Effect of HCOOK/Ethanol on Fe/HUSY, Ni/HUSY, and Ni-Fe/HUSY Catalysts on Lignin Depolymerization to Benzyl Alcohols and Bioaromatics.
ABSTRACT: We have investigated the production of benzyl alcohols and bioaromatics via the reductive lignin depolymerization process over Fe/H-style ultrastable Y (HUSY), Ni/HUSY, and Ni-Fe/HUSY catalysts using HCOOK/ETOH in air. Synergy effect between HCOOK and the catalysts improved the depolymerization process, resulting in a higher bio-oil recovery. HCOOK does not act solely as an in situ hydrogen source; it also interacts with lignin to enable its initial depolymerization via a base-catalyzed mechanism to low-molecular-weight fragments, and in tandem with the catalyst, the hydrogenolysis rate of the depolymerized lignin monomers was enhanced. Fe/HUSY displayed an excellent activity for the catalytic reductive step in contrast to Ni/HUSY and Ni-Fe/HUSY by facilitating methoxy group removal via hydrogenolysis, thereby contributing to the yield and stabilization of the low-molecular-weight aromatics [diethyl ether (DEE)-soluble products]. Fe/HUSY gave the highest DEE product yield of >99 wt % and a total benzyl alcohol yield of 16 wt % with a total selectivity of 47 wt % (60 wt % for aromatic alcohols). Fe/HUSY was reused for the lignin depolymerization reaction without much loss of its initial activity, giving 13 wt % yield of benzyl alcohols with a selectivity of 58 wt % (77 wt % for aromatic alcohols).
Project description:Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternatives to non-renewable fossil sources when producing aromatic compounds. Lignins from Populus salicaceae. Pinus radiata and Pinus pinaster from industrial wastes and biorefinery effluents were isolated and characterized. Lignin was depolymerized using homogenous (NaOH) and heterogeneous (Ni-, Cu- or Ni-Cu-hydrotalcites) base catalysis and catalytic hydrogenolysis using Ru/C. When homogeneous base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) and Ru/C hydrogenolysis were combined on poplar lignin, the aromatics amount was ca. 11 wt.%. Monomer distributions changed depending on the feedstock and the reaction conditions. Aqueous NaOH produced cleavage of the alkyl side chain that was preserved when using modified hydrotalcite catalysts or Ru/C-catalyzed hydrogenolysis in ethanol. Depolymerization using hydrotalcite catalysts in ethanol produced monomers bearing carbonyl groups on the alkyl side chain. The analysis of the reaction mixtures was done by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and diffusion ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY NMR). 31P NMR and heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy (HSQC) were also used in this study. The content in poly-(hydroxy)-aromatic ethers in the reaction mixtures decreased upon thermal treatments in ethanol. It was concluded that thermo-solvolysis is key in lignin depolymerization, and that the synergistic effect of Ni and Cu provided monomers with oxidized alkyl side chains.
Project description:Selective hydrogenolysis of the C<sub>aryl</sub>-O bonds in lignin is a key strategy for the generation of fuels and chemical feedstocks from biomass. Currently, hydrogenolysis has been mainly conducted using hydrogen, which is flammable and not sustainable or economical. Herein, an external hydrogen-free process for aryl ethers hydrogenolysis in lignin models and dioxasolv lignin over nickel nanoparticles supported on Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, is reported. Kinetic studies reveal that the transfer hydrogenolysis activity of the three model compounds decreased in the following order: benzyl phenyl ether (?-O-4), 2-phenylethyl phenyl ether (?-O-4) and diphenyl ether (4-O-5), which linearly corresponds to their binding energies and the activation energies. The main reaction route for the three model compounds was the cleavage of the ether bonds to produce aromatic alkanes and phenol, and the latter was further reduced to cyclohexanol. Dioxasolv lignin depolymerization results exhibit a significant C<sub>aryl</sub>-O decrease over the Ni nanoparticles supported on Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> with iso-propanol as the hydrogen source through 2D-HSQC-NMR analysis, which confirmed the transfer hydrogenolysis conclusion in the model study. This work provides an economical and environmentally-friendly method for the selective cleavage of lignin and lignin model compounds into value-added chemicals.
