Identification of a novel splicing mutation in the SLC25A13 gene from a patient with NICCD: a case report.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder and one of the most common inherent causes of cholestatic jaundice in Asian infants. Mutations in the SLC25A13 gene, which encodes citrin protein expressed in the liver, have been identified as the genetic cause for NICCD. CASE PRESENTATION:Here, we report a 4-month-old female with clinical features including jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperlactacidemia, and abnormal liver function. The patient was diagnosed with NICCD by differential diagnosis using genetic analysis. Mutations in 60 jaundice-related genes were tested by using amplicon sequencing, which was performed on an Ion S5XL genetic analyzer. A compound heterozygous mutation in the SLC25A13 gene was identified, consisting of a known deletion SLC25A13:c.852_855delTATG and a novel splicing mutation SLC25A13:c.1841?+?3_1841?+?4delAA. Sanger sequencing for the proband and her parents was performed to validate the result and reveal the source of mutations. CONCLUSION:A compound heterozygous mutation in the SLC25A13 gene was identified in a 4-month-old female patient with NICCD. Our data suggest that amplicon sequencing is a helpful tool for the differential diagnosis of inherited diseases with similar symptoms. Further studies of the mutation spectrum of neonatal jaundice in China are warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The most common causes of cholestatic jaundice are biliary atresia and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH). Specific disorders underlying INH, such as various infectious and metabolic causes, including neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) especially, in East Asian populations are increasingly being identified. Since most NICCD infants recovered from liver disease by 1 year of age, they often are misdiagnosed with INH, leading to difficulty in determining the true prevalence of NICCD. Mutation(s) of human SLC25A13 gene encoding a mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2 (AGC2), can lead to AGC2 deficiency, resulting in NICCD and an adult-onset fatal disease namely citrullinemia type II (CTLN2). To study the prevalence of NICCD and SLC25A13 mutations in Thai infants, and to compare manifestations of NICCD and non-NICCD, infants with idiopathic cholestatic jaundice or INH were enrolled. Clinical and biochemical data were reviewed. Urine organic acid and plasma amino acids profiles were analyzed. PCR-sequencing of all 18 exons of SLC25A13 and gap PCR for the mutations IVS16ins3kb and Ex16+74_IVS17-32del516 were performed. mRNA were analyzed in selected cases with possible splicing error. RESULTS: Five out of 39 (12.8%) unrelated infants enrolled in the study were found to have NICCD, of which three had homozygous 851del4 (GTATdel) and two compound heterozygous 851del4/IVS16ins3kb and 851del4/1638ins23, respectively. Two missense mutations (p.M1? and p.R605Q) of unknown functional significance were identified. At the initial presentation, NICCD patients had higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and lower level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than those in non-NICCD patients (p< 0.05). NICCD patients showed higher citrulline level and threonine/serine ratio than non-NICCD infants (p< 0.05). Fatty liver was found in 2 NICCD patients. Jaundice resolved in all NICCD and in 87.5% of non-NICCD infants at the median age of 9.5 and 4.0 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: NICCD should be considered in infants with idiopathic cholestasis. The preliminary estimated prevalence of NICCD was calculated to be 1/48,228 with carrier rate of 1/110 among Thai infants. However, this number may be underestimated and required further analysis with mutation screening in larger control population to establish the true prevalence of NICCD and AGC2 deficiency.
Project description:Citrin is a liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier encoded by the SLC25A13 gene, and its deficiency causes adult-onset type II citrullinemia and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD). Here, the authors investigated clinical findings in Korean infants with NICCD and performed mutation analysis on the SLC25A13 gene. Of 47 patients with neonatal cholestasis, three infants had multiple aminoacidemia (involving citrulline, methionine, and arginine) and galactosemia, and thus were diagnosed as having NICCD. Two of these three showed failure to thrive. The laboratory findings showed hypoproteinemia and hyperammonemia, and liver biopsies revealed micro-macrovesicular fatty liver and cholestasis. The three patients each harbored compound heterozygous 1,638-1,660 dup/ S225X mutation, compound heterozygous 851del4/S225X mutation, and heterozygous 1,638-1,660 dup mutation, respectively. With nutritional manipulation, liver functions were normalized and catch-up growth was achieved. NICCD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cholestatic jaundice in Korean infants.
