Altered Functional Connectivity and Brain Network Property in Pregnant Women With Cleft Fetuses.
ABSTRACT: Non-syndromic clefts of the lip and/or palate (NSCLP) is the most common congenital anomaly in the craniofacial region. NSCLP is a highly gene-associated malformation. We speculate that pregnant women with NSCLP fetuses (pregnancies with NSCLP) may have specific brain changes during pregnancy. To explore characteristic brain function changes of pregnancies with NSCLP, we analyzed resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data of 42 pregnant women (21 pregnancies with NSCLP and 21 pregnancies with normal fetuses) to compare intergroup differences of (fractional) amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF/ALFF), regional homogeneity (Reho), functional connectivity (FC) and network topological properties. Compared with the control group, increased ALFF in the left hippocampus, the right fusiform and the left anterior cingulate (ACG), increased Reho in left middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and right medial frontal gyrus (MFG) were found for pregnancies with NSCLP. Meanwhile, FC between the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and bilateral olfactory cortex (OLF), FC between left precentral gyrus (PreCG) and right MFG, FC between right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) were enhanced in pregnancies with NSCLP. Besides, FC between left PreCG and left amygdala, bilateral para-hippocampal gyrus, FC between left amygdala and left MFG, right IFG were decreased. Graph theory-based analysis explored increased degree centrality (DC), betweenness centrality (BC) and nodal efficiency (Ne) in the left ITG and left SMG for pregnancies with NSCLP. Pregnancies with NSCLP has widespread decreased FC within neural networks of speech and language, which indicated that they were more likely to be associated with defects in speech and language skills. At the same time, increased topological indices showed that speech and language related regions played dominant role in their brain networks. These findings may provide clues for early detection of NSCLP fetuses.
Project description:Purpose:The present study combined fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), regional homogeneity (ReHo), and functional connectivity (FC) to explore brain functional abnormalities in acute tinnitus patients (AT) with hearing loss. Methods:We recruited twenty-eight AT patients and 31 healthy controls (HCs) and ran resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. fALFF, ReHo, and FC were conducted and compared between AT patients and HCs. After that, we calculated correlation analyses among abnormal fALFF, ReHo, FC, and clinical data in AT patients. Results:Compared with HCs, AT showed increased fALFF values in the right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). In contrast, significantly decreased ReHo values were observed in the cerebellar vermis, the right calcarine cortex, the right precuneus, the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Based on the differences in the fALFF and ReHo maps, the latter of which we defined as region-of-interest (ROI) for FC analysis, the right ITG exhibited increased connectivity with the right precentral gyrus. In addition, the right MFG demonstrated decreased connectivity with both the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the left precentral gyrus. Conclusion:By combining ReHo, fALFF, and FC analyses, our work indicated that AT with hearing loss had abnormal intraregional neural activity and disrupted connectivity in several brain regions which mainly involving the non-auditory area, and these regions are major components of default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network, and executive control network. These findings will help us enhance the understanding of the neuroimaging mechanism in tinnitus populations. Moreover, these abnormalities remind us that we should focus on the early stages of this hearing disease.
Project description:In working memory (WM), the ability to concurrently integrate different types of information and to maintain or manipulate them promotes the flow of ongoing tasks. WM is a key component of normal human cognition. In this study, we applied a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis to investigate the relationship between the ability of object and spatial working memory (WM), and regional gray matter density (GMD), as well as intrinsic functional connectivity. The VBM analysis showed a positive correlation between the individual difference of object WM and GMD in the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which are responsible for coding object information and processing the shape of an object. The individual difference of the spatial WM was positively related to GMD in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), which confirmed that it is an important region for memory stores and maintains WM spatial representations. Further functional connectivity analysis revealed that the individual difference of object WM was significantly correlated with the rsFC of right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) - left postcentral gyrus (PostCG)/right precentral gyrus (PreCG)/left Supplementary Motor Area (SMA). While the capacity of spatial WM was significantly associated with the FC strength of the left dlPFC - left precuneus, right dlPFC - right MFG, and the left superior frontal sulcus (SFS) - left SMA/ right inferior parietal lobe (IPL). Our findings suggest that object WM is associated with the structure and functional organization of the brain regions involved in the ventral pathway (occipital - temporal regions) and the capacity of spatial WM is related to the dorsal pathway (frontal - parietal regions).