Long noncoding RNA GAS5 inhibits progression of colorectal cancer by interacting with and triggering YAP phosphorylation and degradation and is negatively regulated by the m6A reader YTHDF3.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:YAP activation is crucial for cancer development including colorectal cancer (CRC). Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) modified transcripts of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can regulate YAP activation in cancer progression. We investigated the functional link between lncRNAs and the m6A modification in YAP signaling and CRC progression. METHODS:YAP interacting lncRNAs were screened by RIP-sequencing, RNA FISH and immunofluorescence co-staining assays. Interaction between YAP and lncRNA GAS5 was studied by biochemical methods. MeRIP-sequencing combined with lncRNA-sequencing were used to identify the m6A modified targets of YTHDF3 in CRC. Gain-of-function and Loss-of-function analysis were performed to measure the function of GAS5-YAP-YTHDF3 axis in CRC progression in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:GAS5 directly interacts with WW domain of YAP to facilitate translocation of endogenous YAP from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and promotes phosphorylation and subsequently ubiquitin-mediated degradation of YAP to inhibit CRC progression in vitro and in vivo. Notably, we demonstrate the m6A reader YTHDF3 not only a novel target of YAP but also a key player in YAP signaling by facilitating m6A-modified lncRNA GAS5 degradation, which profile a new insight into CRC progression. Clinically, lncRNA GAS5 expressions is negatively correlated with YAP and YTHDF3 protein levels in tumors from CRC patients. CONCLUSIONS:Our study uncovers a negative functional loop of lncRNA GAS5-YAP-YTHDF3 axis, and identifies a new mechanism for m6A-induced decay of GAS5 on YAP signaling in progression of CRC which may offer a promising approach for CRC treatment.
Project description:N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and plays important roles in cell differentiation and tissue development. It regulates multiple steps throughout the RNA life cycle including RNA processing, translation, and decay, via the recognition by selective binding proteins. In the cytoplasm, m6A binding protein YTHDF1 facilitates translation of m6A-modified mRNAs, and YTHDF2 accelerates the decay of m6A-modified transcripts. The biological function of YTHDF3, another cytoplasmic m6A binder of the YTH (YT521-B homology) domain family, remains unknown. Here, we report that YTHDF3 promotes protein synthesis in synergy with YTHDF1, and affects methylated mRNA decay mediated through YTHDF2. Cells deficient in all three YTHDF proteins experience the most dramatic accumulation of m6A-modified transcripts. These results indicate that together with YTHDF1 and YTHDF2, YTHDF3 plays critical roles to accelerate metabolism of m6A-modified mRNAs in the cytoplasm. All three YTHDF proteins may act in an integrated and cooperative manner to impact fundamental biological processes related to m6A RNA methylation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their N6-methyladenosine (M6A) modifications are involved in cancer occurrence and development.<h4>Methods</h4>lncRNA M6A modification in colorectal cancer (CRC) was comprehensively analyzed for the first time.<h4>Results</h4>M6A levels of lnRNAs in CRC tissues were higher than those in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. A total of 8,332 M6A peaks were detected in 6,690 lncRNAs in CRC tissues. Approximately 91% of the modified lncRNAs had unique M6A modification peaks. A total of 383 lncRNAs were differentially methylated in CRC, of which 48.24% had a length of 1-1,000 bp. Most of these were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 11, 16 and 19; 42.3% were within a sense-overlapping exon. RNA sequencing identified 163 differentially expressed lncRNAs in CRC. GO and KEGG analyses revealed that genes near differentially-methylated or -expressed lncRNAs were associated with CRC occurrence and development. Methylation was positively correlated with lncRNA expression levels in CRC and tumor-adjacent normal tissues. More unmethylated than M6A methylated lncRNA molecules were detected. A competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) and lncRNA-mRNA expression-regulation network revealed a regulatory relationship between lncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The findings may help improve our understanding of lncRNA function in colorectal cancer.
Project description:N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant HIV RNA modification but the interplay between the m6A reader protein YTHDF3 and HIV replication is not well understood. We found that knockout of YTHDF3 in human CD4+ T-cells increases infection supporting the role of YTHDF3 as a restriction factor. Overexpression of the YTHDF3 protein in the producer cells reduces the infectivity of the newly produced viruses. YTHDF3 proteins are incorporated into HIV particles in a nucleocapsid-dependent manner permitting the m6A reader protein to limit infection in the new target cell at the step of reverse transcription. Importantly, HIV protease cleaves the virion-incorporated full-length YTHDF3 protein, a process which is blocked by HIV protease inhibitors used to treat HIV infected patients. Mass-spectrometry confirmed the proteolytic processing of YTHDF3 in the virion. Thus, HIV protease cleaves the virion-encapsidated host m6A effector protein in addition to the viral polyproteins to ensure optimal infectivity of the mature virion.
