Sensitization to subtropical grass pollens in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis from Bahia Blanca, Argentina.
ABSTRACT: Background:Grass pollinosis is an important contributor to allergic diseases, with varying patterns and frequency of allergens according to the geographical location studied. Our study aims to provide a better understanding of subtropical grass pollinosis in Argentinian patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Methods:We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 894 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis from Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Skin prick tests were performed to selected pollen species belonging to three subfamilies of the Poaceae genera. Frequency of sensitization to specific grass pollen extracts, cross-reactivity of allergens assessed by skin prick test, and possible associations between allergen extracts and asthma or allergic conjunctivitis were analyzed. Results:Sensitization to the Pooideae subfamily was the most frequent, encompassing 86.8% (CI: 84.4%-88.9%) of the studied population. Positive reactions to allergen extracts from the Chloridoideae and the Panicoideae subfamilies showed smaller papule size than allergen extracts from the Pooideae subfamily (?2(5) = 83.75, p < 0.001). Patients with a positive skin prick test (SPT) to a specific extract were more likely to present some degree of cross-reactivity to the remaining pollens when compared to patients with negative SPT to the same specific extract. Even though the proportion of patients presenting with asthma (46.9%) was higher than those with conjunctivitis (22.6%), there was only a statistically significant association between sensitization to Festuca arundinacea (? = 0.089, p = .009), Phalaris arundinacea (? = 0.074, p = .032) and Paspalum notatum (? = 0.070, p = .038) and the presence of conjunctivitis. Conclusions:Our results suggest a high frequency of sensitization to grass pollen extracts from the Poaceae family among patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Overall, sensitization to the Pooidae subfamily was the most common, where Phalaris arundinacea presented the highest frequency.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The classification of rhinitis in adults is missing in epidemiological studies.<h4>Objective</h4>To identify phenotypes of adult rhinitis using an unsupervised approach (data-driven) compared with a classical hypothesis-driven approach.<h4>Methods</h4>983 adults of the French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) were studied. Self-reported symptoms related to rhinitis such as nasal symptoms, hay fever, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and sensitivities to different triggers (dust, animals, hay/flowers, cold air…) were used. Allergic sensitization was defined by at least one positive skin prick test to 12 aeroallergens. Mixture model was used to cluster participants, independently in those without (Asthma-, n = 582) and with asthma (Asthma+, n = 401).<h4>Results</h4>Three clusters were identified in both groups: 1) Cluster A (55% in Asthma-, and 22% in Asthma+) mainly characterized by the absence of nasal symptoms, 2) Cluster B (23% in Asthma-, 36% in Asthma+) mainly characterized by nasal symptoms all over the year, sinusitis and a low prevalence of positive skin prick tests, and 3) Cluster C (22% in Asthma-, 42% in Asthma+) mainly characterized by a peak of nasal symptoms during spring, a high prevalence of positive skin prick tests and a high report of hay fever, allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. The highest rate of polysensitization (80%) was found in participants with comorbid asthma and allergic rhinitis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This cluster analysis highlighted three clusters of rhinitis with similar characteristics than those known by clinicians but differing according to allergic sensitization, and this whatever the asthma status. These clusters could be easily rebuilt using a small number of variables.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The work- or environmental-related type I sensitization to maize pollen is hardly investigated. We sought to determine the prevalence of sensitization to maize pollen among exposed workers and to identify the eliciting allergens. METHODS:In July 2010, 8 out of 11 subjects were examined who were repeatedly exposed to maize pollen by pollinating maize during their work in a biological research department. All 8 filled in a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing (SPT) and immune-specific analyses. RESULTS:5 out of the 8 exposed subjects had repeatedly suffered for at least several weeks from rhinitis, 4 from conjunctivitis, 4 from urticaria, and 2 from shortness of breath upon occupational exposure to maize pollen. All symptomatic workers had specific IgE antibodies against maize pollen (CAP class ? 1). Interestingly, 4 of the 5 maize pollen-allergic subjects, but none of the 3 asymptomatic exposed workers had IgE antibodies specific for grass pollen. All but one of the maize pollen-allergic subjects had suffered from allergic grass pollen-related symptoms for 6 to 11 years before job-related exposure to maize pollen. Lung function testing was normal in all cases. In immunoblot analyses, the allergenic components could be identified as Zea m 1 and Zea m 13. The reactivity is mostly caused by cross-reactivity to the homologous allergens in temperate grass pollen. Two sera responded to Zea m 3, but interestingly not to the corresponding timothy allergen indicating maize-specific IgE reactivity. CONCLUSION:The present data suggest that subjects pollinating maize are at high risk of developing an allergy to maize pollen as a so far underestimated source of occupational allergens. For the screening of patients with suspected maize pollen sensitization, the determination of IgE antibodies specific for maize pollen is suitable.