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lack of normal asymmetry in the brain has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether disrupted asymmetry originates from inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) and/or intra-hemispheric FC in this patient population. METHODS:Forty-four patients with drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia, 42 unaffected siblings, and 44 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. The parameter of asymmetry (PAS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used to analyze the data. Patients were treated with olanzapine for 8?weeks. FINDINGS:Compared with healthy controls, patients showed lower PAS scores in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG)/inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus and left angular gyrus, and higher PAS scores in the left precentral gyrus/postcentral gyrus. Unaffected siblings also showed lower PAS scores in the left MTG/ITG and left PCC/precuneus relative to healthy controls. Further, SVM analysis showed that a combination of the PAS scores in these two clusters in patients at baseline was able to predict clinical response after 8?weeks of olanzapine treatment with 77.27% sensitivity, 72.73% specificity, and 75.00% accuracy. INTERPRETATION:The present study suggests disrupted asymmetry of inter- and intra-hemispheric FC in drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia; in addition, a reduced asymmetry of inter-hemispheric FC in the left MTG/ITG and left PCC/precuneus may serve as an endophenotype for schizophrenia, and may have clinical utility to predict response to olanzapine treatment. FUND: The National Key R&D Program of China and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Project description:We sought to determine via a cross-sectional study the contribution of (1) the right hemisphere's speech-relevant white matter regions and (2) interhemispheric connectivity to speech fluency in the chronic phase of left hemisphere stroke with aphasia.Fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter regions underlying the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), precentral gyrus (PreCG), pars opercularis (IFGop) and triangularis (IFGtri) of the inferior frontal gyrus, and the corpus callosum (CC) was correlated with speech fluency measures. A region within the superior parietal lobule (SPL) was examined as a control. FA values of regions that significantly predicted speech measures were compared with FA values from healthy age- and sex-matched controls.FA values for the right MTG, PreCG, and IFGop significantly predicted speech fluency, but FA values of the IFGtri and SPL did not. A multiple regression showed that combining FA of the significant right hemisphere regions with the lesion load of the left arcuate fasciculus-a previously identified biomarker of poststroke speech fluency-provided the best model for predicting speech fluency. FA of CC fibers connecting left and right supplementary motor areas (SMA) was also correlated with speech fluency. FA of the right IFGop and PreCG was significantly higher in patients than controls, while FA of a whole CC region of interest (ROI) and the CC-SMA ROI was significantly lower in patients.Right hemisphere white matter integrity is related to speech fluency measures in patients with chronic aphasia. This may indicate premorbid anatomical variability beneficial for recovery or be the result of poststroke remodeling.
Project description:The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele associates with accelerating the conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas the protectiveAPOE?2 allele appears to be against the disease. Moreover, entorhinal cortex (ERC) is one of the earliest brain regions of AD pathology that disrupts the formation of episodic memory. To investigate the effects of APOE ?2 and ?4alleles on functional connectivity (FC) of ERC and cognition in aMCI. Methods The FC analyses of ERC were performed in 83 aMCI (9 ?2-carrier, 44 ?3?3, and 30 ?4-carrier) and 88 healthy controls (HC, 15 ?2-carrier, 40 ?3?3, and 33 ?4-carrier). Multiple linear regression model was performed between the altered ERC connectivities and cognition. In the ERC network, aMCI with ?4-carriers showed decreased FC in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right precuneus, and right precentral gyrus (PreCG), while ?2-carriers showed increased FC in these regions (except the right PreCG) compared to HC. The altered FC between ERC and right MTG correlated with episodic memory performance in aMCI carried ?2 and ?4 alleles. These results suggest that the effects ofAPOEon the ERC network are closely linked to the role of this gene on AD risk, which aMCI with ?4-carriers can accelerate the pathological progression of network-based mechanisms while ?2-carriers may play a protective role in contributing to a compensatory mechanism. It further suggests that APOE can appear to directly affect the ERC-MTG neural pathway associated with the impairment of episodic memory in aMCI.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The pattern of eye movements during reading is substantially correlated with linguistic factors. While there have been a large number of studies on the neural mechanisms of eye movements and word reading separately, a limited number of studies have compared the activation patterns of these two processes and discussed the associations of their corresponding brain regions within the framework of naturalistic reading. METHODS:This study conducted a meta-analysis of the existing functional magnetic resonance imaging literature on prosaccades and visual word reading using the activation likelihood estimation algorithm. RESULTS:Our main finding was that, although prosaccades and word reading mainly activated dorsal and ventral brain areas, respectively, they both activated the left precentral gyrus (PreCG), left superior parietal lobe, right PreCG, right lingual gyrus, and bilateral medial frontal gyrus. CONCLUSION:These findings provide new insights into cognitive processes involved with naturalistic reading, which requires both eye movements and word reading.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Studies using voxel-based morphometry report variable and inconsistent abnormalities of gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) in brains of preterm-born adolescents (PBA). In such circumstances a meta-analysis can help identify the most prominent and consistent abnormalities. METHOD:We identified 9 eligible studies by systematic search of the literature up to October 2017. We used Seed-based d Mapping to analyze GMV and WMV alterations between PBA and healthy controls. RESULTS:In the GMV meta-analysis, PBA compared to healthy controls showed: increased GMV in left cuneus cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate cortex; decreased GMV in bilateral inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), left superior frontal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. In the WMV meta-analysis, PBA showed: increased WMV in right fusiform gyrus and precuneus; decreased WMV in bilateral ITG, and right inferior frontal gyrus. In meta-regression analysis, the percentage of male PBA negatively correlated with decreased GMV of bilateral ITG. INTERPRETATION:PBA show widespread GMV and WMV alterations in the default mode network, visual recognition network, and salience network. These changes may be causally relevant to socialization difficulties and cognitive impairments. The meta-regression results perhaps reveal the structural underpinning of the cognition-related sex differences in PBA.
