Localization and dynamic change of saponins in Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja.
ABSTRACT: Cyclocarya paliurus is a unique tree species of that grows in southern China. The tree contains distinctive saponins in the leaf that has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. It was aimed to detect localization of saponins and suitable time of harvest for medicinal uses. Histochemical, cytochemical localization and UV-spectrophotometry were carried out in C. paliurus plant. We found that in all organs, the saponins were primarily located in the parenchyma cells and the highest saponins accumulation was in the palisade tissue in leaves. Cytochemical localization results indicated that saponins were mainly distributed in the chloroplast, vesicle, and plasmalemma. On average, the total saponins content in leaves (20.57 mg·g-1) was two and three times greater than in root (10.19 mg·g-1) and shoot (6.20 mg·g-1), respectively. Moreover, the saponins content in the leaf and root exhibited fluctuations, which were highest in September. Considering saponins levels and biomass, we conclude that harvesting all leaves in September is an economical and effective strategy for medicinal use in C. paliurus.
Project description:<i>Cyclocarya paliurus</i> is an extremely valuable and multifunctional tree species whose leaves have traditionally been used in used in medicine or as a medicinal tea in China. In recent years, anthracnose has been frequently observed on young leaves of <i>C. paliurus</i> in several nurseries located in Jiangsu Province, resulting in great yield and quality losses. To date, no information is available about the prevalence of <i>C. paliurus</i> anthracnose in China. The main purpose of the present study was to characterize the etiology of <i>C. paliurus</i> anthracnose. Phylogenetic analysis of the eight-loci concatenated dataset revealed that all 44 single-spore <i>Colletotrichum</i> isolates belonged to three species in the <i>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</i> species complex, namely, <i>Colletotrichum aenigma</i>, <i>Colletotrichum fructicola</i>, and <i>C. gloeosporioides</i> sensu stricto. Phenotypic features, including the colony appearance and the morphology of conidia, appressoria, and ascospores, were consistent with the phylogenetic grouping. Virulence tests validated that the three <i>Colletotrichum</i> species could cause typical symptoms of anthracnose on <i>C. paliurus</i> leaves, similar to those observed in the field. The optimum mycelial growth temperature ranged from 25 to 30°C for all representative isolates, while <i>C. gloeosporioides</i> s. s. isolates exhibited greater tolerance to high temperature (40°C). Fungicide sensitivity assays indicated that all three <i>Colletotrichum</i> species were sensitive to tetramycin, which may be a potential alternative for the management of <i>C. paliurus</i> anthracnose. To our knowledge, this study provides the first report of <i>C. aenigma</i>, <i>C. fructicola</i>, and <i>C. gloeosporioides</i> s. s. causing <i>C. paliurus</i> anthracnose in China as well as in the world.
Project description:Leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus are a sweet tea traditionally used to treat obesity and diabetes in China. However, its protective mechanisms against hyperglycemia remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the extract of C. paliurus leaves significantly decreased body loss, food intake and blood glucose level, and increased blood insulin level, ?-cell number and insulin-producing ? cells in high-fat diet-low dose STZ-induced diabetic mice. In vivo and in vitro studies also showed the extract of C. paliurus leaves significantly inhibited pancreatic ? cell apoptosis by suppressing the expression of caspase 8, caspase 9 and cleaved caspase-3, as well as Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, down-regulating p38, ERK and JNK phosphorylation, and up-regulating Akt phosphorylation. These effects were significantly enhanced by inhibitor p-38 or ERK or JNK, and counteracted by inhibitor of PI3K. In addition, the extract of C. paliurus leaves also significantly improved hepatic steatosis, nephropathy and cardiac hypertrophy of diabetic mice. Taken together, these results provide the insight into the effects of C. paliurus leaves on pancreatic ? cell preservation in standing glucolipotoxicity. Therefore, C. paliurus tea leaves may be used as a new remedy for diabetes through enhancing pancreatic ? cell preservation by inhibiting ? cell apoptosis.
Project description:Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja is a multiple function tree species, but its main utilization is for the harvesting of its leaves as materials for tea production and recently as ingredients for the food industry. In this study aqueous extracts of C. paliurus leaves collected from 21 natural populations were evaluated for their phytochemical content and antioxidant activity. The content of water-soluble polysaccharide, total flavonoid and total polyphenol varied from 66.05 to 153.32 mg/g, 9.01 to 19.65 mg/g and 20.80 to 52.69 mg/g, respectively. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, aemferol-3-O-glucuronide and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid were the major phenolic components in aqueous extracts of C. paliurus leaves. Both redundancy analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that water-soluble polysaccharide, total polyphenol, total flavonoid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid were significantly correlated with antioxidant activity, but total polyphenol showed the greatest contribution to antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant activity of the 21 populations was classified into six distinct groups based on the squared Euclidean distance. These results would provide a theoretical basis for obtaining the greatest yield of targeted antioxidant phytochemicals of C. paliurus leaves for tea and food ingredient production.
Project description:Four previously undescribed compounds, including three rarely occurring seco-dammarane triterpenoid glycosides and a pentacyclic triterpenic acid, were isolated from a 70% ethanol extract of the leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus (Juglandaceae), along with eleven known triterpenoids. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS, as well as chemical methods. Among them, several triterpenoids enhanced insulin stimulated glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently increased glucose uptake through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-p38 pathway. Collectively, triterpenoids from C. paliurus could be developed as insulin sensitizers, which might have therapeutic potential for insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.