Project description:There are 22 species in the Phalaris genera that distribute almost all over the temperate regions of the world. Among them, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea, tetraploid and hexaploid) and hardinggrass (P. aquatica, tetraploid) have been long cultivated as forage grass and have received attention as bio-energy materials in recent years. We aimed to facilitate inter-species/ploidies comparisons, and to illuminate the degree of sequence variation within existing gene pools, chloroplast (cp) genomes of three Phalaris cytotypes (P. aquatica/4x, P. arundinacea/4x and P. arundinacea/6x) were sequenced and assembled. The result indicated that certain sequence variations existed between the cp genomes of P. arundinacea and P. aquatica. Several hotspot regions (atpI~atpH, trnT-UGU~ndhJ, rbcL~psaI, and ndhF~rpl32) were found, and variable genes (infA, psaI, psbK, etc.) were detected. SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and/or indels (insertions and deletions) were confirmed by the high Ka/Ks and Pi value. Furthermore, distribution and presence of cp simple sequence repeats (cpSSRs) were identified in the three Phalaris cp genomes, although little difference was found between hexaploid and tetraploid P. arundinacea, and no rearrangement was detected among the three Phalaris cp genomes. The evolutionary relationship and divergent time among these species were discussed. The RNA-seq revealed several differentially expressed genes (DEGs), among which psaA, psaB, and psbB related to leaf color were further verified by leaf color differences.
Project description:Background:Links between multimorbidity of allergic diseases and allergen sensitization are still under debate, especially in adults. This study aimed to establish a relationship between polysensitization and allergic multimorbidity in children and adults and the allergens involved in multimorbidity. Material and method:A cross-sectional multicentre study enrolled children aged 6-7 and 13-14 years and adults aged 20-44 years from a Polish national cohort. The diagnosis of allergic diseases was made by a physician. Skin prick tests to 13 allergens and serum IgE levels to 4 allergens were tested. Results:Among the 3856 participants, single disease (asthma, allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis) was diagnosed in 27.7% subjects and allergic multimorbidity in 9.3%. Allergic multimorbidity occurred more commonly in children than in adults (p < 0.01). Asthma or atopic dermatitis alone were not associated with polysensitization. Rhinitis and multimorbidity were associated with polysensitization. Allergic multimorbidity occurred in 2.2% of participants with negative skin prick tests, 9.8% of those with one positive prick test (SPT ≥ 3 mm) and 20.6% of polysensitized ones (p < 0.001). There was an increasing risk of multimorbidity depending on the number of positive prick tests for both SPT ≥ 3 mm (OR 9.6-16.5) and SPT ≥ 6 mm (OR 5.9-13.7). A statistically significant relationship was found between allergic multimorbidity and sensitization to cat and mite allergens. Conclusions:Multimorbidity is associated with polysensitization especially in children compared with adults in Polish population cohort. New insights into single disease patterns were found: bronchial asthma is the strongest risk factor for the development of multimorbidity in comparison with allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:It is difficult to accurately predict the natural course of allergic rhinitis (AR), because it is affected by a wide variety of environmental influences, as well as genetic predisposition. Considering the high prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children and adolescents, caregivers should be given appropriate information regarding the disease course. This study aimed to understand the prognosis of allergic rhinitis by examining the relationship between allergic sensitization and rhinitis symptoms during this developmental period. METHODS:This cross-sectional study included 1069 children aged 9-16 years from the Korean International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Survey database who had completed health questionnaires, and for whom skin prick test results were available. Data were collected during May 2016. The distribution of sensitization and allergic symptoms was compared by age groups (elementary, middle, and high school). Data were analyzed using linear-by-linear analysis. RESULTS:Sensitization to at least one tested allergen differed by age (59.2%, 58.3%, 68.2%, in elementary, middle, and high school students, respectively; p = 0.025), and seasonal allergen sensitization (35.0%, 37.1%, 53.9%, respectively) increased with age (p < 0.001). Conversely, the proportion of rhinitis symptoms among sensitized children decreased as age increased (58.80%, 52.90%, 49.70%, respectively; p = 0.047). However, the rate of non-allergic rhinitis was age-independent. CONCLUSION:With increasing age during childhood and adolescence, symptomatic allergic rhinitis decreases; thus, subclinical allergic rhinitis increases. This suggests that the symptoms of later-sensitized children are less clearly manifested, or that the symptoms reduce as previously sensitized children mature. This should be clarified further in a longitudinal study.
