Artificial substrata increase pond farming density of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) by increasing the bacteria that participate in nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in pond water.
ABSTRACT: Aquaculture has become a primary method to produce various aquatic products, and intensive aquaculture technologies have become commercially important. To improve the efficiency of intensive aquaculture per unit area without reducing the growth rate of cultured fish, the present study explored the potential of artificial substrata in ponds. Our results showed that the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) in the ponds with different stocking densities of grass carp were lower than those in the control group in most cases. Further, the feed conversion rate of grass carp was significantly reduced by introducing these artificial substrata, and the culture density could be significantly increased without reducing the growth rates of these fish. Artificial substrata also significantly enriched specific bacteria and changed the structure of the microbiota in pond water. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was significantly increased, and bacteria closely related to N and P cycles, such as Hyphomicrobium, Chitinimonas, Legionella, Shewanella, Roseiflexus, and Planktothrix were significantly enhanced. These results showed that the artificial substratum could increase TN and TP removal in aquaculture pond water by enriching N and P cycle-related bacteria, thus significantly increasing the specific growth rate of grass carp and significantly reducing their feed conversion rate. Finally, the stocking density of grass carp and the yield per unit area of pond could be increased without reducing the growth rate.
Project description:Microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation are vital processes to enhance organic matter degradation in sediments. However, the diversity and composition of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and their environmental driving factors are still poorly understood in aquaculture ponds, which received mounting of organic matter. In this study, bacterial communities, SRB and SOB from sediments of aquaculture ponds with different sizes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) were analysed using high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The results indicated that microbial communities in aquaculture pond sediments of large juvenile fish showed the highest richness and abundance of SRB and SOB, potentially further enhancing microbial sulfur cycling. Specifically, SRB were dominated by Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio, whereas SOB were dominated by Dechloromonas and Leptothrix. Although large juvenile fish ponds had relatively lower concentrations of sulfur compounds (i.e. total sulfur, acid-volatile sulfide and elemental sulfur) than those of larval fish ponds, more abundant SRB and SOB were found in the large juvenile fish ponds. Further redundancy analysis (RDA) and linear regression indicated that sulfur compounds and sediment suspension are the major environmental factors shaping the abundance and community structure of SRB and SOB in aquaculture pond sediments. Findings of this study expand our current understanding of microbial driving sulfur cycling in aquaculture ecosystems and also provide novel insights for ecological and green aquaculture managements.
Project description:The pikeperch (<i>Sander lucioperca</i> L.) possesses great potential for diversifying European aquaculture. However, studies on the genetic risk of stocking natural waters with farmed individuals of this species have been limited. Even the effect of pond culture on the genetic composition of stocks with natural-origin has not yet been determined. Our study aimed to compare the genetic variability of a wild living pikeperch population, a pond cultured broodstock (originating from the wild population) and its offspring generation. We also aimed to detect the potential signs of selection using three different methods. By analyzing the molecular data with 14 microsatellite markers, we illustrated that the impact of pond culture on the genetic diversity of fish stocks is similar to hatchery rearing due to its diversity reducing effect caused by using lower effective population sizes. Although the heterozygosity was similar in all populations (H<sub>o</sub> = 0.68-0.71), the average number of alleles and allelic richness were significantly lower in the pond cultured stocks (NA = 7.5 and 6; AR = 7.5 and 5.9) compared to the wild population (NA = 11.00, AR = 10.47). Despite the semi-natural conditions of the present study, we detected changing selection pressure in one of the 14 microsatellite markers.
Project description:The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 â × 22 â grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis.
Project description:The abundance and diversity of bacteria in two types of ponds were investigated by quantitative PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed that the abundance of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in D ponds (with grass carp fed sudan grass) was significantly lower than that in E ponds (with grass carp fed commercial feed). The microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in both E and D ponds, while the abundance of some genera was significantly different between the two types of ponds. Specifically, some potential pathogens such as Acinetobacter and Aeromonas were found to be significantly decreased, while some probiotics such as Comamonadaceae unclassified and Bacillales unclassified were significantly increased in D ponds. In addition, water quality of D ponds was better than that of E ponds. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and nutrients had significant influence on bacterial communities. The differences in bacterial community compositions between the two types of ponds could be partially explained by the different water conditions.