Project description:Oxaliplatin as a first-line drug frequently causes the chemo-resistance on colorectal cancer (CRC). N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation has been largely acknowledged in multiple biological functions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the m6A methylation in modulating anticancer drug resistance in CRC are still obscure. In present study, RIP-seq was conducted to investigate the occupancy of N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 3 (YTHDF3) served as “readers” that can recognize m6A modification site in HCT116 cells with oxaliplatin resistance (HCT116R). Then, YTHDF3 was knockdown by siRNA in HCT116 cells with oxaliplatin resistance, and RIP-seq was further conducted to investigate m6A methylation of HCT116, HCT116R and HCT116R cells with YTHDF3 knockdown.
Project description:IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) are essential effectors of the IFN-dependent antiviral immune response. Dysregulation of ISG expression can cause dysfunctional antiviral responses and autoimmune disorders. Epitranscriptomic regulation, such as N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of mRNAs, plays key roles in diverse biological processes. Here, we found that the m6A "reader" YT521-B homology domain-containing family 3 (YTHDF3) suppresses ISG expression under basal conditions by promoting translation of the transcription corepressor forkhead box protein O3 (FOXO3). YTHDF3 cooperates with two cofactors, PABP1 and eIF4G2, to promote FOXO3 translation by binding to the translation initiation region of FOXO3 mRNA. Both the YTH and the P/Q/N-rich domains of YTHDF3 were required for FOXO3 RNA-binding capacity, however, METTL3-mediated m6A modification was not involved in the process observed. Moreover, YTHDF3-/- mice had increased ISG levels and were resistant to several viral infections. Our findings uncover the role of YTHDF3 as a negative regulator of antiviral immunity through the translational promotion of FOXO3 mRNA under homeostatic conditions, adding insight into the networks of RNA-binding protein-RNA interactions in homeostatically maintaining host antiviral immune function and preventing inflammatory response.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Covalent RNA modifications, such as N-6-methyladenosine (m6A), have been associated with various biological processes, but their role in cancer remains largely unexplored. m6A dynamics depends on specific enzymes whose deregulation may also impact in tumorigenesis. Herein, we assessed the differential abundance of m6A, its writer VIRMA and its reader YTHDF3, in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), looking for clinicopathological correlates. METHODS:In silico analysis of TCGA data disclosed altered expression of VIRMA (52%) and YTHDF3 (48%), prompting subsequent validation. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 122 TGCTs (2005-2016) were selected. RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis and real-time qPCR (Taqman assays) for VIRMA and YTHDF3 were performed, as well as immunohistochemistry for VIRMA, YTHDF3 and m6A, for staining intensity assessment. Associations between categorical variables were assessed using Chi square and Fisher's exact test. Distribution of continuous variables between groups was compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Biomarker performance was assessed through receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve construction and a cut-off was established by Youden's index method. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS:In our cohort, VIRMA and YTHDF3 mRNA expression levels differed among TGCT subtypes, with Seminomas (SEs) depicting higher levels than Non-Seminomatous tumors (NSTs) (p < 0.01 for both). A positive correlation was found between VIRMA and YTHDF3 expression levels. VIRMA discriminated SEs from NSTs with AUC = 0.85 (Sensitivity 77.3%, Specificity 81.1%, PPV 71.6%, NPV 85.3%, Accuracy 79.7%). Immunohistochemistry paralleled transcript findings, as patients with strong m6A immunostaining intensity depicted significantly higher VIRMA mRNA expression levels and stronger VIRMA immunoexpression intensity (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION:Abundance of m6A and expression of VIRMA/YTHDF3 were different among TGCT subtypes, with higher levels in SEs, suggesting a contribution to SE phenotype maintenance. VIRMA and YTHDF3 might cooperate in m6A establishment in TGCTs, and their transcript levels accurately discriminate between SEs and NSTs, constituting novel candidate biomarkers for patient management.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are highly involved in diverse biological processes of human malignancies. The expression profile and underlying mechanism of lncRNA growth arrest specific transcript 5 (GAS5) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. In this study, we found that GAS5 was commonly downregulated in CRC tissues, serum of CRC patients and CRC cell lines. Knockdown of GAS5 promoted CRC cell proliferation and colony formation, whereas overexpression of GAS5 produced the opposite result. We further demonstrated that knockdown of GAS5 increased the expression and secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) via NF-?B and Erk1/2 pathways. Neutralization of IL-10 and VEGF-A reduced tumour proliferation caused by GAS5 knockdown. Moreover, GAS5 expression showed a statistically significant correlation with the mRNA levels of IL-10 and VEGF-A in CRC tissues. We further illustrated that GAS5 was markedly downregulated and negatively correlated with the cytokine expression in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). These results delineate a novel mechanism of lncRNA GAS5 in suppressing colorectal carcinogenesis. The cytokines IL-10 and VEGF-A inhibited by GAS5 may provide targets for lncRNA-based therapies for CRC.
