Endogenous sterol intermediates of the mevalonate pathway regulate HMGCR degradation and SREBP-2 processing.
ABSTRACT: Sterol-regulated HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) degradation and SREBP-2 cleavage are two major feedback regulatory mechanisms governing cholesterol biosynthesis. Reportedly, lanosterol selectively stimulates HMGCR degradation, and cholesterol is a specific regulator of SREBP-2 cleavage. However, it is unclear whether other endogenously generated sterols regulate these events. Here, we investigated the sterol intermediates from the mevalonate pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis using a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic engineering approach. With a constructed HeLa cell line expressing the mevalonate transporter, we individually deleted genes encoding major enzymes in the mevalonate pathway, used lipidomics to measure sterol intermediates, and examined HMGCR and SREBP-2 statuses. We found that the C4-dimethylated sterol intermediates, including lanosterol, 24,25-dihydrolanosterol, follicular fluid meiosis activating sterol, testis meiosis activating sterol, and dihydro-testis meiosis activating sterol, were significantly upregulated upon mevalonate loading. These intermediates augmented both degradation of HMGCR and inhibition of SREBP-2 cleavage. The accumulated lanosterol induced rapid degradation of HMGCR, but did not inhibit SREBP-2 cleavage. The newly synthesized cholesterol from the mevalonate pathway is dispensable for inhibiting SREBP-2 cleavage. Together, these results suggest that lanosterol is a bona fide endogenous regulator that specifically promotes HMGCR degradation, and that other C4-dimethylated sterol intermediates may regulate both HMGCR degradation and SREBP-2 cleavage.
Project description:Recently, targeting metabolic reprogramming has emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for fighting cancer. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor, mainly regulates genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and homeostasis. SREBP-2 binds to the sterol regulatory elements (SREs) in the promoters of its target genes and activates the transcription of mevalonate pathway genes, such as HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), mevalonate kinase and other key enzymes. In this review, we first summarized the structure of SREBP-2 and its activation and regulation by multiple signaling pathways. We then found that SREBP-2 and its regulated enzymes, including HMGCR, FPPS, SQS, and DHCR4 from the mevalonate pathway, participate in the progression of various cancers, including prostate, breast, lung, and hepatocellular cancer, as potential targets. Importantly, preclinical and clinical research demonstrated that fatostatin, statins, and N-BPs targeting SREBP-2, HMGCR, and FPPS, respectively, alone or in combination with other drugs, have been used for the treatment of different cancers. This review summarizes new insights into the critical role of the SREBP-2-regulated mevalonate pathway for cancer and its potential for targeted cancer therapy.
Project description:In fission yeast, orthologs of mammalian SREBP and Scap, called Sre1 and Scp1, monitor oxygen-dependent sterol synthesis as a measure of cellular oxygen supply. Under low oxygen conditions, sterol synthesis is inhibited, and Sre1 cleavage is activated. However, the sterol signal for Sre1 activation is unknown. In this study, we characterized the sterol signal for Sre1 activation using a combination of Sre1 cleavage assays and gas chromatography sterol analysis. We find that Sre1 activation is regulated by levels of the 4-methyl sterols 24-methylene lanosterol and 4,4-dimethylfecosterol under conditions of low oxygen and cell stress. Both increases and decreases in the level of these ergosterol pathway intermediates induce Sre1 proteolysis in a Scp1-dependent manner. The SREBP ortholog in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is also activated by high levels of 4-methyl sterols, suggesting that this signal for SREBP activation is conserved among unicellular eukaryotes. Finally, we provide evidence that the sterol-sensing domain of Scp1 is important for regulating Sre1 proteolysis. The conserved mutations Y247C, L264F, and D392N in Scp1 that render Scap insensitive to sterols cause constitutive Sre1 activation. These findings indicate that unlike Scap, fission yeast Scp1 responds to 4-methyl sterols and thus shares properties with mammalian HMG-CoA reductase, a sterol-sensing domain protein whose degradation is regulated by the 4-methyl sterol lanosterol.