Project description:The depolymerization of lignin to bioaromatics usually requires a hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) step to lower the oxygen content. A mixed Cu-Mg-Al oxide (CuMgAlO x ) is an effective catalyst for the depolymerization of lignin in supercritical ethanol. We explored the use of Ni-based cocatalysts, i.e. Ni/SiO2, Ni2P/SiO2, and Ni/ASA (ASA = amorphous silica alumina), with the aim of combining lignin depolymerization and HDO in a single reaction step. While the silica-supported catalysts were themselves hardly active in lignin upgrading, Ni/ASA displayed comparable lignin monomer yield as CuMgAlO x . A drawback of using an acidic support is extensive dehydration of the ethanol solvent. Instead, combining CuMgAlO x with Ni/SiO2 and especially Ni2P/SiO2 proved to be effective in increasing the lignin monomer yield, while at the same time reducing the oxygen content of the products. With Ni2P/SiO2, the lignin monomer yield was 53 wt %, leading to nearly complete deoxygenation of the aromatic products.
Project description:Lignin is recognized as a good sustainable material because of its great abundance and potential applications. At present, lignin hydrogenolysis is considered as a potential but challenging way to produce low-molecular-mass aromatic chemicals. The most common linkage between the structural units of lignin polymer is the β-O-4 aryl ether, which are primary or even only target chemical bonds for many degradation processes. Herein, a Pd-Fe₃O₄ composite was synthesized for catalytic hydrogenolysis of β-O-4 bond in lignin. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS, and SEM and the lignin depolymerization products were analyzed by GC-MS. The catalyst showed good catalytic performance during the hydrogenolysis process, lignin dimer was degraded into monomers completely and a high yield of monomers was obtained by the hydrogenolysis of bagasse lignin. More importantly, the magnetic catalyst was separated conveniently by magnet after reaction and remained highly catalytically efficient after being reused for five times. This work has demonstrated an efficient & recyclable catalyst for the cleavage of the β-O-4 bond in lignin providing an alternative way to make better use of lignins.
Project description:An electrochemical process has been developed for chemoselective oxidation of primary alcohols in lignin to the corresponding carboxylic acids. The electrochemical oxidation reactions proceed under mildly basic conditions and employ 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine N-oxyl (TEMPO) and 4-acetamido-TEMPO (ACT) as catalytic mediators. Lignin model compounds and related alcohols are used to conduct structure-reactivity studies that provide insights into the origin of the reaction selectivity. The method is applied to the oxidation of lignin extracted from poplar wood chips via a mild acidolysis method, and the reaction affords a novel polyelectrolyte material. Gel permeation chromatography data for the oxidized lignin shows that this material has a molecular weight and molecular weight distribution very similar to that of the extracted lignin, but notable differences are also evident. Base titration reveals a significant increase in the acid content, and the oxidized lignin has much higher water solubility relative to the extracted lignin. Treatment of the oxidized lignin under acidic conditions results in depolymerization of the material into characterized aromatic monomers in nearly 30 wt% yield.
Project description:C-lignin is a homo-biopolymer, being made up of caffeyl alcohol exclusively. There is significant interest in developing efficient and selective catalyst for depolymerization of C-lignin, as it represents an ideal feedstock for producing catechol derivatives. Here we report an atomically dispersed Ru catalyst, which can serve as an efficient catalyst for the hydrogenolysis of C-lignin via the cleavage of C-O bonds in benzodioxane linkages, giving catechols in high yields with TONs up to 345. A unique selectivity to propenylcatechol (77%) is obtained, which is otherwise hard to achieve, because this catalyst is capable of hydrogenolysis rather than hydrogenation. This catalyst also demonstrates good reusability in C-lignin depolymerization. Detailed investigations by model compounds concluded that the pathways involving dehydration and/or dehydrogenation reactions are incompatible routes; we deduced that caffeyl alcohol generated via concurrent C-O bonds cleavage of benzodioxane unit may act as an intermediate in the C-lignin hydrogenolysis. Current demonstration validates that atomically dispersed metals can not only catalyze small molecules reactions, but also drive the transformation of abundant and renewable biopolymer.
Project description:Monometallic cerium layered double hydroxides (Ce-LDH) supports were successfully synthesized by a homogeneous alkalization route driven by hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). The formation of the Ce-LDH was confirmed and its structural and compositional properties studied by XRD, SEM, XPS, iodometric analyses and TGA. HT-XRD, N2-sorption and XRF analyses revealed that by increasing the calcination temperature from 200 to 800 °C, the Ce-LDH material transforms to ceria (CeO2) in four distinct phases, i.e., the loss of intramolecular water, dehydroxylation, removal of nitrate groups and removal of sulfate groups. When loaded with 2.5 wt% palladium (Pd) and 2.5 wt% nickel (Ni) and calcined at 500 °C, the PdNi-Ce-LDH-derived catalysts strongly outperform the PdNi-CeO2 benchmark catalyst in terms of conversion as well as selectivity for the hydrogenolysis of benzyl phenyl ether (BPE), a model compound for the ?-O-4 ether linkage in lignin. The PdNi-Ce-LDH catalysts showed full selectivity towards phenol and toluene while the PdNi-CeO2 catalysts showed additional oxidation of toluene to benzoic acid. The highest BPE conversion was observed with the PdNi-Ce-LDH catalyst calcined at 600 °C, which could be related to an optimum in morphological and compositional characteristics of the support.