Project description:The aim of this study is to identify the effects of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) on immunologic parameters and bronchial-hyper-responsiveness in children with allergic rhinitis to house-dust mite (HDM), through long-term follow-up cohort.Among the Allergic Rhinitis Cohort Study for Kids, pediatric patients who visited the hospital for rhinitis symptoms and proven allergy to HDM through skin prick test were studied. In this cohort, 37 patients received SLIT more than 3-years (SLIT group), and 184 patients received only pharmacologic therapy (non-SLIT group) were included in this study. The results of skin prick test, eosinophil percent and count, total immunoglobulin E (IgE), and bronchial provocation test at initial and 3-year followed-up were compared in the two groups.After 3 year follow-up, only the serum eosinophil percent decreased more significantly in SLIT group than that in the non-SLIT group. New-sensitization rate other than HDM between SLIT and non-SLIT group did not show any significant differences. The distribution of sensitized allergen other than HDM showed increasing tendency after 3 years in both groups. Older age and a small number of sensitized allergen affected the improvement of bronchial hyper-responsiveness regardless of SLIT.HDM SLIT in allergic rhinitis children for 3 years in Korea does not affect prevention of new sensitization and poly-sensitization rate increment, and improvement of bronchial hyper-responsiveness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Allergic sensitization is frequently present in asthma and rhinitis, but the role of specific immunoglobulin E (s-IgE) is not always clear. Multiple s-IgE analyses may provide insight into this relationship, thus a microarray chip was developed within the EU-funded MeDALL project. The main objective was to evaluate the performance of the MeDALL-chip compared to ImmunoCAP and skin prick test (SPT) in detecting allergic sensitization in children and secondarily to investigate the association to asthma and allergic rhinitis. METHODS:From the 'Environment and Childhood Asthma Study', 265 children were investigated at 10 and 16 yr of age with clinical examination, interview, SPT, ImmunoCAP, and the MeDALL-chip including 152 allergen components in the analysis. RESULTS:Allergic sensitization at 10 yr was more frequently detected using the MeDALL-chip (38.1%) compared to the ImmunoCAP (32.8%) (p = 0.034) and SPT (25.5%) (p < 0.001), but no significant difference was seen at 16 yr (MeDALL-chip 49.8%, ImmunoCAP 48.6%, SPT 45.8%). The MeDALL-chip did not differ significantly from the ImmunoCAP or SPT in terms of detecting allergic sensitization in subjects with rhinitis or asthma at 10 or 16 yr. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of allergic sensitization increased by all three diagnostic tests from 10 to 16 yr was similar by SPT and ImmunoCAP and significantly higher with the MeDALL-chip at 10 yr. All three tests were comparable for identification of allergic sensitization among children with current rhinitis or asthma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>GATA3 activates transcription of the T(H)2 cytokines, including IL13, an important step in the allergic inflammatory pathway.<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to identify associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the genes GATA3 and IL13 and their interactions with rhinitis and allergic sensitization during childhood.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed genetic association studies in a cohort of children (n = 923) who have been evaluated for the development of rhinitis and allergic sensitization by means of skin prick tests (SPTs) at age 10 years. Pyrosequencing was used to genotype 7 polymorphisms from GATA3 and 5 from IL13. A novel model-selection procedure combining logistic regression models and classification was used to study the contributions of the polymorphisms and their interactions.