Project description:Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Up to date, only a few of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been functionally characterized. Here, we aimed to discover the functional roles of lncRNA GAS5-AS1. The GAS5-AS1 expression in CC tissues was markedly decreased when compared with that in the adjacent normal tissues. The downregulation of GAS5-AS1 was significantly correlated with the advanced FIGO stage, distant metastasis, lymphatic metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with CC. Functionally, GAS5-AS1 drastically reduced CC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and remarkably suppressed CC tumorigenicity and metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, it was found that GAS5-AS1 interacted with the tumor suppressor GAS5, and increased its stability by interacting with RNA demethylase ALKBH5 and decreasing GAS5 N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification. Moreover, it was shown that m6A-mediated GAS5 RNA degradation relied on the m6A reader protein YTHDF2-dependent pathway. Our findings reveal an important mechanism of epigenetic alteration in CC carcinogenesis and metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The importance of mRNA methylation erased by ALKBH5 in mRNA biogenesis, decay, and translation control is an emerging research focus. Ectopically activated YAP is associated with the development of many human cancers. However, the mechanism whereby ALKBH5 regulates YAP expression and activity to inhibit NSCLC tumor growth and metastasis is not clear. METHODS:Protein and transcript interactions were analyzed in normal lung cell and NSCLC cells. Gene expression was evaluated by qPCR and reporter assays. Protein levels were determined by immunochemical approaches. Nucleic acid interactions and status were analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Cell behavior was analyzed by standard biochemical tests. The m6A modification was analyzed by MeRIP. RESULTS:Our results show that YAP expression is negatively correlated with ALKBH5 expression and plays an opposite role in the regulation of cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and EMT of NSCLC cells. ALKBH5 reduced m6A modification of YAP. YTHDF3 combined YAP pre-mRNA depending on m6A modification. YTHDF1 and YTHDF2 competitively interacted with YTHDF3 in an m6A-independent manner to regulate YAP expression. YTHDF2 facilitated YAP mRNA decay via the AGO2 system, whereas YTHDF1 promoted YAP mRNA translation by interacting with eIF3a; both these activities are regulated by m6A modification. Furthermore, ALKBH5 decreased YAP activity by regulating miR-107/LATS2 axis in an HuR-dependent manner. Further, ALKBH5 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo by reducing the expression and activity of YAP. CONCLUSIONS:The presented findings suggest m6A demethylase ALKBH5 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by reducing YTHDFs-mediated YAP expression and inhibiting miR-107/LATS2-mediated YAP activity in NSCLC. Moreover, effective inhibition of m6A modification of ALKBH5 might constitute a potential treatment strategy for lung cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:METTL3 is an RNA methyltransferase that mediates m6A modification and is implicated in mRNA biogenesis, decay, and translation. However, the biomechanism through which METTL3 regulates MALAT1-miR-1914-3p-YAP axis activity to induce NSCLC drug resistance and metastasis is not very clear. METHODS:The expression of mRNA was analyzed by qPCR assays. Protein levels were analyzed by western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Cellular proliferation was detected by CCK8 assays. Cell migration and invasion were analyzed by wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. Promoter activities and gene transcription were analyzed by luciferase reporter assays. Finally, m6A modification was analyzed by MeRIP. RESULTS:METTL3 increased the m6A modification of YAP. METTL3, YTHDF3, YTHDF1, and eIF3b directly promoted YAP translation through an interaction with the translation initiation machinery. Moreover, the RNA level of MALAT1 was increased due to a higher level of m6A modification mediated by METTL3. Meanwhile, the stability of MALAT1 was increased by METTL3/YTHDF3 complex. Additionally, MALAT1 functions as a competing endogenous RNA that sponges miR-1914-3p to promote the invasion and metastasis of NSCLC via YAP. Furthermore, the reduction of YAP m6A modification by METTL3 knockdown inhibits tumor growth and enhances sensitivity to DDP in vivo. CONCLUSION:Results indicated that the m6A mRNA methylation initiated by METTL3 promotes YAP mRNA translation via recruiting YTHDF1/3 and eIF3b to the translation initiation complex and increases YAP mRNA stability through regulating the MALAT1-miR-1914-3p-YAP axis. The increased YAP expression and activity induce NSCLC drug resistance and metastasis.