Project description:Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a causative agent of haemorrhagic disease in grass carp that drastically affects grass carp aquaculture. Here we report a novel GCRV isolate isolated from sick grass carp that induces obvious cytopathic effect in CIK cells and name it as GCRV096. A large number of GCRV 096 viral particles were found in the infected CIK cells by electron microscope. The shape, size and the arrangement of this virus were similar to those of grass carp reovirus. With the primers designed according to GCRV 873 genome sequences, specific bands were amplified from sick grass carp and the infected CIK cells. The homology rates among vp4, vp6 and vp7 gene in GCRV 096 and those of some GCRV isolates were over 89%. In this study, the sequences of vp4, vp6 and vp7 were used to analyse sequence variation, phylogenetic relationships and genotypes in twenty five GCRV isolates. The results indicated these twenty five GCRV isolates should be attributed to four genotypes. And there were no obvious characteristics in the geographical distribution of GCRV genotype. The study should provide the exact foundation for developing more effective prevention strategies of grass carp haemorrhagic disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important species in Asian aquaculture. A draft genome for grass carp has already been published in 2015. However, there is still a requirement for a suitable genetic linkage map to arrange scaffolds on chromosomal frameworks. QTL analysis is a powerful tool to detect key locations for quantitative traits, especially in aquaculture. There no growth related QTLs of grass carp have been published yet. Even the growth trait is one of the focuses in grass carp culture. RESULTS:In this study, a pair of distantly related parent grass carps and their 100 six-month-old full-sib offspring were used to construct a high-density genetic map with 6429 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by 2b-RAD technology. The total length of the consensus map is 5553.43?cM with the average marker interval of 1.92?cM. The map has a good collinearity with both the grass carp draft genome and the zebrafish genome, and it assembled 89.91% of the draft genome to a chromosomal level. Additionally, according to the growth-related traits of progenies, 30 quantitative trait loci (QTLs), including 7 for body weight, 9 for body length, 5 for body height and 9 for total length, were identified in 16 locations on 5 linkage groups. The phenotypic variance explained for these QTLs varies from 13.4 to 21.6%. Finally, 17 genes located in these regions were considered to be growth-related because they either had functional mutations predicted from the resequencing data of the parents. CONCLUSION:A high density genetic linkage map of grass carp was built and it assembled the draft genome to a chromosomal level. Thirty growth related QTLs were detected. After the cross analysis of Parents resequencing data, 17 candidate genes were obtained for further researches.
Project description:Metagenomic analyses of microbial communities from aquatic sediments are relatively few, and there are no reported metagenomic studies on sediment from inland ponds used for aquaculture. Catfish ponds in the southeastern U.S. are eutrophic systems. They are fertilized to enhance algae growth and encourage natural food production, and catfish are fed with commercial feed from spring to fall. As result, catfish pond sediment (CPS) contains a very dense, diverse microbial community that has significant effects on the physiochemical parameters of pond dynamics. Here we conducted an in-depth metagenomic analysis of the taxonomic and metabolic capabilities of a catfish pond sediment microbiome from a southeastern U.S. aquaculture farm in Mississippi using Illumina next-generation sequencing. A total of 3.3 Gbp of sequence was obtained, 25,491,518 of which encoded predicted protein features. The pond sediment was dominated by Proteobacteria sequences, followed by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and Actinobacteria. Enzyme pathways for methane metabolism/methanogenesis, denitrification, and sulfate reduction appeared nearly complete in the pond sediment metagenome profile. In particular, a large number of Deltaproteobacteria sequences and genes encoding anaerobic functional enzymes were found. This is the first study to characterize a catfish pond sediment microbiome, and it is expected to be useful for characterizing specific changes in microbial flora in response to production practices. It will also provide insight into the taxonomic diversity and metabolic capabilities of microbial communities in aquaculture. Furthermore, comparison with other environments (i.e., river and marine sediments) will reveal habitat-specific characteristics and adaptations caused by differences in nutrients, vegetation, and environmental stresses.
