Differential Requirements for the RAD51 Paralogs in Genome Repair and Maintenance in Human Cells.
ABSTRACT: Deficiency in several of the classical human RAD51 paralogs [RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2 and XRCC3] is associated with cancer predisposition and Fanconi anemia. To investigate their functions, isogenic disruption mutants for each were generated in non-transformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells and in transformed U2OS and HEK293 cells. In U2OS and HEK293 cells, viable ablated clones were readily isolated for each RAD51 paralog; in contrast, with the exception of RAD51B, RAD51 paralogs are cell-essential in MCF10A cells. Underlining their importance for genomic stability, mutant cell lines display variable growth defects, impaired sister chromatid recombination, reduced levels of stable RAD51 nuclear foci, and hyper-sensitivity to mitomycin C and olaparib, with the weakest phenotypes observed in RAD51B-deficient cells. Altogether these observations underscore the contributions of RAD51 paralogs in diverse DNA repair processes, and demonstrate essential differences in different cell types. Finally, this study will provide useful reagents to analyze patient-derived mutations and to investigate mechanisms of chemotherapeutic resistance deployed by cancers.
Project description:RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3) have recently been involved in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition: RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D in ovarian cancer, RAD51B and XRCC2 in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious variants in the five RAD51 paralogs to breast and ovarian cancers. The five RAD51 paralog genes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing technologies in germline DNA from 2649 consecutive patients diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Twenty-one different deleterious variants were identified in the RAD51 paralogs in 30 patients: RAD51B (n?=?4), RAD51C (n?=?12), RAD51D (n?=?7), XRCC2 (n?=?2), and XRCC3 (n?=?5). The overall deleterious variant rate was 1.13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.55%) (30/2649), including 15 variants in breast cancer only cases (15/2063; 0.73% (95% CI: 0.34-1.11%)) and 15 variants in cases with at least one ovarian cancer (15/570; 2.63% (95% CI: 1.24-4.02%)). This study is the first evaluation of the five RAD51 paralogs in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and it demonstrates that deleterious variants can be present in breast cancer only cases. Moreover, this is the first time that XRCC3 deleterious variants have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer cases.
Project description:Metazoan Rad51 plays a central role in homologous DNA recombination, and its activity is controlled by a number of Rad51 cofactors. These include five Rad51 paralogs, Rad51B, Rad51C, Rad51D, XRCC2 and XRCC3. We previously hypothesized that all five paralogs participate collaboratively in repair. However, this idea was challenged by the biochemical identification of two independent complexes composed of either Rad51B/C/D/XRCC2 or Rad51C/XRCC3. To investigate if this biochemical finding is matched by genetic interactions, we made double mutants in either the same complex (rad51b/rad51d) or in both complexes (xrcc3/rad51d). In agreement with the biochemical findings the double deletion involving both complexes had an additive effect on the sensitivity to camptothecin and cisplatin. The double deletion of genes in the same complex, on the other hand, did not further increase the sensitivity to these agents. Conversely, all mutants tested displayed comparatively mild sensitivity to gamma-irradiation and attenuated gamma-irradiation-induced Rad51 foci formation. Thus, in accord with our previous conclusion, all paralogs appear to collaboratively facilitate Rad51 action. In conclusion, our detailed genetic study reveals a complex interplay between the five Rad51 paralogs and suggests that some of the Rad51 paralogs can separately operate in later step of homologous recombination.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most currently known breast cancer predisposition genes play a role in DNA repair by homologous recombination. Recent studies conducted on RAD51 paralogs, involved in the same DNA repair pathway, have identified rare germline mutations conferring breast and/or ovarian cancer predisposition in the RAD51C, RAD51D and XRCC2 genes. The present study analysed the five RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, XRCC3) to estimate their contribution to breast and ovarian cancer predisposition. METHODS:The study was conducted on 142 unrelated patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer either with early onset or with a breast/ovarian cancer family history. Patients were referred to a French family cancer clinic and had been previously tested negative for a BRCA1/2 mutation. Coding sequences of the five genes were analysed by EMMA (Enhanced Mismatch Mutation Analysis). Detected variants were characterized by Sanger sequencing analysis. RESULTS:Three splicing mutations and two likely deleterious missense variants were identified: RAD51B c.452 + 3A > G, RAD51C c.706-2A > G, RAD51C c.1026 + 5_1026 + 7del, RAD51B c.475C > T/p.Arg159Cys and XRCC3 c.448C > T/p.Arg150Cys. No RAD51D and XRCC2 gene mutations were detected. These mutations and variants were detected in families with both breast and ovarian cancers, except for the RAD51B c.475C > T/p.Arg159Cys variant that occurred in a family with 3 breast cancer cases. CONCLUSIONS:This study identified the first RAD51B mutation in a breast and ovarian cancer family and is the first report of XRCC3 mutation analysis in breast and ovarian cancer. It confirms that RAD51 paralog mutations confer breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and are rare events. In view of the low frequency of RAD51 paralog mutations, international collaboration of family cancer clinics will be required to more accurately estimate their penetrance and establish clinical guidelines in carrier individuals.