<h4>Results</h4>Combinations of polymorphisms and their interactions increase the risk for rhinitis and allergic sensitization at age 10 years. A model with rs1058240, rs379568, and rs4143094 (GATA3) and rs1800925 (IL13) and their interactions was selected to predict rhinitis and positive SPT responses. rs1058240 was associated with rhinitis and allergic rhinitis (P < .05), and the gene-gene interaction rs1058240:rs1800925 was associated with rhinitis (P = .043). The odds ratios for 4 genotype combinations were significant for rhinitis or SPTs (P < .044).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Gene-gene interaction between GATA3 and IL13 polymorphisms can influence the risk of childhood rhinitis. Our study suggests that set associations of polymorphisms are important in studying genetic associations for complex phenotypes, such as rhinitis and atopy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The efficacy of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 in modulating allergic rhinitis was previously evaluated in two exploratory clinical studies. Oral administration with NCC 2461 reduced specific subjective symptoms following nasal provocation tests with controlled grass pollen allergen concentrations. Our aim was to confirm the anti-allergic effect of NCC 2461 in grass pollen allergic subjects exposed to natural doses of allergens during the pollen season. FINDINGS:A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted with 131 grass pollen allergic subjects from May to July 2012 in concomitance with the pollen season in Berlin. NCC 2461 or placebo was administered daily for an 8-week period to adult subjects with clinical history of allergic rhinitis to grass pollen, positive skin prick test and IgE to grass pollen. During the 8 weeks, symptoms and quality of life questionnaires were filled out, and plasma was collected for IgE analysis at screening and at the end of the intervention. All subjects were included within a 5-day interval, ensuring exposure to similar air pollen counts for each individual during the trial period. The results obtained show that symptoms increased with pollen loads, confirming a natural exposure to the allergen and presence of pollen-induced allergic rhinitis in the subjects. However, no significant differences were observed in allergic rhinitis symptoms scores, quality of life, or specific IgE levels between subjects receiving NCC 2461 as compared to placebo administration. CONCLUSION:In contrast to previous findings, oral administration of NCC 2461 did not show a beneficial effect on allergic rhinitis in a field trial. The influence of study design, allergen exposure and intervention window on the efficacy of NCC 2461 in modulating respiratory allergy should be further evaluated.
Project description:Associations of variants of the filaggrin gene, i.e. FLG with asthma and rhinitis have been shown to be modulated by eczema status. However, it is unknown whether allergic sensitization status modifies this association. The aim of this study was to determine whether FLG variants need eczema and/or allergic sensitization as a necessary component to execute adverse effects on coexisting and subsequent asthma and rhinitis.In the Isle of Wight birth cohort, repeated measurements of asthma, rhinitis, eczema and allergic sensitization (documented by skin-prick tests) were taken in 1,456 children at the ages of 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18 years. Filaggrin haploinsufficiency was defined as having at least the minor allele of R501X, 2282del4 or S3247X variants. log-binomial regression models were used to test associations and statistical interactions.FLG variants increased the risk of asthma [risk ratio (RR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.80] and rhinitis (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.63). In the delayed-effects models, 'FLG variants plus allergic sensitization' and 'FLG variants plus eczema' increased the risk of subsequent asthma by 4.93-fold (95% CI 3.61-6.71) and 3.33-fold (95% CI 2.45-4.51), respectively, during the first 18 years of life. In contrast, neither eczema nor allergic sensitization in combination with FLG variants increased the risk of later rhinitis.Allergic sensitization and eczema modulated the association between FLG variants and asthma but not rhinitis. Our results imply that the mechanisms and pathways through which FLG variants predispose to an increased risk of asthma and rhinitis may be different.