SAR1B GTPase is necessary to protect intestinal cells from disorders of lipid homeostasis, oxidative stress, and inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Genetic defects in SAR1B GTPase inhibit chylomicron (CM) trafficking to the Golgi and result in a huge intraenterocyte lipid accumulation with a failure to release CMs and liposoluble vitamins into the blood circulation. The central aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that SAR1B deletion (SAR1B-/- ) disturbs enterocyte lipid homeostasis (e.g., FA β-oxidation and lipogenesis) while promoting oxidative stress and inflammation. Another issue is to compare the impact of SAR1B-/- to that of its paralogue SAR1A-/- and combined SAR1A-/- /B-/- To address these critical issues, we have generated Caco-2/15 cells with a knockout of SAR1A, SAR1B, or SAR1A/B genes. SAR1B-/- results in lipid homeostasis disruption, reflected by enhanced mitochondrial FA β-oxidation and diminished lipogenesis in intestinal absorptive cells via the implication of PPARα and PGC1α transcription factors. Additionally, SAR1B -/- cells, which mimicked enterocytes of CM retention disease, spontaneously disclosed inflammatory and oxidative characteristics via the implication of NF-κB and NRF2. In most conditions, SAR1A-/- cells showed a similar trend, albeit less dramatic, but synergetic effects were observed with the combined defects of the two SAR1 paralogues. In conclusion, SAR1B and its paralogue are needed not only for CM trafficking but also for lipid homeostasis, prooxidant/antioxidant balance, and protection against inflammatory processes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5 is essential for the physiological function of the heart and causes cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death when mutated. Many disease-causing mutations in Nav1.5 cause defects in protein trafficking, a cellular process critical to the targeting of Nav1.5 to cell surface. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the trafficking of Nav1.5, in particular, the exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for cell surface trafficking, remain poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS:Here we investigated the role of the SAR1 GTPases in trafficking of Nav1.5. Overexpression of dominant-negative mutant SAR1A (T39N or H79G) or SAR1B (T39N or H79G) significantly reduces the expression level of Nav1.5 on cell surface, and decreases the peak sodium current density (INa) in HEK/Nav1.5 cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Simultaneous knockdown of SAR1A and SAR1B expression by siRNAs significantly reduces the INa density, whereas single knockdown of either SAR1A or SAR1B has minimal effect. Computer modeling showed that the three-dimensional structure of SAR1 is similar to RAN. RAN was reported to interact with MOG1, a small protein involved in regulation of the ER exit of Nav1.5. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that SAR1A or SAR1B interacted with MOG1. Interestingly, knockdown of SAR1A and SAR1B expression abolished the MOG1-mediated increases in both cell surface trafficking of Nav1.5 and the density of INa. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that SAR1A and SAR1B are the critical regulators of trafficking of Nav1.5. Moreover, SAR1A and SAR1B interact with MOG1, and are required for MOG1-mediated cell surface expression and function of Nav1.5.
Project description:Anderson's disease (AD) or chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) is a very rare hereditary lipid malabsorption syndrome. In order to discover novel mutations in the SAR1B gene and to evaluate the expression, as compared to healthy subjects, of the Sar1 gene and protein paralogues in the intestine, we investigated three previously undescribed individuals with the disease.The SAR1B, SAR1A and PCSK9 genes were sequenced. The expression of the SAR1B and SAR1A genes in intestinal biopsies of both normal individuals and patients was measured by RTqPCR. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to recombinant Sar1 protein was used to evaluate the expression and localization of the Sar1 paralogues in the duodenal biopsies.Two patients had a novel SAR1B mutation (p.Asp48ThrfsX17). The third patient, who had a previously described SAR1B mutation (p.Leu28ArgfsX7), also had a p.Leu21dup variant of the PCSK9 gene. The expression of the SAR1B gene in duodenal biopsies from an AD/CMRD patient was significantly decreased whereas the expression of the SAR1A gene was significantly increased, as compared to healthy individuals. The Sar1 proteins were present in decreased amounts in enterocytes in duodenal biopsies from the patients as compared to those from healthy subjects.Although the proteins encoded by the SAR1A and SAR1B genes are 90% identical, the increased expression of the SAR1A gene in AD/CMRD does not appear to compensate for the lack of the SAR1B protein. The PCSK9 variant, although reported to be associated with low levels of cholesterol, does not appear to exert any additional effect in this patient. The results provide further insight into the tissue-specific nature of AD/CMRD.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. SAR1 gene homolog B (SAR1B) is a GTPase that has been reported to have a central role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis and is associated with numerous diseases. However, its role in cancer, particularly in CRC, remains unclear. The present study revealed that SAR1B was overexpressed in CRC samples and this was associated with shorter overall survival time in patients with CRC. Colony formation, cell proliferation and flow cytometry assays were conducted to evaluate the functions of SAR1B in CRC. It was reported that SAR1B may be associated with tumorigenesis of CRC. Knockdown of SAR1B suppressed cell proliferation and induced significant apoptosis of RKO cells. Furthermore, microarray analysis was performed to identify the potential targets of SAR1B in CRC. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that SAR1B was significantly involved in regulating 'TGF-? signaling', 'paxillin signaling', 'cell cycle regulation by BTG family proteins' and 'IGF-1 signaling'. These results suggested that SAR1B may be considered a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for CRC.