Project description:Alcohol to aldehyde conversion is a critical reaction in the industry. Herein, a new electrochemical method is introduced that converts 1 mmol of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones in the presence of N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI, 20 mol%) as a mediator; this conversion is achieved after 8.5 h at room temperature using a piece of Ni foam (1.0 cm2) and without adding an extra-base or a need for high temperature. Using this method, 10 mmol (1.08 g) of benzyl alcohol was also successfully oxidized to benzaldehyde (91%) without any by-products. This method was also used to oxidize other alcohols with high yield and selectivity. In the absence of a mediator, the surface of the nickel foam provided oxidation products at the lower yield. After the reaction was complete, nickel foam (anode) was characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and spectroelectrochemistry, which pointed to the formation of nickel oxide on the surface of the electrode. On the other hand, using other electrodes such as Pt, Cu, Fe, and graphite resulted in a low yield for the alcohol to aldehyde conversion.
Project description:The conversion of lignin to biofuels and biobased chemicals is currently attracting a lot of attention. We here report on the valorization of Kraft lignin by a catalytic hydrotreatment using Ni, Mo, and W phosphide catalysts supported on activated carbon in the absence of an external solvent. Experiments were carried out in a batch setup in the temperature range of 400-500 °C and 100 bar initial H<sub>2</sub> pressure. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, and transmission electron microscopy. The lignin oils were analyzed extensively by different techniques such as GPC, GC-MS-FID, <sup>13</sup>C NMR, and elemental analysis. Two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC-FID) was applied to identify and quantify distinct groups of compounds (aromatics, alkylphenolics, alkanes, etc.). Mo-based catalysts displayed higher activity compared to the W-containing catalysts. The reaction parameters such as the effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, and catalyst loading were studied for two catalysts (15MoP/AC and 20NiMoP/AC), and optimized reaction conditions regarding yields of monomeric components were identified (400 °C, 100 bar H<sub>2</sub> at RT, 10 wt % catalyst loading on lignin intake). The highest monomer yield (45.7 wt % on lignin) was obtained for the 20NiMoP/AC (Ni 5.6 wt %, Mo 9.1 wt %, P 5.9 wt %) catalyst, which includes 25% alkylphenolics, 8.7% aromatics, and 9.9% alkanes. Our results clearly reveal that the phosphide catalysts are highly efficient catalyst to depolymerize the Kraft lignin to valuable biobased chemicals and outperform sulfided NiMo catalysts (monomer yield on lignin < 30 wt %).
Project description:Limonite, a low-cost iron ore, was investigated as a potential hydrotreatment catalyst for kraft lignin without the use of an external solvent (batch reactor, initial H2 pressure of 100 bar, 4 h). The best results were obtained at 450 °C resulting in 34 wt % of liquefied kraft lignin (lignin oil) on lignin intake. The composition of the lignin oil was determined in detail (elemental composition, GC-MS, GC×GC-FID, and GPC). The total GC-detectable monomeric species amounts up to 31 wt % on lignin intake, indicating that 92 wt % of the products in the lignin oil are volatile and thus of low molecular weight. The lignin oil was rich in low-molecular-weight alkylphenolics (17 wt % on lignin) and aromatics (8 wt % on lignin). Performance of the limonite catalyst was compared to other Fe-based catalysts (goethite and iron disulfide) and limonite was shown to give the highest yields of alkylphenolics and aromatics. The limonite catalyst before and after reaction was characterized using XRD, TEM, and nitrogen physisorption to determine changes in structure during reaction. Catalyst recycling tests were performed and show that the catalyst is active after reuse, despite the fact that the morphology changed and that the surface area of the catalyst particles was decreased. Our results clearly reveal that cheap limonite catalysts have the potential to be used for the depolymerization/hydrodeoxygenation of kraft lignin for the production of valuable biobased phenolics and aromatics.