In search of a genetic explanation for LDLc variability in an FH family: common SNPs and a rare mutation in MTTP explain only part of LDL variability in an FH family.
ABSTRACT: We previously identified a highly consanguineous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) family demonstrating segregation of the JD Bari mutation in the LDL receptor as well as a putative cholesterol-lowering trait. We aimed to identify genes related to the latter effect. LDL cholesterol (LDLc) values were normalized for FH affectation status, age, and gender. Using genome-wide SNP data, we examined whether known SNPs gleaned from a genome-wide association study could explain the variation observed in LDLc. Four individuals with markedly reduced LDL levels underwent whole exome sequencing. After prioritizing all potential mutations, we identified the most promising candidate genes and tested them for segregation with the lowering trait. We transfected a plasmid carrying the top candidate mutation, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) R634C, into COS-7 cells to test enzymatic activity. The SNP score explained 3% of the observed variability. MTTP R634C showed reduced activity (49.1 nmol/ml) compared with the WT allele (185.8 nmol/ml) (P = 0.0012) and was marginally associated with reduced LDLc in FH patients (P = 0.05). Phenotypic variability in a FH pedigree can only partially be explained by a combination of common SNPs and a rare mutation and a rare variant in the MTTP gene. LDLc variability in FH patients may have nongenetic causes.
Project description:To assess long-term (78 weeks) alirocumab treatment in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) and inadequate LDL-C control on maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy (LLT).In two randomized, double-blind studies (ODYSSEY FH I, n = 486; FH II, n = 249), patients were randomized 2 : 1 to alirocumab 75 mg or placebo every 2 weeks (Q2W). Alirocumab dose was increased at Week 12 to 150 mg Q2W if Week 8 LDL-C was ?1.8 mmol/L (70 mg/dL). Primary endpoint (both studies) was percentage change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to Week 24. Mean LDL-C levels decreased from 3.7 mmol/L (144.7 mg/dL) at baseline to 1.8 mmol/L (71.3 mg/dL; -57.9% vs. placebo) at Week 24 in patients randomized to alirocumab in FH I and from 3.5 mmol/L (134.6 mg/dL) to 1.8 mmol/L (67.7 mg/dL; -51.4% vs. placebo) in FH II (P < 0.0001). These reductions were maintained through Week 78. LDL-C <1.8 mmol/L (regardless of cardiovascular risk) was achieved at Week 24 by 59.8 and 68.2% of alirocumab-treated patients in FH I and FH II, respectively. Adverse events resulted in discontinuation in 3.4% of alirocumab-treated patients in FH I (vs. 6.1% placebo) and 3.6% (vs. 1.2%) in FH II. Rate of injection site reactions in alirocumab-treated patients was 12.4% in FH I and 11.4% in FH II (vs. 11.0 and 7.4% with placebo).In patients with HeFH and inadequate LDL-C control at baseline despite maximally tolerated statin ± other LLT, alirocumab treatment resulted in significant LDL-C lowering and greater achievement of LDL-C target levels and was well tolerated.Cinicaltrials.gov (identifiers: NCT01623115; NCT01709500).
Project description:Cardiovascular disease burden and treatment patterns among patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in the United States remain poorly described. In 2013, the FH Foundation launched the Cascade Screening for Awareness and Detection (CASCADE) of FH Registry to address this knowledge gap.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1295 adults with heterozygous FH enrolled in the CASCADE-FH Registry from 11 US lipid clinics. Median age at initiation of lipid-lowering therapy was 39 years, and median age at FH diagnosis was 47 years. Prevalent coronary heart disease was reported in 36% of patients, and 61% exhibited 1 or more modifiable risk factors. Median untreated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 239 mg/dL. At enrollment, median LDL-C was 141 mg/dL; 42% of patients were taking high-intensity statin therapy and 45% received >1 LDL-lowering medication. Among FH patients receiving LDL-lowering medication(s), 25% achieved an LDL-C <100 mg/dL and 41% achieved a ?50% LDL-C reduction. Factors associated with prevalent coronary heart disease included diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.82) and hypertension (2.48; 1.92-3.21). Factors associated with a ?50% LDL-C reduction from untreated levels included high-intensity statin use (7.33; 1.86-28.86) and use of >1 LDL-lowering medication (1.80; 1.34-2.41).FH patients in the CASCADE-FH Registry are diagnosed late in life and often do not achieve adequate LDL-C lowering, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors. These findings highlight the need for earlier diagnosis of FH and initiation of lipid-lowering therapy, more consistent use of guideline-recommended LDL-lowering therapy, and comprehensive management of traditional coronary heart disease risk factors.