Project description:Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is a hereditary metabolic disease arising from biallelic mutations of SLC25A13. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS) and C-peptide (C-P) levels in NICCD infants, analyze their SLC25A13 genetic mutations and further discuss the correlation between SLC25A13 genetic mutations and biochemical changes. Seventy-two cases of infants with cholestasis disease were gathered. Among them, 36 cases with NICCD diagnosis were case group. Meanwhile, 36 cases with unknown etiology but excluded NICCD were control group. FBG, FINS, C-P, ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and Non-HDL-C were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted from venous blood for SLC25A13 mutations detection. The incidence of hypoglycemia was 3% in NICCD group. There were no significant statistical difference of FBG, FINS and C-P between NICCD and INC groups ( P > 0.05). ALT, LDL-C and Non-HDL-C levels in NICCD group were lower than the INC group, while SLC25A13 mutations were associated with the level of GGT ( P < 0.05). Ten different SLC25A13 genetic mutations were detected, among which, 851del4, IVS16ins3kb, IVS6+5 G > A and 1638ins23 mutations made up 82% of all mutations. The incidence of hypoglycemia may be higher in small gestational age infants with NICCD. Low LDL-C may be one of the characteristics of dyslipidemia in NICCD infants. There was a correlation between SLC25A13 gene mutations distribution and the GGT level, but the meaning of this finding remains to be further in-depth study. Impact statement This study aims to compare FBG, FINS, C-P, other biochemical and clinical manifestations between NICCD and non-NICCD infants, and discuss differential diagnosis of NICCD and INC beyond the genetic analysis. And investigate the correlation between SLC25A13 genetic mutations and biochemical changes. This work presented that incidence of hypoglycemia may be higher in small gestational age infants with NICCD. Low LDL-C may be one of the characteristics of dyslipidemia in NICCD infants. There was a correlation between SLC25A13 gene mutations distribution and the GGT level.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To amplify the entire ORF of SLC25A13 cDNA which encodes citrin, a liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier, and to investigate sequence feature of the transcripts for this gene in cultured human amniocytes. This study will provide laboratory evidences for prenatal diagnosis of NICCD at mRNA level. METHODS:Total RNA was extracted from cultured amniocytes, and cDNA was synthesized, and then nest PCR was performed to amplify the entire ORF sequences of SLC25A13. The PCR products were purified, cloned, sequenced, and aligned with the genomic DNA of SLC25A13 to analyze the alternative splicing pattern. RESULTS:The entire ORF of SLC25A13 gene was successfully amplified. Three splice variants of SLC25A13, i.e., SLCA (normal mRNA), SLCB (CAG insertion between exon 9-10) and SLCC (exon 5-11 skipping), were identified in the subjects. However, no abnormal mRNA from the allele with mutation 851del4 was detected in the amniocytes cultured from a carrier fetus of this mutation. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated that the entire ORF of SLC25A13 cDNA can be successfully amplified from cultured human amniocytes, and revealed exon 5-11 skipping as a novel SLC25A13 transcript. Normal mRNA occupied majority of the transcripts in normal control and heterozygous amniocytes which contained normal allele and 851del4 mutation, indicating that the two fetuses wouldn't suffer from NICCD. These SLC25A13 transcription features provided laboratory evidences for prenatal diagnosis of NICCD.
Project description:Background. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is a Mendelian disorder arising from biallelic SLC25A13 mutations, and SLC25A13 genetic analysis was indispensable for its definite diagnosis. However, conventional SLC25A13 analysis could not detect all mutations, especially obscure large insertions/deletions. This paper aimed to explore the obscure SLC25A13 mutation in an NICCD infant. Methods. Genomic DNA was extracted to screen for 4 high-frequency SLC25A13 mutations, and then all 18 exons and their flanking sequences were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Subsequently, cDNA cloning, SNP analyses, and semiquantitative PCR were performed to identify the obscure mutation. Results. A maternally inherited mutation IVS16ins3kb was screened out, and then cDNA cloning unveiled paternally inherited alternative splicing variants (ASVs) featuring exon 5 skipping. Ultimately, a large deletion c.329-1687_c.468+3865del5692bp, which has never been described in any other references, was identified via intensive study on the genomic DNA around exon 5 of SLC25A13 gene. Conclusions. An NICCD patient was definitely diagnosed as a compound heterozygote of IVS16ins3kb and c.329-1687_c.468+3865del5692bp. The large deletion enriched the SLC25A13 mutation spectrum, and its identification supported the concept that cDNA cloning analysis, along with other molecular tools such as semiquantitative PCR, could provide valuable clues, facilitating the identification of obscure SLC25A13 deletions.