Project description:XRCC2 is one of five somatic RAD51 paralogs, all of which have Walker A and B ATPase motifs. Each of the paralogs, including XRCC2, has a function in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination (HR). However, their individual roles are not as well understood as that of RAD51 itself. The XRCC2 protein forms a complex (BCDX2) with three other RAD51 paralogs, RAD51B, RAD51C and RAD51D. It is believed that the BCDX2 complex mediates HR downstream of BRCA2 but upstream of RAD51, as XRCC2 is involved in the assembly of RAD51 into DNA damage foci. XRCC2 can bind DNA and, along with RAD51D, can promote homologous pairing in vitro. Consistent with its role in HR, XRCC2-deficient cells have increased levels of spontaneous chromosome instability, and exhibit hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C and cisplatin as well as ionizing radiation, alkylating agents and aldehydes. XRCC2 also functions in promoting DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Biallelic mutation of XRCC2 (FANCU) causes the FA-U subtype of FA, while heterozygosity for deleterious mutations in XRCC2 may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk. XRCC2 appears to function 'downstream' in the FA pathway, since it is not required for FANCD2 monoubiquitination, which is the central step in the FA pathway. Clinically, the only known FA-U patient in the world exhibits severe congenital abnormalities, but had not developed, by seven years of age, the bone marrow failure and cancer that are often seen in patients from other FA complementation groups.
Project description:The five human Rad51 paralogs are suggested to play an important role in the maintenance of genome stability through their function in DNA double-strand break repair. These proteins have been found to form two distinct complexes in vivo, Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-Xrcc2 (BCDX2) and Rad51C-Xrcc3 (CX3). Based on the recent Pyrococcus furiosus Rad51 structure, we have used homology modeling to design deletion mutants of the Rad51 paralogs. The models of the human Rad51B, Rad51C, Xrcc3 and murine Rad51D (mRad51D) proteins reveal distinct N-terminal and C-terminal domains connected by a linker region. Using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we have demonstrated that a fragment of Rad51B containing amino acid residues 1-75 interacts with the C-terminus and linker of Rad51C, residues 79-376, and this region of Rad51C also interacts with mRad51D and Xrcc3. We have also determined that the N-terminal domain of mRad51D, residues 4-77, binds to Xrcc2 while the C-terminal domain of mRad51D, residues 77-328, binds Rad51C. By this, we have identified the binding domains of the BCDX2 and CX3 complexes to further characterize the interaction of these proteins and propose a scheme for the three-dimensional architecture of the BCDX2 and CX3 paralog complexes.
Project description:Sister chromatid recombination (SCR) is a potentially error-free pathway for the repair of DNA lesions associated with replication and is thought to be important for suppressing genomic instability. The mechanisms regulating the initiation and termination of SCR in mammalian cells are poorly understood. Previous work has implicated all the Rad51 paralogs in the initiation of gene conversion and the Rad51C/XRCC3 complex in its termination. Here, we show that hamster cells deficient in the Rad51 paralog XRCC2, a component of the Rad51B/Rad51C/Rad51D/XRCC2 complex, reveal a bias in favor of long-tract gene conversion (LTGC) during SCR. This defect is corrected by expression of wild-type XRCC2 and also by XRCC2 mutants defective in ATP binding and hydrolysis. In contrast, XRCC3-mediated homologous recombination and suppression of LTGC are dependent on ATP binding and hydrolysis. These results reveal an unexpectedly general role for Rad51 paralogs in the control of the termination of gene conversion between sister chromatids.
Project description:Majority of the known breast cancer susceptibility genes have a role in DNA repair and the most important high-risk genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are specifically involved in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) of DNA double-strand breaks. A central player in HRR is RAD51 that binds DNA at the damage site. The RAD51 paralogs RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3 facilitate the binding of RAD51 to DNA. While germline mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D are associated with high ovarian cancer risk and RAD51B polymorphisms with breast cancer, the contribution of RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 is more unclear. To investigate the role of RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 in breast cancer predisposition and to identify putative recurrent founder mutations in the Finnish population where such mutations have been observed in most of the currently known susceptibility genes, we screened 182 familial Finnish breast or ovarian cancer patients for germline variation in the RAD51and XRCC3 genes and 342 patients for variation in XRCC2, with a subset of the patients selected on the basis of decreased RAD51 protein expression on tumors. We also performed haplotype analyses for 1516 breast cancer cases and 1234 controls to assess the common variation in these genes. No pathogenic mutations were detected in any of the genes and the distribution of haplotypes was similar between cases and controls. Our results suggest that RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 do not substantially contribute to breast cancer predisposition in the Finnish population.