Project description:Background:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Because of underdiagnosis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is often the first clinical manifestation of FH. In Japan, there are few reports on the prevalence and diagnostic ratios of FH and the proportion of ACS among FH patients in clinical settings. Methods:This retrospective, observational study used anonymized data from electronic healthcare databases between April 2001 and March 2015 of patients who had ?2 LDL-C measurements recorded after April 2009. The index date was defined as the date of the first LDL-C measurement after April 2009. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of definite or suspected FH; secondary endpoints included the proportion of FH patients hospitalized for ACS, the proportion of patients using lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), and LDL-C levels. Results:Of the 187,781 patients screened, 1547 had definite or suspected FH (0.8%) based on data from the entire period; 832 patients with definite (n = 299, 0.16%) or suspected FH (n = 533, 0.28%) before the index date were identified in the main analysis cohort. LLDs were used in 214 definite FH patients (71.6%) and 137 suspected FH patients (25.7%). Among definite or suspected FH patients with ACS (n = 84) and without ACS (n = 748), 32.1% and 30.1% with definite FH and 3.2% and 2.4% with suspected FH had LDL-C levels < 2.6?mmol/L (<100?mg/dL), respectively. Sixty patients (7.2%) were hospitalized due to ACS at the index date. Conclusions:The prevalence of FH in this Japanese cohort of patients with ?2 LDL-C measurements at hospitals was 0.8%, which is higher than that currently reported in epidemiological studies (0.2-0.5%). Patients with suspected FH, with or without ACS, had poorly controlled LDL-C levels and were undertreated. The proportion of FH patients who were hospitalized due to ACS was 7.2%.
Project description:The extent of hypercholesterolemia varies considerably in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). We hypothesized that the variability of the FH phenotype might be partly explained by variation in proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) activity. Individuals between 18 and 53 years of age who had been tested for a pathogenic LDLR or APOB mutation were eligible. Mutation carriers with a LDL-C level below the 75(th) percentile (called "FH low") were selected, as well as those with LDL-C above the 90(th) percentile (called "FH high"). Relatives who tested negative for the mutation were the "controls." PCSK9 plasma levels were assessed in 267 individuals who did not receive cholesterol-lowering treatment at the time of the study. Mean PCSK9 plasma levels (95% CI) were lower in the FH-low group compared with the FH-high group [152 (137-167) ng/ml vs. 186 (165-207) ng/ml, P = 0.010] and the control group [177 (164-190) ng/ml, P = 0.013]. Mean PCSK9 levels did not statistically differ between the FH-high and control groups (P = 0.50). Plasma PCSK9 levels are positively associated with LDL-C levels in FH patients and might contribute to the phenotypic severity in this disorder. Therefore, the results of pharmaceutical inhibition of PCSK9 in FH patients are eagerly awaited.
Project description:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder of lipoprotein metabolism characterized by high plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), tendon xanthomas, and increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. FH is one of the most common inherited disorders; there are 10,000,000 people with FH worldwide, mainly heterozygotes. The most common FH cause is mutations along the entire gene that encode for LDL receptor (LDLR) protein, but it has been also described that mutations in apolipoprotein B (APOB) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 genes produce this phenotype. About 17%-33% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of monogenic hypercholesterolemia do not harbor any genetic cause in the known loci. Because FH has been considered as a public health problem, it is very important for an early diagnosis and treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated the influence of the LDLR mutation type in the FH phenotype, associating a more severe clinical phenotype and worse advanced carotid artherosclerosis in patients with null than those with receptor-defective mutations. Since 2004, a molecular FH diagnosis based on a genetic diagnostic platform (Lipochip(®); Progenika-Biopharma, Derio, Spain) has been developed. This analysis completes the adequate clinical diagnosis made by physicians. Our group has recently proposed new FH guidelines with the intention to facilitate the FH diagnosis. The treatment for this disease is based on the benefit of lowering LDLc and a healthy lifestyle. Actually, drug therapy is focused on using statins and combined therapy with ezetimibe and statins. This review highlights the recent progress made in genetics, diagnosis, and treatment for FH.