Project description:Cholesterol synthesis is regulated by the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and its target gene 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element (CRE) binding protein-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC) 2 is the master regulator of glucose metabolism. However, the effect of CRTC2 on cholesterol and its potential molecular mechanism remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that CRTC2 expression and liver cholesterol content were increased in patients with high serum cholesterol levels who underwent resection of liver hemangiomas, as well as in mice fed a 4% cholesterol diet. Mice with adenovirus-mediated CRTC2 overexpression also showed elevated lipid levels in both serum and liver tissues. Intriguingly, hepatic de novo cholesterol synthesis was markedly increased under these conditions. In contrast, CRTC2 ablation in mice fed a 4% cholesterol diet (18 weeks) showed decreased lipid levels in serum and liver tissues compared with those in littermate wild-type mice. The expression of lipogenic genes (SREBP-2 and HMGCR) was consistent with hepatic CRTC2 levels. In vivo imaging showed enhanced adenovirus-mediated HMGCR-luciferase activity in adenovirus-mediated CRTC2 mouse livers; however, the activity was attenuated after mutation of CRE or sterol regulatory element sequences in the HMGCR reporter construct. The effect of CRTC2 on HMGCR in mouse livers was alleviated upon SREBP-2 knockdown. CRTC2 modulated SREBP-2 transcription by CRE binding protein, which recognizes the half-site CRE sequence in the SREBP-2 promoter. CRTC2 reduced the nuclear protein expression of forkhead box O1 and subsequently increased SREBP-2 transcription by binding insulin response element 1, rather than insulin response element 2, in the SREBP-2 promoter.CRTC2 regulates the transcription of SREBP-2 by interfering with the recognition of insulin response element 1 in the SREBP-2 promoter by forkhead box O1, thus inducing SREBP-2/HMGCR signaling and subsequently facilitating hepatic cholesterol synthesis. (Hepatology 2017;66:481-497).
Project description:Cholesterol biosynthesis is a multi-step process involving several subcellular compartments, including peroxisomes. Cells adjust their sterol content by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback regulation, for which sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are essential; such homeostasis is dysregulated in peroxisome-deficient <i>Pex2</i> knockout mice. Here, we compared the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells and in three isogenic peroxisome-deficient CHO cell lines harboring <i>Pex2</i> gene mutations. Peroxisome deficiency activated expression of cholesterogenic genes, however, cholesterol levels were unchanged. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) protein levels were increased in mutant cells, whereas HMGCR activity was significantly decreased, resulting in reduced cholesterol synthesis. U18666A, an inhibitor of lysosomal cholesterol export, induced cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes; yet, cholesterol synthesis was still reduced. Interestingly, peroxisome deficiency promoted ER-to-Golgi SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) trafficking even when cells were cholesterol-loaded. Restoration of functional peroxisomes normalized regulation of cholesterol synthesis and SCAP trafficking. These results highlight the importance of functional peroxisomes for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and efficient cholesterol synthesis.
Project description:Perturbation of lipid metabolism favours progression of Alzheimer disease, in which processing of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) has important implications. APP cleavage is tightly regulated by cholesterol and APP fragments regulate lipid homeostasis. Here, we investigated whether up or down regulation of full-length APP expression affected neuronal lipid metabolism. Expression of APP decreased HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR)-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis and SREBP mRNA levels, while its down regulation had opposite effects. APP and SREBP1 co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized in the Golgi. This interaction prevented Site-2 protease-mediated processing of SREBP1, leading to inhibition of transcription of its target genes. A GXXXG motif in APP sequence was critical for regulation of HMGCR expression. In astrocytes, APP and SREBP1 did not interact nor did APP affect cholesterol biosynthesis. Neuronal expression of APP decreased both HMGCR and cholesterol 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels and consequently cholesterol turnover, leading to inhibition of neuronal activity, which was rescued by geranylgeraniol, generated in the mevalonate pathway, in both APP expressing and mevastatin treated neurons. We conclude that APP controls cholesterol turnover needed for neuronal activity.
Project description:High blood cholesterol has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The enzyme HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) is responsible for cholesterol synthesis, and inhibitors of this enzyme (statins) have been used clinically to control blood cholesterol. Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) -2 is a key transcription factor in cholesterol metabolism, and HMGCR is a target gene of SREBP-2. Attenuating SREBP-2 activity could potentially minimize the expression of HMGCR. Luteolin is a flavone that is commonly detected in plant foods. In the present study, Luteolin suppressed the expression of SREBP-2 at concentrations as low as 1 ?M in the hepatic cell lines WRL and HepG2. This flavone also prevented the nuclear translocation of SREBP-2. Post-translational processing of SREBP-2 protein was required for nuclear translocation. Luteolin partially blocked this activation route through increased AMP kinase (AMPK) activation. At the transcriptional level, the mRNA and protein expression of SREBP-2 were reduced through luteolin. A reporter gene assay also verified that the transcription of SREBF2 was weakened in response to this flavone. The reduced expression and protein processing of SREBP-2 resulted in decreased nuclear translocation. Thus, the transcription of HMGCR was also decreased after luteolin treatment. In summary, the results of the present study showed that luteolin modulates HMGCR transcription by decreasing the expression and nuclear translocation of SREBP-2.
