Variation in Actionable Pharmacogenetic Markers in Natives and Mestizos From Mexico.
ABSTRACT: The identification and characterization of pharmacogenetic variants in Latin American populations is still an ongoing endeavor. Here, we investigated SNVs on genes listed by the Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base in 1284 Mestizos and 94 Natives from Mexico. Five institutional cohorts with NGS data were retrieved from different research projects at INMEGEN, sequencing files were filtered for 55 pharmacogenes present in all cohorts to identify novel and known variation. Bioinformatic tools VEP, PROVEAN, and FATHMM were used to assess, in silico, the functional impact of this variation. Next, we focused on 17 genes with actionable variants that have been clinically implemented. Allele frequencies were compared with major continental groups and differences discussed in the scope of a pharmacogenomic impact. We observed a wide genetic variability for known and novel SNVs, the largest variation was on UGT1A > ACE > COMT > ABCB1 and the lowest on APOE and NAT2. Although with allele frequencies around 1%, novel variation was observed in 16 of 17 PGKB genes. In Natives we identified 59 variants and 58 in Mestizos. Several genes did not show novel variation, on CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in Natives; and APOE, UGT1A, and VKORC1 in Mestizos. Similarities in allele frequency, comparing major continental groups for VIP pharmacogenes, hint towards a comparable PGx for drugs metabolized by UGT1A1, DPYD, ABCB1, CBR3, COMT, and TPMT; in contrast to variants on CYP3A5 and CYP2B6 for which significant MAF differences were identified. Our observations offer some discernment into the extent of pharmacogenetic variation registered up-to-date in Mexicans and contribute to quantitatively dissect actionable pharmacogenetic variants in Natives and Mestizos.
Project description:For ~ 80 drugs, widely recognized pharmacogenetics dosing guidelines are available. However, the use of these guidelines in clinical practice remains limited as only a fraction of patients is subjected to pharmacogenetic screening. We investigated the feasibility of repurposing whole exome sequencing (WES) data for a panel of 42 variants in 11 pharmacogenes to provide a pharmacogenomic profile. Existing diagnostic WES-data from child-parent trios totaling 1,583 individuals were used. Results were successfully extracted for 39 variants. No information could be extracted for three variants, located in CYP2C19, UGT1A1, and CYP3A5, and for CYP2D6 copy number. At least one actionable phenotype was present in 86% of the individuals. Haplotype phasing proved relevant for CYP2B6 assignments as 1.5% of the phenotypes were corrected after phasing. In conclusion, repurposing WES-data can yield meaningful pharmacogenetic profiles for 7 of 11 important pharmacogenes, which can be used to guide drug treatment.
Project description:Functional rare variants in drug-related genes are believed to be highly differentiated between ethnic- or racial populations. However, knowledge of population differentiation (PD) of rare single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), remains widely lacking, with the highest fixation indices, (Fst values), from both rare and common variants annotated to specific genes, having only been marginally used to understand PD at the gene level. In this study, we suggest a new, gene-based PD method, PD of Rare and Common variants (PDRC), for analyzing rare variants, as inspired by Generalized Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (GCMH) statistics, to identify highly population-differentiated drug response-related genes ("pharmacogenes"). Through simulation studies, we reveal that PDRC adequately summarizes rare and common variants, due to PD, over a specific gene. We also applied the proposed method to a real whole-exome sequencing dataset, consisting of 10,000 datasets, from the Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Exploration by Next-generation sequencing in multi-Ethnic Samples (T2D-GENES) initiative, and 3,000 datasets from the Genetics of Type 2 diabetes (Go-T2D) repository. Among the 48 genes annotated with Very Important Pharmacogenetic summaries (VIPgenes), in the PharmGKB database, our PD method successfully identified candidate genes with high PD, including ACE, CYP2B6, DPYD, F5, MTHFR, and SCN5A.
Project description:Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of solid and haematological malignancies and as an immunosuppressive agent. As a prodrug, it is dependent on bioactivation to the active phosphoramide mustard metabolite to elicit its therapeutic effect. This focused review will highlight the evidence for the role of germline pharmacogenetic variation in both plasma pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes. There is a substantial indication from 13 pharmacokinetic and 17 therapeutic outcome studies, in contexts as diverse as haematological malignancy, breast cancer, systemic lupus erythematosus and myeloablation, that pharmacogenetic variation in both CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 influence the bioactivation of cyclophosphamide. An additional role for pharmacogenetic variation in ALDH1A1 has also been reported. Future studies should comprehensively assess these 3 pharmacogenes and undertake appropriate statistical analysis of gene-gene interactions to confirm these findings and may allow personalised treatment regimens.