Project description:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common form of autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia, and is caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. Heterozygous FH is characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and early-onset cardiovascular disease, whereas homozygous FH results in more severe LDL cholesterol elevation with death by 20 years of age. We present here the case of an African-American female FH patient presenting with a myocardial infarction at the age of 48, recurrent angina pectoris and numerous coronary artery stents. Her pretreated LDL cholesterol levels were more typical of a homozygous FH pattern and she was resistant to conventional lipid-lowering treatment, yet her other clinical parameters were not necessarily consistent with homozygous FH. Genetic testing revealed two LDLR variants on the same chromosome: one a novel missense mutation in exon 14 (Cys681Gly) and the other a promoter variant (IVS1-217C>T) previously shown to result in increased LDLR transcription. Disease-associated PCSK9 or APOB mutations were not identified in this individual. Overall, her genetic and clinical profile suggests that enhanced expression of the mutant LDLR allele resulted in a severe phenotype with characteristics of both heterozygous and homozygous FH.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS) has proposed that patients with "severe" FH (SFH) would warrant early and more aggressive cholesterol-lowering treatment such as with PCSK9 inhibitors. SFH is diagnosed if LDL-cholesterol (LDLC) > 10 mmol/L, or LDLC >8.0 mmol/L plus one high-risk feature, or LDLC >5 mmol/L plus two high-risk features. Here we compare CHD mortality in SFH and non-SFH (NSFH) patients in the UK prospective Simon Broome Register since 1991, when statin use became routine. METHODS:2929 definite or possible PFH patients (51% women) aged 20-79 years were recruited from 21 UK lipid clinics and followed prospectively between 1992 and 2016. The excess CHD standardised mortality ratio (SMR) compared to the England and Wales population was calculated (with 95% confidence intervals). RESULTS:1982 (67.7%) patients met the SFH definition. Compared to the non-SFH, significantly (p < 0.001) more SFH patients had diagnosed CHD at baseline (24.6% vs. 17.5%), were current smokers (21.9% vs 10.2%) and had a BMI > 30 kg/m2 (14.9% vs. 7.8%). The SMR for CHD mortality was significantly (p = 0.007) higher for SFH (220 (184-261) (34,134 person years, 129 deaths observed, vs. 59 expected) compared to NSFH of 144 (98-203) (15,432 person years, 32 observed vs. 22 expected). After adjustment for traditional risk factors, the Hazard Ratio for CHD mortality in SFH vs. NSFH was 1.22 (0.80-1.87) p = 0.36, indicating that the excess risk was largely accounted for by these factors. CONCLUSIONS:CHD mortality remains elevated in treated FH, especially for SFH, emphasising the importance of optimal lipid-lowering and management of other risk factors.
Project description:Individuals with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) have higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and are predisposed to premature cardiovascular disease. Alirocumab is a fully-human, monoclonal antibody targeted to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 currently in Phase 3 development for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Described here are three ODYSSEY Phase 3 trials, FH I (NCT01623115), FH II (NCT01709500) and HIGH FH (patients with heFH and LDL-C levels ?160 mg/dL) (NCT01617655), in which alirocumab is further evaluated in the heFH population.Multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have been designed to evaluate efficacy and safety of alirocumab in more than 800 patients with heFH who are not adequately controlled with a maximally-tolerated stable daily dose of statin for ?4 weeks prior to the screening visit, with or without other lipid-lowering therapy. Patients are randomized (2:1) to receive alirocumab or placebo via a 1-mL subcutaneous auto-injection every 2 weeks (Q2W) for 78 weeks. In studies FH I and II, if their Week 8 LDL-C level is ?70 mg/dL, patients will undergo a dose uptitration from 75 to 150 mg alirocumab Q2W at Week 12. In HIGH FH, patients will receive alirocumab 150 mg Q2W throughout the entire treatment period. The primary efficacy endpoint in all three studies is the percent change in calculated LDL-C from baseline to Week 24.The ODYSSEY FH studies are three Phase 3 studies aiming to further evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of alirocumab as an effective therapeutic option for patients with heFH.
Project description:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormally high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, which predisposes affected persons to premature coronary heart disease (CHD) and death. FH is one of the most common inherited disorders and the most common one known to cause premature CHD in people of European descent. The vast majority of people with FH have inherited a single mutation from one parent in either the LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. Despite their greatly elevated risk of coronary heart disease, most individuals with FH remain undiagnosed, untreated, or inadequately treated. Cascade screening is a mechanism for identifying people at risk for a genetic condition by a process of systematic family tracing. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom recommends cascade screening of close biological relatives of people with a clinical diagnosis of FH in order to effectively identify additional FH patients. The ultimate goal of this testing is to reduce morbidity and mortality from heart disease in persons with FH through early diagnosis and effective disease management. The goal of this article is to outline the available evidence on the clinical validity and utility of cascade screening for FH, while emphasizing the availability, usefulness, and recommendation for including DNA testing (if the disease-causing mutation has been identified).
Project description:We report here a familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patient with a rare mutation, exon 2-6 duplication in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene, who had received LDL apheresis with drug treatment for 15 years. We added evolocumab (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor) 140 mg bi-weekly to the treatment, and checked lipid profiles [LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), malondialdehyde-modified LDL, etc.] for 34 weeks. Evolocumab enabled the patient to discontinue LDL apheresis and decrease the dose of statin. We demonstrate that evolocumab contributed to the management of atherogenic lipoproteins in an FH patient with exon 2-6 duplication as an alternative to LDL apheresis. <Learning objective: LDL apheresis has been the last therapeutic tool for FH patients, however, the treatment is invasive and time consuming. FH patients show various clinical presentations and different responses to medication depending on their genetic mutations. In this severe heterozygous FH patient which seemed to be homozygous FH, we explored various lipid profiles and assessed the treatment when altering the treatment from LDL apheresis to evolocumab, moreover decreasing the dose of statin.>.