Project description:The Rad51 paralogs are required for homologous recombination (HR) and the maintenance of genomic stability. The molecular mechanisms by which the five vertebrate Rad51 paralogs regulate HR and genomic integrity remain unclear. The Rad51 paralogs associate with one another in two distinct complexes: Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-XRCC2 (BCDX2) and Rad51C-XRCC3 (CX3). We find that the BCDX2 and CX3 complexes act at different stages of the HR pathway. In response to DNA damage, the BCDX2 complex acts downstream of BRCA2 recruitment but upstream of Rad51 recruitment. In contrast, the CX3 complex acts downstream of Rad51 recruitment but still has a marked impact on the measured frequency of homologous recombination. Both complexes are epistatic with BRCA2 and synthetically lethal with Rad52. We conclude that human Rad51 paralogs facilitate BRCA2-Rad51-dependent homologous recombination at different stages in the pathway and function independently of Rad52.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The homologous recombination (HR) pathway is vital for maintaining genomic integrity through the restoration of double-stranded breaks and interstrand crosslinks. The RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, XRCC3) are essential for this process in vertebrates, and the RAD51D paralog is unique in that it participates in both HR repair and telomere maintenance. RAD51D is also known to directly interact with the RAD51C and XRCC2 proteins. Rad51d splice variants have been reported in mouse and human tissues, supportive of a role for alternative splicing in HR regulation. The present study evaluated the interaction of the Rad51d splice isoform products with RAD51C and XRCC2 and their expression patterns. RESULTS: Yeast-2-hybrid analysis was used to determine that the Mus musculus Rad51d splice variant product RAD51DDelta7b (deleted for residues 219 through 223) was capable of interacting with both RAD51C and XRCC2 and that RAD51D+int3 interacted with XRCC2. In addition, the linker region (residues 54 through 77) of RAD51D was identified as a region that potentially mediates binding with XRCC2. Cellular localization, detected by EGFP fusion proteins, demonstrated that each of the splice variant products tested was distributed throughout the cell similar to the full-length protein. However, none of the splice variants were capable of restoring resistance of Rad51d-deficient cell lines to mitomycin C. RT-PCR expression analysis revealed that Rad51dDelta3 (deleted for exon 3) and Rad51dDelta5 (deleted for exon 5)transcripts display tissue specific expression patterns with Rad51dDelta3 being detected in each tissue except ovary and Rad51dDelta5 not detected in mammary gland and testis. These expression studies also led to the identification of two additional Rad51d ubiquitously expressed transcripts, one deleted for both exon 9 and 10 and one deleted for only exon 10. CONCLUSION: These results suggest Rad51d alternative splice variants potentially modulate mechanisms of HR by sequestering either RAD51C or XRCC2.
Project description:The proficiency of cancer cells to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR) is a key determinant in predicting response to targeted therapies such as PARP inhibitors. The RAD51 paralogs work as multimeric complexes and act downstream of BRCA1 to facilitate HR. Numerous epidemiological studies have linked RAD51 paralog mutations with hereditary cancer predisposition. Despite their substantial links to cancer, RAD51 paralog HR function has remained elusive. Here we identify isoform 1 as the functional isoform of RAD51D, whereas isoform 4 which has a large N-terminal deletion (including the Walker A motif), and isoform 6 which includes an alternate exon in the N-terminus, are non-functional. To determine the importance of this N-terminal region, we investigated the impact of cancer-associated mutations and SNPs in this variable RAD51D N-terminal region using yeast-2-hybrid and yeast-3-hybrid assays to screen for altered protein-protein interactions. We identified two cancer-associated mutations close to or within the Walker A motif (G96C and G107?V, respectively) that independently disrupt RAD51D interaction with XRCC2. We validated our yeast interaction data in human U2OS cells by co-immunoprecipitation and determined the impact of these mutations on HR-proficiency using a sister chromatid recombination reporter assay in a RAD51D knock-out cell line. Our investigation reveals that the interaction of RAD51D with XRCC2 is required for DSB repair. By characterizing the impact of cancer-associated mutations on RAD51D interactions, we aim to develop predictive models for therapeutic sensitivity and resistance in patients who harbor similar mutations in RAD51D.