Project description:Neonatal Intrahepatic Cholestasis caused by Citrin Deficiency (NICCD) arises from biallelic SLC25A13 mutations, and SLC25A13 analysis provides reliable evidences for NICCD definite diagnosis. However, novel large insertions/deletions in this gene could not be detected just by conventional DNA analysis. This study aimed to explore definite diagnostic evidences for an infant highly-suspected to have NICCD. Prevalent mutation screening and Sanger sequencing of SLC25A13 gene just revealed a paternally-inherited mutation c.851_854del4. Nevertheless, neither citrin protein nor SLC25A13 transcripts of maternal origin could be detected on Western blotting and cDNA cloning analysis, respectively. On this basis, the hidden maternal mutation was precisely positioned using SNP analysis and semi-quantitative PCR, and finally identified as a novel large deletion c.-3251_c.15+18443del21709bp, which involved the SLC25A13 promoter region and the entire exon 1 where locates the translation initiation codon. Hence, NICCD was definitely diagnosed in the infant. To the best of our knowledge, the novel gross deletion, which silenced the transcriptional and translational expression of the affected SLC25A13 allele, is the hitherto largest deletion in SLC25A13 mutation spectrum. The Western blotting approach using mitochondrial protein extracted from expanded peripheral blood lymphocytes, of particular note, might be a new minimally-invasive and more-feasible molecular tool for NICCD diagnosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The human SLC25A13 gene encodes citrin, the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2 (AGC2), and SLC25A13 mutations cause citrin deficiency (CD), a disease entity that encompasses different age-dependant clinical phenotypes such as Adult-onset Citrullinemia Type II (CTLN2) and Neonatal Intrahepatic Cholestasis caused by Citrin Deficiency (NICCD). The analyses of SLC25A13 gene and its protein/mRNA products remain reliable tools for the definitive diagnoses of CD patients, and so far, the SLC25A13 mutation spectrum in Chinese CD patients has not been well-characterized yet. METHODS AND RESULTS: By means of direct DNA sequencing, cDNA cloning and SNP analyses, 16 novel pathogenic mutations, including 9 missense, 4 nonsense, 1 splice-site, 1 deletion and 1 large transposal insertion IVS4ins6kb (GenBank accession number KF425758), were identified in CTLN2 or NICCD patients from China, Japan and Malaysia, respectively, making the SLC25A13 variations worldwide reach the total number of 81. A large NICCD cohort of 116 Chinese cases was also established, and the 4 high-frequency mutations contributed a much larger proportion of the mutated alleles in the patients from south China than in those from the north (?(2)?=?14.93, P<0.01), with the latitude of 30°N as the geographic dividing line in mainland China. CONCLUSIONS: This paper further enriched the SLC25A13 variation spectrum worldwide, and formed a substantial contribution to the in-depth understanding of the genotypic feature of Chinese CD patients.
Project description:Background and objectiveNeonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is rare disease. It is a novel metabolism disease which caused by deficiency of citrin, a liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier encoded by the SLC25A13 gene. Citrin deficiency causes NICCD and adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) with severe hepatic-neurology syndrome. The study presents some clinical features, laboratory finding, results molecular analysis and following process of 96 NICCD.MethodsProspective description study.ResultsTwo hundred and thirty-six patients, who had hepatic troubles and were diagnosed SLC25A13 mutations by PCR/PCR-RFLP enrolled in this study. There were 96 in 236 patients were diagnosed NICCD by molecular analysis. Some NICCD clinical manifestations include: Jaundice (95.8%), hepatomegaly (31.3%), steatorrhea (89.6%), chubby face (88.5%), splenomegaly (29.4%), and faint (2.1%). Laboratory finding: Hyperbilirubinemia (95.8%), increase AST (100%), ALT (88.5%), AST/ALT ratio >2.5 (89.6%), coagulation disorder (87.5%), hypoproteinemia (82.3%), hypoalbuminemia (84.4%), hyperammonemia (92.7%), 100% patients had elevation of AFP and 70.8% had increase of citrullin. DNA analysis of SLC25A13 revealed combinations of 851del4, 1638ins23, IVS6 + 5G > A and IVS16ins3kb with 5 genotypes, 89 homozygous and 7 compound heterozygous. No relation between phenotype and genotype has been found. With supportive treatment and nutritional manipulation most of patients in group recovered completely by the age 18 months. However, there were eight patients had died of uncompensative hepatic failure.ConclusionsNICCD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cholestatic and hepatic failure infants. Phenotype of NICCD is very polymorphic and not always benign. All NICCD should be long term followed up.