Project description:Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) and arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B (ALOX15B) catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and are upregulated in human alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) induced by Th2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and/or interleukin-13. Known primarily for roles in bioactive lipid mediator synthesis, 15-lipoxygenases (15-LOXs) have been implicated in various macrophage functions including efferocytosis and ferroptosis. Using a combination of inhibitors and siRNAs to suppress 15-LOX isoforms, we studied the role of 15-LOXs in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and immune function in naïve and AAMs. Silencing or inhibiting the 15-LOX isoforms impaired sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-2 signaling by inhibiting SREBP-2 processing into mature transcription factor and reduced SREBP-2 binding to sterol regulatory elements and subsequent target gene expression. Silencing ALOX15B reduced cellular cholesterol and the cholesterol intermediates desmosterol, lanosterol, 24,25-dihydrolanosterol, and lathosterol as well as oxysterols in IL-4-stimulated macrophages. In addition, attenuating both 15-LOX isoforms did not generally affect IL-4 gene expression but rather uniquely impacted IL-4-induced CCL17 production in an SREBP-2-dependent manner resulting in reduced T cell migration to macrophage conditioned media. In conclusion, we identified a novel role for ALOX15B, and to a lesser extent ALOX15, in cholesterol homeostasis and CCL17 production in human macrophages.
Project description:Mammalian HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and the therapeutic target of statins, is post-transcriptionally regulated by sterol-accelerated degradation. Under cholesterol-replete conditions, HMGCR is ubiquitinated and degraded, but the identity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase(s) responsible for mammalian HMGCR turnover remains controversial. Using systematic, unbiased CRISPR/Cas9 genome-wide screens with a sterol-sensitive endogenous HMGCR reporter, we comprehensively map the E3 ligase landscape required for sterol-accelerated HMGCR degradation. We find that RNF145 and gp78 independently co-ordinate HMGCR ubiquitination and degradation. RNF145, a sterol-responsive ER-resident E3 ligase, is unstable but accumulates following sterol depletion. Sterol addition triggers RNF145 recruitment to HMGCR via Insigs, promoting HMGCR ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. In the absence of both RNF145 and gp78, Hrd1, a third UBE2G2-dependent E3 ligase, partially regulates HMGCR activity. Our findings reveal a critical role for the sterol-responsive RNF145 in HMGCR regulation and elucidate the complexity of sterol-accelerated HMGCR degradation. Editorial note:This article has been through an editorial process in which the authors decide how to respond to the issues raised during peer review. The Reviewing Editor's assessment is that all the issues have been addressed (see decision letter).
Project description:The mevalonate pathway is used by cells to produce sterol and nonsterol metabolites and is subject to tight metabolic regulation. We recently reported that squalene monooxygenase (SM), an enzyme controlling a rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis, is subject to cholesterol-dependent proteasomal degradation. However, the E3-ubiquitin (E3) ligase mediating this effect was not established. Using a candidate approach, we identify the E3 ligase membrane-associated RING finger 6 (MARCH6, also known as TEB4) as the ligase controlling degradation of SM. We find that MARCH6 and SM physically interact, and consistent with MARCH6 acting as an E3 ligase, its overexpression reduces SM abundance in a RING-dependent manner. Reciprocally, knockdown of MARCH6 increases the level of SM protein and prevents its cholesterol-regulated degradation. Additionally, this increases cell-associated SM activity but is unexpectedly accompanied by increased flux upstream of SM. Prompted by this observation, we found that knockdown of MARCH6 also controls the level of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in hepatocytes and model cell lines. In conclusion, MARCH6 controls abundance of both SM and HMGCR, establishing it as a major regulator of flux through the cholesterol synthesis pathway.
Project description:Cell-free preparations of both Rhizoctonia solani, a sterol-synthesizing fungus, and Phytophthora cinnamomi, a non-sterol-synthesizing fungus, incubated in the presence of [2(-14)C]mevalonate and iodacetamide, converted the mevalonate into labelled mevalonate 5-phosphate, mevalonate 5-pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. In the absence of iodoacetamide, but under anaerobic conditions, the same preparations converted the mevalonate into labelled geraniol, farnesol and squalene, the first two compounds presumably as their pyrophosphates. When cell-free preparations of both organisms were incubated aerobically in the presence of [1(-14)C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate, only labelled geraniol, farnesol and squalene were recovered from the P. cinnamomi reaction mixture, whereas labelled geraniol, farnesol, squalene, squalene epoxide, lanosterol and ergosterol were present in the R. solani reaction mixture. When these same preparations were incubated in the presence of 14C-labelled squalene, labelled squalene epoxide, lanosterol and ergosterol were recovered from the R. solani reaction mixture. In contrast, the P. cinnamomi preparation was unable to convert the squalene into products further along the sterol pathway; instead, a portion of the labelled squalene was converted into water-soluble products, indicating the possible existence of a squalene-degradation process in this organism. It appears that the block in the sterol biosynthetic pathway of P. cinnamomi occurs at the level of squalene epoxidation.