Continuous salt stress-induced long non-coding RNAs and DNA methylation patterns in soybean roots.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Environmental stimuli can activate a series of physiological and biochemical responses in plants accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), as versatile regulators, control gene expression in multiple ways and participate in the adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. RESULTS:In this study, soybean seedlings were continuously cultured for 15 days with high salinity solutions started from seed germination. Strand-specific whole transcriptome sequencing and stringent bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of 3030 long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and 275 natural antisense transcripts (lncNATs) in soybean roots. In contrast to mRNAs, newly identified lncRNAs exhibited less exons, similar AU content to UTRs, even distribution across the genome and low evolutionary conservation. Remarkably, more than 75% of discovered lncRNAs that were activated or up-regulated by continuous salt stress mainly targeted proteins with binding and catalytic activities. Furthermore, two DNA methylation maps with single-base resolution were generated by using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, offering a genome-wide perspective and important clues for epigenetic regulation of stress-associated lncRNAs and protein-coding genes. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our findings systematically demonstrated the characteristics of continuous salt stress-induced lncRNAs and extended the knowledge of corresponding methylation profiling, providing valuable evidence for a better understanding of how plants cope with long-term salt stress circumstances.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) refer to a class of RNA molecules that are longer than 200 nucleotides and do not encode proteins. Numerous lncRNAs have recently emerged as important regulators of many biological processes in animals and plants, including responses to environmental stress and pathogens. Botryosphaeria dieback is one of the more severe grapevine trunk diseases worldwide. However, how lncRNAs function during Botryosphaeriaceae infection is largely unknown. We performed high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) of susceptible and more tolerant grapevine cultivars infected with Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Overall, we predicted 1826 novel candidate lncRNAs, including long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and natural antisense transcripts (lncNATs). The data reveal the functions of a set of lncRNAs that were differentially expressed between the resistant cultivar Merlot and the susceptible cultivar Cabernet Franc. Several lncRNAs were predicted to be precursors for grape microRNAs involved in the L theobromae infection. These results provide new insight into the lncRNAs of grapevine that are involved in the response to L theobromae infection.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a class of riboregulators that either directly act in long form or are processed into shorter microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are arbitrarily defined as RNA genes larger than 200 nt in length that have no apparent coding potential. lncRNAs have emerged as playing important roles in various biological regulatory processes and are expressed in a more tissue-specific manner than mRNA. Emerging evidence shows that lncRNAs participate in stress-responsive regulation.In this study, in order to develop a comprehensive catalogue of lncRNAs in upland cotton under salt stress, we performed whole-transcriptome strand-specific RNA sequencing for three-leaf stage cotton seedlings treated with salt stress (S_NaCl) and controls (S_CK). In total we identified 1117 unique lncRNAs in this study and 44 differentially expressed RNAs were identified as potential non-coding RNAs. For the differentially expressed lncRNAs that were identified as intergenic lncRNAs (lincRNA), we analysed the gene ontology enrichment of cis targets and found that cis target protein-coding genes were mainly enriched in stress-related categories. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed that all selected lincRNAs responsive to salt stress. We found lnc_388 was likely as regulator of Gh_A09G1182. And lnc_883 may participate in regulating tolerance to salt stress by modulating the expression of Gh_D03G0339 MS_channel. We then predicted the target mimics for miRNA in Gossypium. six miRNAs were identified, and the result of RT-qPCR with lncRNA and miRNA suggested that lnc_973 and lnc_253 may regulate the expression of ghr-miR399 and ghr-156e as a target mimic under salt stress.We identified 44 lincRNAs that were differentially expressed under salt stress. These lincRNAs may target protein-coding genes via cis-acting regulation. We also discovered that specifically-expressed lincRNAs under salt stress may act as endogenous target mimics for conserved miRNAs. These findings extend the current view on lincRNAs as ubiquitous regulators under stress stress.