Project description:Anderson disease (ANDD) or chylomicron retention disease (CMRD) is a rare, hereditary lipid malabsorption syndrome associated with mutations in the SAR1B gene that is characterized by failure to thrive and hypocholesterolemia. Although the SAR1B structure has been resolved and its role in formation of coat protein II (COPII)-coated carriers is well established, little is known about the requirement for SAR1B during embryogenesis. To address this question, we have developed a zebrafish model of Sar1b deficiency based on antisense oligonucleotide knockdown. We show that zebrafish sar1b is highly conserved among vertebrates; broadly expressed during development; and enriched in the digestive tract organs, brain, and craniofacial skeleton. Consistent with ANDD symptoms of chylomicron retention, we found that dietary lipids in Sar1b-deficient embryos accumulate in enterocytes. Transgenic expression analysis revealed that Sar1b is required for growth of exocrine pancreas and liver. Furthermore, we found abnormal differentiation and maturation of craniofacial cartilage associated with defects in procollagen II secretion and absence of select, neuroD-positive neurons of the midbrain and hindbrain. The model presented here will help to systematically dissect developmental roles of Sar1b and to discover molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to organ-specific ANDD pathology. Key messages: Sar1b depletion phenotype in zebrafish resembles Anderson disease deficits. Sar1b deficiency results in multi-organ developmental deficits. Sar1b is required for dietary cholesterol uptake into enterocytes.
Project description:Vesicles that are coated by coat protein complex II (COPII) are the primary mediators of vesicular traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. Secretion-associated Ras-related GTPase 1 (SAR1) is a small GTPase that is part of COPII and, upon GTP binding, recruits the other COPII proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Mammals have two SAR1 paralogs that genetic data suggest may have distinct physiological roles, e.g. in lipoprotein secretion in the case of SAR1B. Here we identified two amino acid clusters that have conserved SAR1 paralog-specific sequences. We observed that one cluster is adjacent to the SAR1 GTP-binding pocket and alters the kinetics of GTP exchange. The other cluster is adjacent to the binding site for two COPII components, SEC31 homolog A COPII coat complex component (SEC31) and SEC23. We found that the latter cluster confers to SAR1B a binding preference for SEC23A that is stronger than that of SAR1A for SEC23A. Unlike SAR1B, SAR1A was prone to oligomerize on a membrane surface. SAR1B knockdown caused loss of lipoprotein secretion, overexpression of SAR1B but not of SAR1A could restore secretion, and a divergent cluster adjacent to the SEC31/SEC23-binding site was critical for this SAR1B function. These results highlight that small primary sequence differences between the two mammalian SAR1 paralogs lead to pronounced biochemical differences that significantly affect COPII assembly and identify a specific function for SAR1B in lipoprotein secretion, providing insights into the mechanisms of large cargo secretion that may be relevant for COPII-related diseases.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of secretory lipoprotein production and de novo cholesterol synthesis, yet little is known about how these activities are coordinated with each other, or with the activity of the COPII machinery, which transports ER cargo to the Golgi. The Sar1B component of this machinery is mutated in Chylomicron Retention Disorder, establishing that this Sar1 isoform secures delivery of dietary lipids into the circulation. We used microarrays to investigate the effect of overexpression of Sar1 isoforms and a constitutively active mutant form of Sar1B, Sar1B:H79G, on global gene expression in rat hepatoma cell line, McArdle RH7777 and identified a strong down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthetic gene mRNA expression in the Sar1B:H79G-, but not the wild-type Sar1A- or Sar1B-overexpressing cell lines. Overall design: RNA was extracted from cell cultures of control McArdle RH7777, and transgenic lines overexpressing human Sar1-isoforms: one for Sar1A, two for Sar1B and two expressing a constitutively active mutant form of Sar1B, Sar1B:H79G, that cannot complete GTP hydrolysis, and hybridized on Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 arrays.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of secretory lipoprotein production and de novo cholesterol synthesis, yet little is known about how these activities are coordinated with each other, or with the activity of the COPII machinery, which transports ER cargo to the Golgi. The Sar1B component of this machinery is mutated in Chylomicron Retention Disorder, establishing that this Sar1 isoform secures delivery of dietary lipids into the circulation. We used microarrays to investigate the effect of overexpression of Sar1 isoforms and a constitutively active mutant form of Sar1B, Sar1B:H79G, on global gene expression in rat hepatoma cell line, McArdle RH7777 and identified a strong down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthetic gene mRNA expression in the Sar1B:H79G-, but not the wild-type Sar1A- or Sar1B-overexpressing cell lines. RNA was extracted from cell cultures of control McArdle RH7777, and transgenic lines overexpressing human Sar1-isoforms: one for Sar1A, two for Sar1B and two expressing a constitutively active mutant form of Sar1B, Sar1B:H79G, that cannot complete GTP hydrolysis, and hybridized on Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 arrays.