Project description:Publicly available pharmacogenomics (PGx) databases enable translation of genotype data into clinically actionable information. As variation within pharmacogenes is population-specific, this study investigated the spectrum of 25 clinically relevant pharmacogenes in the Thai population (n?=?291) from whole genome sequencing. The bioinformatics tool Stargazer was used for phenotype prediction, through assignment of alleles and detection of structural variation. Known and unreported potentially deleterious PGx variants were identified. Over 25% of Thais carried a high-risk diplotype in CYP3A5, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, NAT2, SLCO1B1, and UGT1A1. CYP2D6 structural variants accounted for 83.8% of all high-risk diplotypes. Of 39 known PGx variants identified, six variants associated with adverse drug reactions were common. Allele frequencies of CYP3A5*3 (rs776746), CYP2B6*6 (rs2279343), and NAT2 (rs1041983) were significantly higher in Thais than East-Asian and global populations. 121 unreported variants had potential to exert clinical impact, majority were rare and population-specific, with 60.3% of variants absent from gnomAD database. This study demonstrates the population-specific variation in clinically relevant pharmacogenes, the importance of CYP2D6 structural variation detection in the Thai population, and potential of unreported variants in explaining drug response. These findings are essential in development of dosing guidelines, PGx testing, clinical trials, and drugs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) enables rapid identification of common and rare genetic variation. The detection of variants contributing to therapeutic drug response or adverse effects is essential for implementation of individualized pharmacotherapy. Successful application of short-read based NGS to pharmacogenes with high sequence homology, nearby pseudogenes and complex structure has been previously shown despite anticipated technical challenges. However, little is known regarding the utility of such panels to detect copy number variation (CNV) in the highly polymorphic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene, or to identify the promoter (TA)7 TAA repeat polymorphism UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1*28. Here we developed and validated PGxSeq, a targeted exome panel for pharmacogenes pertinent to drug disposition and/or response. METHODS:A panel of capture probes was generated to assess 422 kb of total coding region in 100 pharmacogenes. NGS was carried out in 235 subjects, and sequencing performance and accuracy of variant discovery validated in clinically relevant pharmacogenes. CYP2D6 CNV was determined using the bioinformatics tool CNV caller (VarSeq). Identified SNVs were assessed in terms of population allele frequency and predicted functional effects through in silico algorithms. RESULTS:Adequate performance of the PGxSeq panel was demonstrated with a depth-of-coverage (DOC) ≥ 20× for at least 94% of the target sequence. We showed accurate detection of 39 clinically relevant gene variants compared to standard genotyping techniques (99.9% concordance), including CYP2D6 CNV and UGT1A1*28. Allele frequency of rare or novel variants and predicted function in 235 subjects mirrored findings from large genomic datasets. A large proportion of patients (78%, 183 out of 235) were identified as homozygous carriers of at least one variant necessitating altered pharmacotherapy. CONCLUSIONS:PGxSeq can serve as a comprehensive, rapid, and reliable approach for the detection of common and novel SNVs in pharmacogenes benefiting the emerging field of precision medicine.
Project description:Variation in the enzymatic activity of pharmacogenes is defined by star alleles (haplotypes) comprised of single-nucleotide variants, small insertion-deletions, and large structural variants. We recently developed Stargazer, a next-generation sequencing-based tool to call star alleles for the clinically important CYP2D6 gene. Here, we present the utility of extending Stargazer to call star alleles for 28 pharmacogenes using whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. We applied Stargazer to WGS data from 70 ethnically diverse samples from the Genetic Testing Reference Materials Coordination Program (GeT-RM). These reference samples were extensively characterized by GeT-RM using multiple pharmacogenetic testing assays. In all 28 genes, Stargazer recalled 100% of star alleles (N = 92) present in GeT-RM's consensus genotypes (N = 1,559). Stargazer also detected star alleles not previously reported by GeT-RM, including complex structural variants. Our results demonstrate that combining WGS data and Stargazer enables automated, accurate, and comprehensive genotyping of pharmacogenes in the human genome.