Project description:Recent research on long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has expanded our understanding of gene transcription regulation and the generation of cellular complexity. Depending on their genomic origins, lncRNAs can be transcribed from intergenic or intragenic regions or from introns of protein-coding genes. We have recently reported more than 6000 intergenic lncRNAs in Arabidopsis. Here, we systematically identified long noncoding natural antisense transcripts (lncNATs), defined as lncRNAs transcribed from the opposite DNA strand of coding or noncoding genes. We found a total of 37,238 sense-antisense transcript pairs and 70% of annotated mRNAs to be associated with antisense transcripts in Arabidopsis. These lncNATs could be reproducibly detected by different technical platforms, including strand-specific tiling arrays, Agilent custom expression arrays, strand-specific RNA-seq, and qRT-PCR experiments. Moreover, we investigated the expression profiles of sense-antisense pairs in response to light and observed spatial and developmental-specific light effects on 626 concordant and 766 discordant NAT pairs. Genes for a large number of the light-responsive NAT pairs are associated with histone modification peaks, and histone acetylation is dynamically correlated with light-responsive expression changes of NATs.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can enhance plant stress resistance by regulating the expression of functional genes. Sweet sorghum is a salt-tolerant energy crop. However, little is known about how lncRNAs in sweet sorghum respond to salt stress. In this study, we identified 126 and 133 differentially expressed lncRNAs in the salt-tolerant M-81E and the salt-sensitive Roma strains, respectively. Salt stress induced three new lncRNAs in M-81E and inhibited two new lncRNAs in Roma. These lncRNAs included lncRNA13472, lncRNA11310, lncRNA2846, lncRNA26929, and lncRNA14798, which potentially function as competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) that influence plant responses to salt stress by regulating the expression of target genes related to ion transport, protein modification, transcriptional regulation, and material synthesis and transport. Additionally, M-81E had a more complex ceRNA network than Roma. This study provides new information regarding lncRNAs and the complex regulatory network underlying salt-stress responses in sweet sorghum.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been defined as transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, which lack significant protein coding potential and possess critical roles in diverse cellular processes. Long non-coding RNAs have recently been functionally characterized in plant stress-response mechanisms. In the present study, we perform a comprehensive identification of lncRNAs in response to combined stress induced by salinity and excess of boron in the Lluteño maize, a tolerant maize landrace from Atacama Desert, Chile. We use deep RNA sequencing to identify a set of 48,345 different lncRNAs, of which 28,012 (58.1%) are conserved with other maize (B73, Mo17 or Palomero), with the remaining 41.9% belonging to potentially Lluteño exclusive lncRNA transcripts. According to B73 maize reference genome sequence, most Lluteño lncRNAs correspond to intergenic transcripts. Interestingly, Lluteño lncRNAs presents an unusual overall higher expression compared to protein coding genes under exposure to stressed conditions. In total, we identified 1710 putatively responsive to the combined stressed conditions of salt and boron exposure. We also identified a set of 848 stress responsive potential trans natural antisense transcripts (trans-NAT) lncRNAs, which seems to be regulating genes associated with regulation of transcription, response to stress, response to abiotic stimulus and participating of the nicotianamine metabolic process. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) experiments were performed in a subset of lncRNAs, validating their existence and expression patterns. Our results suggest that a diverse set of maize lncRNAs from leaves and roots is responsive to combined salt and boron stress, being the first effort to identify lncRNAs from a maize landrace adapted to extreme conditions such as the Atacama Desert. The information generated is a starting point to understand the genomic adaptabilities suffered by this maize to surpass this extremely stressed environment.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play crucially regulatory roles in diverse biological processes involving complex mechanisms. However, information regarding the number, sequences, characteristics and potential functions of lncRNAs in plants is so far overly limited.Using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we identified a total of 23,324 putative lncRNAs from control, osmotic stress- and salt stress-treated leaf and root samples of Medicago truncatula, a model legume species. Out of these lncRNAs, 7,863 and 5,561 lncRNAs were identified from osmotic stress-treated leaf and root samples, respectively. While, 7,361 and 7,874 lncRNAs were identified from salt stress-treated leaf and root samples, respectively. To reveal their potential functions, we analyzed Gene Ontology (GO) terms of genes that overlap with or are neighbors of the stress-responsive lncRNAs. Enrichments in GO terms in biological processes such as signal transduction, energy synthesis, molecule metabolism, detoxification, transcription and translation were found.LncRNAs are likely involved in regulating plant's responses and adaptation to osmotic and salt stresses in complex regulatory networks with protein-coding genes. These findings are of importance for our understanding of the potential roles of lncRNAs in responses of plants in general and M. truncatula in particular to abiotic stresses.