Project description:The use of some antibiotics, including florfenicol and enrofloxacin, is allowed in aquaculture in China. Accordingly, to better address the concerns and questions associated with the impact of administered enrofloxacin and florfenicol to grass carp, here we investigated the transcriptome of the intestine of C. idella treated with these oral antibiotics. The aim of this study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the antibiotic-induced patterns and dynamics of the microbiota grass carp and the potential mechanism involved.
Project description:Purpose:Salinity is an important environmental factor that affects the physiological activities of fish. The goals of this study are investigating the effect of different saline-alkali stress on grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Methods: Grass carp individuals, averaging 12 cm in body length, were obtained from Duofu fish farm (Wuhan, China) and cultured at recirculating aquaculture system for 2 weeks before the experiment began. For the challenge, all grass carp were randomly divided into three groups, and then cultured at saline-alkali water with the concentration of 0, 3‰ and 6‰. After 30 days, some grass crap cultured at 3‰ and 6‰ saline-alkali water were injured. At the same time, gill samples of grass carp were collected from 0, 3‰ (grass carp was not injured), 3‰ (grass carp was injured), 6‰ (grass carp was not injured) and 6‰ (grass carp was injured)saline-alkali groups. Total RNA of all samples was isolated using TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer's introduction. RNA integrity was assessed using an Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer (Agilent, USA). Samples with RNA integrity numbers (RINs) ≥ 7.5 were subjected to cDNA library construction using TruseqTM RNA sample prep Kit (Illumina). Results:A total of 15 were processed for transcriptome sequencing, generating 94.99Gb Clean Data. At least 5.76Gb clean data were generated for each sample with minimum 91.87% of clean data achieved quality score of Q30. Clean reads of each sample were mapped to specified reference genome. Mapping ratio ranged from 88.59% to 92.84%. The expression of genes was quantified and differentially expressed genes were identified based on their expression.Criteria for differentially expressed genes was set as Fold Change(FC)≥1.5 and Pvalue<0.05. Fold change(FC) refers to the ratio of gene expression in two samples. These DEGs were further processed for functional annotation and enrichment analysis. Conclusions: Our study represents Effects and molecular regulation mechanisms of saline-alkali stress on the healthy grass carp by using RNA-seqtechnology. Our results show that saline-alkali stress will impair the immune system of grass carp. Overall design: Total RNA was solated from gills of grass carp cultured at saline-alkali water with the concentration of 0, 3‰ and 6‰ for 30 days
Project description:Background:It has been suggested that aquaculture ponds on the Chinese coast could act as breeding grounds for scyphozoans. Here, we present the first record of the scyphomedusa Phyllorhiza sp. in an aquaculture pond on the coast of the southern Yellow Sea, based on a combination of morphological characteristics and mitochondrial 16S DNA sequence data. Methods:A field survey was performed on June 29, 2017 in a pond used for culturing the shrimp Penaeus japonicus, located in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Jellyfish specimens were collected for morphological and genetic analysis. The morphological characters of the jellyfish specimens were compared to taxonomic literature. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S fragments of these specimens were also conducted. Results:These specimens had the following morphological characters: hemispherical umbrella without scapulets; J-shaped oral arms; a single larger terminal club on each arm; bluish colored with a slightly expanded white tip; and mouthlets present only in the lower half to one-third of each arm. These morphological features of the medusae indicated that the specimens found in the shrimp culture ponds belong to the genus Phyllorhiza Agassiz, 1862, but did not match with the description of any of the known species of the genus Phyllorhiza. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 16S regions revealed that these specimens, together with Phyllorhiza sp. from Malaysian coastal waters, belong to a sister group of Phyllorhiza punctata. Juveniles and ephyrae of Phyllorhiza sp. were observed in the aquaculture pond. The mean density of Phyllorhiza sp. medusa in the surface water within the pond was estimated to be 0.05 individuals/m2. Discussion:Based on our observations of the gross morphology and molecular data, we state that the specimens collected in the aquaculture pond can be identified as Phyllorhiza sp. This is the first record of Phyllorhiza sp. in Chinese seas. Large scale dispersal through ballast water or the expansion of jellyfish aquarium exhibitions are possible pathways of invasion, but this needs to be confirmed in further studies.