphology indicators, spectroscopic analysis, histochemical staining, electron microscopy, and proteomic techniques to investigate the role of Ca2+ in inflorescence stem mechanical strength. The EGTA treatment reduced the mechanical strength of inflorescence stems, triggered the loss of Ca2+ from cell walls, and reduced lignin in thickened secondary walls in xylem cells as determined by spectroscopic analysis and histochemical staining. Electron microscopy showed that the EGTA treatment also resulted in significantly fewer xylem cell layers with thickened secondary walls as well as in reducing the thickness of these secondary walls. The proteomic analysis showed 1065 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at the full-flowering stage (S4). By overlapping the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) and gene ontology (GO) analysis results, we identified 43 DEPs involved in signal transduction, transport, energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, we showed that EGTA treatment inhibited Ca2+ sensors and secondary wall biosynthesis-related genes. Our findings revealed that EGTA treatment reduced the inflorescence stem mechanical strength by reducing lignin deposition in xylem cells through altering the expression of genes involved in Ca2+ binding and secondary wall biosynthesis.
Project description:The dwarfing mechanism of Rht-dp in dwarf Polish wheat (DPW) is unknown. Each internode of DPW was significantly shorter than it in high Polish wheat (HPW), and the dwarfism was insensitive to photoperiod, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), cytokinin (CK), auxin and brassinolide (BR). To understand the mechanism, three sets of transcripts, DPW, HPW, and a chimeric set (a combination of DPW and HPW), were constructed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Based on the chimeric transcripts, 2,446 proteins were identified using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). A total of 108 unigenes and 12 proteins were considered as dwarfism-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), respectively. Among of these DEGs and DEPs, 6 DEGs and 6 DEPs were found to be involved in flavonoid and S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) metabolisms; 5 DEGs and 3 DEPs were involved in cellulose metabolism, cell wall plasticity and cell expansion; 2 DEGs were auxin transporters; 2 DEPs were histones; 1 DEP was a peroxidase. These DEGs and DEPs reduced lignin and cellulose contents, increased flavonoid content, possibly decreased S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) and polyamine contents and increased S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) content in DPW stems, which could limit auxin transport and reduce extensibility of the cell wall, finally limited cell expansion (the cell size of DPW was significantly smaller than HPW cells) and caused dwarfism in DPW.