Project description:Background: The early progression continuum of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been considered to advance through subjective cognitive decline (SCD), non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI), and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Altered functional connectivity (FC) in the default mode network (DMN) is regarded as a hallmark of AD. Furthermore, the DMN can be divided into two subnetworks, the anterior and posterior subnetworks. However, little is known about distinct disruptive patterns in the subsystems of the DMN across the preclinical AD spectrum. This study investigated the connectivity patterns of anterior DMN (aDMN) and posterior DMN (pDMN) across the preclinical AD spectrum. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to investigate the FC in the DMN subnetworks in 20 healthy controls (HC), eight SCD, 11 naMCI, and 28 aMCI patients. Moreover, a correlation analysis was used to examine associations between the altered connectivity of the DMN subnetworks and the neurocognitive performance. Results: Compared to the HC, SCD patients showed increased FC in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG), naMCI patients showed increased FC in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and aMCI patients showed increased FC in the bilateral IPL in the aDMN; while SCD patients showed decreased FC in the precuneus, naMCI patients showed increased FC in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and aMCI patients also showed increased FC in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in the pDMN. Notably, the FC between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the left MFG and the IPL in the aDMN was associated with episodic memory in the SCD and aMCI groups. Interestingly, the FC between the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) and several regions in the pDMN was associated with other cognitive functions in the SCD and naMCI groups. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the three preclinical stages of AD exhibit distinct FC alternations in the DMN subnetworks. Furthermore, the patient group data showed that the altered FC involves cognitive function. These findings can provide novel insights for tailored clinical intervention across the preclinical AD spectrum.
Project description:Abnormal functional connectivity (FC) at rest has been identified in clinical depressive disorder. However, very few studies have been conducted to understand the underlying neural substrates of subclinical depression. The newly proposed centrality analysis approach has been increasingly used to explore the large-scale brain network of mental diseases. This study aimed to identify the degree centrality (DC) alteration of the brain network in subclinical depressive subjects. Thirty-seven candidates with subclinical depression and 34 well-matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited from the same sample of college students. All subjects underwent a resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scan to assess the DC of the whole brain. Compared with controls, subclinical depressive subjects displayed decreased DC in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), left PHG/amygdala, and left caudate and elevated DC in the right posterior parietal lobule (PPL), left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). In addition, by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we determined that the DC values in the regions with altered FC between the two groups can be used to differentiate subclinical depressive subjects from HCs. We suggest that decreased DC in subcortical and increased DC in cortical regions might be the neural substrates of subclinical depression.
Project description:Inconsistent results for comparison between insomnia disorder (ID) patients and healthy controls (HC) were obtained from previous neuroimaging studies. An activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis was made for multimodal neuroimaging in ID. ALE analysis indicated that ID patients showed significant gray matter reductions in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), compared to HC. Regarding positron emission tomography studies, ALE analysis showed reduced relative cerebral glucose metabolism in the right amygdala, the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the right posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) in ID patients, compared to HC. Regarding diffusion tensor imaging studies, the present study indicated that ID patients showed reduced fractional anisotropy values in the left putamen and the right caudate body, compared to HC. Additionally, ID patients showed reduced amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the left fusiform gyrus (FG), the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), the right MTG, the right anterior lobe (AL), and the left PCG, compared to HC. ID patients showed increased ALFF in the left MFG, compared to HC. ID patients showed reduced regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left sublobar, the left cuneus, the left precentral gyrus (PCG), the right AL, the right ACC, and the right PCG, compared to HC. ID patients showed increased ReHo in the left FG, the left precuneus, and the right cingulate gyrus, compared to HC. Moreover, the ALE analysis showed hypoactivation relative to HC in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left MTG, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the right cuneus, and the right STG in ID patients. Via this ALE meta-analysis, we obtained these key regions suffering from deficits in ID.