Project description:Soybean is an important economic crop for human diet, animal feeds and biodiesel due to high protein and oil content. Its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress, which impairs plant growth and development by affecting gene expression, in part, through epigenetic modification of chromatin status. However, little is known about epigenetic regulation of stress response in soybean roots. Here, we used RNA-seq and ChIP-seq technologies to study the dynamics of genome-wide transcription and histone methylation patterns in soybean roots under salt stress. Eight thousand seven hundred ninety eight soybean genes changed their expression under salt stress treatment. Whole-genome ChIP-seq study of an epigenetic repressive mark, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), revealed the changes in H3K27me3 deposition during the response to salt stress. Unexpectedly, we found that most of the inactivation of genes under salt stress is strongly correlated with the de novo establishment of H3K27me3 in various parts of the promoter or coding regions where there is no H3K27me3 in control plants. In addition, the soybean histone modifiers were identified which may contribute to de novo histone methylation and gene silencing under salt stress. Thus, dynamic chromatin regulation, switch between active and inactive modes, occur at target loci in order to respond to salt stress in soybean. Our analysis demonstrates histone methylation modifications are correlated with the activation or inactivation of salt-inducible genes in soybean roots.
Project description:Cold and drought stresses seriously affect cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant growth and yield. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of diverse cellular processes in mammals and plants. To date, no systematic screening of lncRNAs under abiotic stress and their regulatory roles in cassava has been reported. In this study, we present the first reference catalog of 682 high-confidence lncRNAs based on analysis of strand-specific RNA-seq data from cassava shoot apices and young leaves under cold, drought stress and control conditions. Among them, 16 lncRNAs were identified as putative target mimics of cassava known miRNAs. Additionally, by comparing with small RNA-seq data, we found 42 lncNATs and sense gene pairs can generate nat-siRNAs. We identified 318 lncRNAs responsive to cold and/or drought stress, which were typically co-expressed concordantly or discordantly with their neighboring genes. Trans-regulatory network analysis suggested that many lncRNAs were associated with hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, and sucrose metabolism pathway. The study provides an opportunity for future computational and experimental studies to uncover the functions of lncRNAs in cassava.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) emerge as critical regulators across a wide variety of biological functions in living organisms. However, to date, no systematic characterization of lncRNAs has been investigated in the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, the most severe biotic threat to honey bees worldwide. Here, we performed an initial genome-wide identification of lncRNAs in V. destructor via high-throughput sequencing technology and reported, for the first time, the transcriptomic landscape of lncRNAs in the devastating parasite. By means of a lncRNA identification pipeline, 6,645 novel lncRNA transcripts, encoded by 3,897 gene loci, were identified, including 2,066 sense lncRNAs, 2,772 lincRNAs, and 1,807 lncNATs. Compared with protein-coding mRNAs, V. destructor lncRNAs are shorter in terms of full length, as well as of the ORF length, contain less exons, and express at lower level. GO term and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of the lncRNA target genes demonstrated that these predicted lncRNAs may be potentially responsible for the regulatory functions of cellular and biological progresses in the reproductive phase of V. destructor. To our knowledge, this is the first catalog of lncRNA profile in the parasitiformes species, providing a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies. Understanding the characteristics and features of lncRNAs in V. destructor would promote sustainable parasite control.
Project description:Tea plant (Camellia sinensis), an important economic crop, is seriously affected by various abiotic stresses, including salt stress, which severely diminishes its widespread planting. However, little is known about the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in transcriptional regulation under salt stress. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of tea shoots under salt-stress and control conditions was performed. Through sequencing analysis, 16,452 unique lncRNAs were identified, including 172 differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE-lncRNAs). The results of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of their cis- and trans-target genes showed that these DE-lncRNAs play important roles in many pathways such as the galactinol synthase (GOLS), calcium signaling pathway, and interact with transcription factors (TFs) under salt stress. The data from the gene-specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated reduction in the lncRNA MSTRG.139242.1 and its predicted interacting gene, TEA027212.1 (Ca2+-ATPase 13), in tea leaves revealed that MSTRG.139242.1 may function in the response of tea plants to high salinity. In addition, 12 lncRNAs were predicted to be target mimics of 17 known mature miRNAs, such as miR156, that are related to the salt-stress response in C. sinensis. Our results provide new insights into lncRNAs as ubiquitous regulators in response to salt stress in tea plants.