Project description:Triglycerides and cholesterol are essential for life in most organisms. Triglycerides serve as the principal energy storage depot and, where vascular systems exist, as a means of energy transport. Cholesterol is essential for the functional integrity of all cellular membrane systems. The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of secretory lipoprotein production and de novo cholesterol synthesis, yet little is known about how these activities are coordinated with each other or with the activity of the COPII machinery, which transports endoplasmic reticulum cargo to the Golgi. The Sar1B component of this machinery is mutated in chylomicron retention disorder, indicating that this Sar1 isoform secures delivery of dietary lipids into the circulation. However, it is not known why some patients with chylomicron retention disorder develop hepatic steatosis, despite impaired intestinal fat malabsorption, and why very severe hypocholesterolemia develops in this condition. Here, we show that Sar1B also promotes hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B lipoprotein secretion and that this promoting activity is coordinated with the processes regulating apoB expression and the transfer of triglycerides/cholesterol moieties onto this large lipid transport protein. We also show that although Sar1A antagonizes the lipoprotein secretion-promoting activity of Sar1B, both isoforms modulate the expression of genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes and the synthesis of cholesterol de novo. These results not only establish that Sar1B promotes the secretion of hepatic lipids but also adds regulation of cholesterol synthesis to Sar1B's repertoire of transport functions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Anderson's Disease (AD)/Chylomicron Retention Disease (CMRD) is a rare hereditary hypocholesterolemic disorder characterized by a malabsorption syndrome with steatorrhea, failure to thrive and the absence of chylomicrons and apolipoprotein B48 post-prandially. All patients studied to date exhibit a mutation in the SAR1B gene, which codes for an essential component of the vesicular coat protein complex II (COPII) necessary for endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. We describe here a patient with AD/CMRD, a normal SAR1B gene protein coding sequence and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (matUPD7). METHODS AND RESULTS: The patient, one of two siblings of a Japanese family, had diarrhea and steatorrhea beginning at five months of age. There was a white duodenal mucosa upon endoscopy. Light and electron microscopy showed that the intestinal villi were normal but that they had lipid laden enterocytes containing accumulations of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and lipoprotein-size particles in membrane bound structures. Although there were decreased amounts in plasma of total- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoproteins AI and B and vitamin E levels, the triglycerides were normal, typical of AD/CMRD. The presence of low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein B in the plasma, although in decreased amounts, ruled out abetalipoproteinemia. The parents were asymptomatic with normal plasma cholesterol levels suggesting a recessive disorder and ruling out familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. Sequencing of genomic DNA showed that the 8 exons of the SAR1B gene were normal. Whole genome SNP analysis and karyotyping revealed matUPD7 with a normal karyotype. In contrast to other cases of AD/CMRD which have shown catch-up growth following vitamin supplementation and a fat restricted diet, our patient exhibits continued growth delay and other aspects of the matUPD7 and Silver-Russell Syndrome phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This patient with AD/CMRD has a normal SAR1B gene protein coding sequence which suggests that factors other than the SAR1B protein may be crucial for chylomicron secretion. Further, this patient exhibits matUPD7 with regions of homozygosity which might be useful for elucidating the molecular basis of the defect(s) in this individual. The results provide novel insights into the relation between phenotype and genotype in these diseases and for the mechanisms of secretion in the intestine.
Project description:cAMP responsive element-binding protein, hepatocyte specific (CREBH), is a liver-specific transcription factor localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Our previous work demonstrated that CREBH is activated by ER stress or inflammatory stimuli to induce an acute-phase hepatic inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that CREBH is a key metabolic regulator of hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid (FA) oxidation, and lipolysis under metabolic stress. Saturated FA, insulin signals, or an atherogenic high-fat diet can induce CREBH activation in the liver. Under the normal chow diet, CrebH knockout mice display a modest decrease in hepatic lipid contents, but an increase in plasma triglycerides (TGs). After having been fed an atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet, massive accumulation of hepatic lipid metabolites and significant increase in plasma TG levels were observed in the CrebH knockout mice. Along with the hypertriglyceridemia phenotype, the CrebH null mice displayed significantly reduced body-weight gain, diminished abdominal fat, and increased nonalcoholic steatohepatitis activities under the AHF diet. Gene-expression analysis and chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay indicated that CREBH is required to activate the expression of the genes encoding functions involved in de novo lipogenesis, TG and cholesterol biosynthesis, FA elongation and oxidation, lipolysis, and lipid transport. Supporting the role of CREBH in lipogenesis and lipolysis, forced expression of an activated form of CREBH protein in the liver significantly increases accumulation of hepatic lipids, but reduces plasma TG levels in mice.All together, our study shows that CREBH plays a key role in maintaining lipid homeostasis by regulating the expression of the genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, FA oxidation, and lipolysis under metabolic stress. The identification of CREBH as a stress-inducible metabolic regulator has important implications in the understanding and treatment of metabolic disease.