Project description:Coumarins are widely prescribed worldwide, and in Mexico acenocumarol is the preferred form. It is well known that despite its efficacy, coumarins show a high variability for dose requirements. We investigated the pharmacogenetic variation of 110 genes in patients receiving acenocumarol using a targeted NGS approach. We report relevant population differentiation for variants on CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP4F11, CYP4F2, PROS, and GGCX, VKORC1, CYP2C18, NQO1. A higher proportion of novel-to-known variants for 10 genes was identified on 41 core pharmacogenomics genes related to the PK (29), PD (3), of coumarins, and coagulation proteins (9) including, CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and F8, and a low proportion of novel-to-known variants on CYP2E1, VKORC1, and SULT1A1/2. Using a Bayesian approach, we identified variants influencing acenocumarol dosing on, VKORC1 (2), SULT1A1 (1), and CYP2D8P (1) explaining 40-55% of dose variability. A collection of pharmacogenetic variation on 110 genes related to the PK/PD of coumarins is also presented. Our results offer an initial insight into the use of a targeted NGS approach in the pharmacogenomics of coumarins in Mexican Mestizos.
Project description:Human genetic variation is likely to be responsible for a substantial fraction of the variability in complex traits including drug response. Single nucleotide polymorphisms have been implicated in drug response using genome-wide association studies as well as candidate-gene approaches. A more comprehensive catalogue of human genetic variation should complement the current large-scale genotypic dataset from the International HapMap Project, which focuses on common genetic variants. The 1000 Genomes Project is an international research effort that aims to provide the most comprehensive map of human genetic variation using next-generation sequencing platforms. Owing to the lack of convenient tools, however, it is a challenge for the pharmacogenetic research community to take advantage of these data. Here, we present a new database of some pharmacogenes of particular interest to pharmacogenetic researchers. Our database provides a convenient portal for immediate utilization of the newly released 1000 Genomes Project data in pharmacogenetic studies.
Project description:Pharmacogenomics aims to tailor pharmacological treatment to each individual by considering associations between genetic polymorphisms and adverse drug effects (ADEs). With technological advances, pharmacogenomic research has evolved from candidate gene analyses to genome-wide association studies. Here, we integrate deep whole-genome sequencing (WGS) information with drug prescription and ADE data from Estonian electronic health record (EHR) databases to evaluate genome- and pharmacome-wide associations on an unprecedented scale. We leveraged WGS data of 2240 Estonian Biobank participants and imputed all single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) with allele counts over 2 for 13,986 genotyped participants. Overall, we identified 41 (10 novel) loss-of-function and 567 (134 novel) missense variants in 64 very important pharmacogenes. The majority of the detected variants were very rare with frequencies below 0.05%, and 6 of the novel loss-of-function and 99 of the missense variants were only detected as single alleles (allele count?=?1). We also validated documented pharmacogenetic associations and detected new independent variants in known gene-drug pairs. Specifically, we found that CTNNA3 was associated with myositis and myopathies among individuals taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory oxicams and replicated this finding in an extended cohort of 706 individuals. These findings illustrate that population-based WGS-coupled EHRs are a useful tool for biomarker discovery.
Project description:Background: Genetic variability in some of the genes that affect absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination ("pharmacogenes") can significantly influence an individual's response to the drug and consequently the effectiveness of treatment and possible adverse drug events. The rapid development of sequencing methods in recent years and consequently the increased integration of next-generation sequencing technologies into the clinical settings has enabled extensive genotyping of pharmacogenes for personalized treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency and variety of potentially actionable pharmacogenetic findings in the Slovenian population. Methods: De-identified data from diagnostic exome sequencing in 1904 cases submitted to our institution were analyzed for variants within 293 genes associated with drug response. Filtered variants were classified according to population frequency, variant type, the functional impact of the variant, pathogenicity predictions and characterization in the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) and ClinVar. Results: We observed a total of 24 known actionable pharmacogenetic variants (PharmGKB 1A or 1B level of evidence), comprising approximately 26 drugs, of which, 12 were rare, with the population frequency below 1%. Furthermore, we identified an additional 61 variants with PharmGKB 2A or 2B clinical annotations. We detected 308 novel/rare potentially actionable variants: 177 protein-truncating variants and 131 missense variants predicted to be pathogenic based on several pathogenicity predictions. Conclusion: In the present study, we estimated the burden of pharmacogenetic variants in nationally based exome sequencing data and investigated the potential clinical usefulness of detected findings for personalized treatment. We provide the first comprehensive overview of known pharmacogenetic variants in the Slovenian population, as well as reveal a great proportion of novel/rare variants with a potential to influence drug response.