Project description:Citrin deficiency (CD) is a Mendelian disease due to biallelic mutations of SLC25A13 gene. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) is the major pediatric CD phenotype, and its definite diagnosis relies on SLC25A13 genetic analysis. China is a vast country with a huge population, but the SLC25A13 genotypic features of CD patients in our country remains far from being well clarified. Via sophisticated molecular analysis, this study diagnosed 154 new CD patients in mainland China and identified 9 novel deleterious SLC25A13 mutations, i.e. c.103A?>?G, [c.329?-?154_c.468?+?2352del2646; c.468?+?2392_c.468?+?2393ins23], c.493C?>?T, c.755?-?1G?>?C, c.845_c.848?+?1delG, c.933_c.933?+?1insGCAG, c.1381G?>?T, c.1452?+?1G?>?A and c.1706_1707delTA. Among the 274 CD patients diagnosed by our group thus far, 41 SLC25A13 mutations/variations were detected. The 7 mutations c.775C?>?T, c.851_854del4, c.1078C?>?T, IVS11?+?1G?>?A, c.1364G?>?T, c.1399C?>?T and IVS16ins3kb demonstrated significantly different geographic distribution. Among the total 53 identified genotypes, only c.851_854del4/c.851_854del4 and c.851_854del4/c.1399C?>?T presented different geographic distribution. The northern population had a higher level of SLC25A13 allelic heterogeneity than those in the south. These findings enriched the SLC25A13 mutation spectrum and brought new insights into the geographic distribution of the variations and genotypes, providing reliable evidences for NICCD definite diagnosis and for the determination of relevant molecular targets in different Chinese areas.
Project description:This retrospective study analysed a case series of subjects with citrin deficiency, and aims to present the molecular and clinical characterization of this disease in the Hong Kong Chinese population for the first time.Data from medical records of eighteen patients with citrin deficiency (years 2006-2015) were retrieved. Demographic data, biochemical parameters, radiological results, genetic testing results, management, and clinical outcome were collected and analysed.Eighteen patients with diagnosis of citrin deficiency were recruited. All 18 patients carried at least one common pathogenic variant c.852_855delTATG in SLC25A13. Prolonged jaundice (neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency, NICCD) was the most common presenting symptom, in conjunction with elevated plasma citrulline, threonine, alkaline phosphatase, and alpha-fetoprotein levels. The abnormal biochemical parameters including liver derangement returned to normal range in most of the cases by 6 months of age after the introduction of a lactose-free formula. There were a few cases with atypical presentations. Two subjects did not present with NICCD, and were subsequently diagnosed later in life after their siblings presented with symptoms of citrin deficiency at one month of age and subsequently received a molecular diagnosis. One patient with citrin deficiency also exhibited multiple liver hemangioendotheliomas, which subsided gradually after introduction of a lactose-free formula. Only one patient from this cohort was offered expanded metabolic screening at birth. She was not ascertained by conducted newborn screening and was diagnosed upon presentation with cholestatic jaundice by 1 month of age.This is the first report of the clinical and molecular characterization of a large cohort of patients with citrin deficiency in Hong Kong. The presentation of this cohort of patients expands the clinical phenotypic spectrum of NICCD. Benign liver tumors such as hemangioendotheliomas may be associated with citrin deficiency in addition to the well-known association with hepatocellular carcinoma. Citrin deficiency may manifest in later infancy period with an NICCD-like phenotype. Furthermore, this condition is not always ascertained by expanded newborn metabolic screening testing.