Project description:Cyclocarya Paliurus (Bata1) Iljinskaja contains various bioactive secondary metabolites especially in leaves, such as triterpenes, flavonoids, polysaccharides and alkaloids, and its leaves are widely used as an hyperglycemic tea in China. In the present paper, we sequenced the transcriptome of the leaves and callus of Cyclocarya Paliurus using Illumina Hiseq 4000 platform. After sequencing and de novo assembly, a total of 65,654 unigenes were generated with an N50 length of 1,244bp. Among them, 35,041 (53.37%) unigenes were annotated in NCBI Non-Redundant database, 19,453 (29.63%) unigenes were classified into Gene Ontology (GO) database, and 7,259 (11.06%) unigenes were assigned to Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) categories. Furthermore, 11,697 (17.81%) unigenes were mapped onto 335 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), among which 1,312 unigenes were identified to be involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In addition, a total of 11,247 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. This transcriptome dataset provides a comprehensive sequence resource for gene expression profiling, genetic diversity, evolution and further molecular genetics research on Cyclocarya Paliurus.
Project description:<label>CONTEXT</label>Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja (Juglandaceae) is an edible and medicinal plant; the leaves are used in Chinese folkloric medicine to treat dyslipidaemia and diabetes.<label>OBJECTIVE</label>This study evaluates the antihyperlipidaemic potential of the triterpenic acid-enriched fraction (TAE) from C. paliurus and the underlying mechanism.<label>MATERIALS AND METHODS</label>The hyperlipidaemic rats were induced by high fat diet for 6 weeks. After oral administration of TAE (200 and 400?mg/kg), the neutral fraction (150 and 300?mg/kg) and statin (4?mg/kg) to the hyperlipidaemic rats for 4 weeks, lipid profile and apolipoprotein (apoB48) level in plasma, and the expression levels of apoB48, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) in intestine were examined. The main constituents in the TAE were identified by HPLC-MS.<label>RESULTS</label>TAE administration (400?mg/kg) decreased the levels of atherogenic lipids in serum and liver (p?<?0.05) and increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 19.7%. Furthermore, TAE treatment (200 and 400?mg/kg) decreased plasma apoB48 level by 15.3 and 19.5%, downregulated intestinal apoB48 and MTP expression levels (p?<?0.05), and inhibited TNF-? expression by 36.2 and 56.2% and the phosphorylation level of MAPK by 8.8 and 13.2%, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of pentacyclic- and tetracyclic-triterpene acids in TAE.<label>CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION</label>These findings suggested that TAE possessed antihyperlipidaemic activity partially involved in the inhibitory effect on apoB48 overproduction, which may provide evidence about its potential role in ameliorating dyslipidaemia.
Project description:Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are commonly employed as environmentally-friendly solvents in numerous chemical applications owing to their unique physicochemical properties. In this study, a novel and environmentally-friendly extraction method based on ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent extraction (UAE-DES) was investigated for the extraction of flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C. paliurus) leaves, and the antioxidant activities of these flavonoids were evaluated. Nine different DES systems based on either two or three components were tested, and the choline chloride/1,4?butanediol system (1:5 molar ratio) was selected as the optimal system for maximizing the flavonoid extraction yields. Other extraction conditions required to achieve the maximum flavonoid extraction yields from the leaves of C. paliurus were as follows: DES water content (v/v), 30%; extraction time, 30 min; temperature, 60 °C; and solid-liquid ratio, 20 mg/mL. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the detection of five flavonoids in the extract, namely kaempferol-7-O-?-l-rhamnoside, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-?-d-glucuronide. In vitro antioxidant tests revealed that the flavonoid-containing extract exhibited strong DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging abilities. Results indicate that UAE-DES is a suitable approach for the selective extraction of flavonoids from C. paliurus leaves, and DESs can be employed as sustainable extraction media for other bioactive compounds.
Project description:Light quality is a critical factor regulating photosynthetic capacity which directly affects the final yield of plants. Cyclocarya paliurus is a multiple function tree species and its leaves are widely used as tea production and ingredient in functional foods in China. However, the effects of varying light quality on photosynthetic process and the photoprotective mechanisms remains unexplored in-depth. In this study, the biomass accumulation, morphology changes, photosynthetic capacity, stomata ultrastructure, pigments content, PSII activity, reactive oxygen species production, antioxidant enzymes, and phenolic content of C. paliurus plants under different light-emitting diodes (LED) light treatments were investigated to test a hypothesis that the difference in photosynthetic efficiency of C. paliurus plants under differential light quality is related to the degree of photoinhibition and the activation of photoprotection. We found that C. paliurus plants performed better under the treatments of WL (white light, 445 and 560 nm) and BL (blue light, 456 nm) than the treatment of GL (green light, 514 nm) and RL (red light, 653 nm). The better performances were characterized by higher values of photosynthetic capacity, total biomass, pigments content, specific leaf mass per area, seeding height increment, leaf thickness and palisade length. In contrast, plants under the treatments of GL and RL suffered significant photoinhibition but effectively developed photoprotective mechanisms. Results of this study provide not only some insights of the response mechanisms of plant photosynthesis to light quality but also a scientific basis for improving the cultivation of C. paliurus plantations.