Protocol for a feasibility exploratory multicentre study of factors influencing trauma patients' outcomes of traffic crashes in Saudi Arabia.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Road traffic injury is a leading cause of death for people of all ages. The burden of road traffic injuries is well established in developed countries. However, there has been limited investigation of the incidence and burden of road traffic injury in low/middle-income countries. With a proportionally high number of road users, there is a need to explore the factors in prehospital and hospital care in Saudi Arabia (SA) that are associated with mortality for adult trauma patients following road traffic crashes (RTCs). This paper outlines the method for the planned research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A feasibility exploratory multicentre study will be conducted at three purposefully selected hospitals with different trauma care resources in differing geographic locations of SA. The study sample will include all adult trauma patients who are involved in RTCs in SA and have been admitted to a study site in a 3-month period from May to July 2019. Data regarding the characteristics of the crashes and prehospital health care factors will be extracted from hospital databases where it is available. Information will be collected from patients or carers and hospital records in the two sites that do not have a registry. Patient status at 30 days post-injury, particularly mortality, will be assessed through hospital records. The relative contribution of a range of factors to predicting mortality will be explored using logistic regression analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board Committee at King Saud Medical City (H-01-R-053), the General Department of Research and Studies at the Ministry of Health in SA (1440-1249939) and (1440-1398648), and the La Trobe University Human Research Ethics Committee (HEC19095). The results will be reported in a thesis and in peer-reviewed journal articles and conference presentations.
Project description:Introduction:Injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally and disproportionately affects low-income countries. While most injury data comes from tertiary care centers in urban settings, the purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and severity of injury in rural Uganda and the associated treatment patterns and delays in care. Methods:This is a retrospective cohort study of a trauma registry that was implemented at Masindi-Kitara Medical Center (MKMC), a rural hospital in Western Uganda. Demographic information, injury characteristics, modified Kampala Trauma Scores (M-KTS), and treatment modalities over a 12 month period were retrospectively collected from paper-based registry forms completed for all injury patients presenting to MKMC. Results:A total of 350 patients were entered into the trauma registry. Most patients were male (71.2%) with a median age of 26.5 years. Motorcycle crashes were the most prevalent mechanism of injury (42.3%) with the majority being unhelmeted (83.3%). Soft tissue injury was the most common diagnosis (44.9%). Patients were frequently treated in the outpatient department and then discharged (54.8%). Patients requiring admission or transfer (M-KTS = 11.57 or 11.67) tended to have a lower M-KTS than discharged patients (M-KTS = 12.75). Analgesics (74.6%) and antibiotics (52.9%) were the most common treatments administered. For those patients requiring admission (29.4%), only one in-hospital death was documented. Thirty-nine percent of patients reported a delay in seeking care, most frequently due to lack of transportation (31.5%) with a median time of delay of 11 h. Conclusion:Road traffic injuries were the leading cause of injury in Masindi, with a high proportion of injuries associated with unhelmeted motorcycle crashes. Future opportunities to prevent injury and improve care may be seen through improved prehospital care, enforcement of helmet laws, increased access to neurosurgical services, and enactment of hospital quality improvement measures.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To identify key intervention factors and reduce road traffic injury (RTI)-associated mortality, this study compared outcomes and influencing factors of single and multiple road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Shanghai. METHODS:Based on the design of National Trauma Data Bank, this study collected demographic, injury, and outcome data from RTI patients treated at the four largest trauma centers in Shanghai from January 2011 to January 2015. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, and hierarchical logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Among 2397 participants, 59.4% had a single injury, and 40.6% had multiple injuries. Most patients' outcome was cure or improvement. For single-RTI patients, length of stay, body region, central nervous system injury, acute renal failure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, bacterial infection, and coma were significantly related to outcome. For multiple-RTI patients, age, admission pathway, prehospital time, length of stay, number of body regions, body region, injury condition, injury severity score, and coma were significantly related to outcome. CONCLUSIONS:Emergency rescue in road traffic accidents should focus on high-risk groups (the elderly), high-incidence body regions (head, thorax, pelvis) and number of injuries, injury condition (central nervous system injury, coma, complications, admission pathway), injury severity (critically injured patients), and time factors (particularly prehospital time).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transporting a severely injured patient directly to a trauma center (TC) is consensually considered optimal. Nevertheless, disagreement persists regarding the association between secondary transfer status and outcome. The aim of the study was to compare adjusted mortality between road traffic trauma patients directly or secondarily transported to a level 1 trauma center (TC) in an exclusive French trauma system with a physician staffed prehospital emergency medical system (EMS). METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was performed using 2015-2017 data from a regional trauma registry (Traumabase®), an administrative database on road-traffic accidents and prehospital-EMS records. Multivariate logistic regression models were computed to determine the role of the modality of admission on mortality and to identify factors associated with secondary transfer. The primary outcome was day-30 mortality. Results: During the study period, 121.955 victims of road-traffic accident were recorded among which 4412 trauma patients were admitted in the level 1 regional TCs, 4031 directly and 381 secondarily transferred from lower levels facilities. No significant association between all-cause 30-day mortality and the type of transport was observed (Odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.3-1.9]) when adjusted for potential confounders. Patients secondarily transferred were older, with low-energy mechanism and presented higher head and abdominal injury scores. Among all 947 death, 43 (4.5%) occurred in lower-level facilities. The population-based undertriage leading to death was 0.15%, 95%CI [0.12-0.19]. CONCLUSION:In an exclusive trauma system with physician staffed prehospital care, road-traffic victims secondarily transferred to a TC do not have an increased mortality when compared to directly transported patients.
Project description:Background:Data about injury patterns and clinical outcomes are essential to address the burden of injury in low- and middle-income countries. Institutional trauma registries (ITRs) are a key tool for collecting epidemiologic data about injury. This study uses ITR data to describe the demographics and patterns of injury of trauma patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in order to identify opportunities for injury prevention, systems strengthening and further research. Methods:This is an analysis of prospectively collected data from a sustainable ITR at Menelik II Specialized Hospital, a public teaching hospital with trauma expertise. All patients presenting to the hospital with serious injuries requiring intervention or admission over a 13 month period were included. Univariable and bivariable analyses were performed for patient demographics and injury characteristics. Results:A total of 854 patients with serious injuries were treated during the study period. Median age was 33 years and 74% were male. The most common mechanisms of injury were road traffic injuries (RTI) (37%), falls (30%) and blunt assault (17%). Over half of RTI victims were pedestrians. Median delay in presentation was 2 h; 17% of patients presented over 6 h after injury. 58% of patients were referred from another hospital or a clinic, and referrals accounted for 84% of patients arriving by ambulance. Median emergency center length of stay was 2 h and 62% of patients were discharged from the emergency center. Conclusion:This study highlights the utility of institutional trauma registries in collecting crucial injury surveillance data. In Addis Ababa, road safety is an important target for injury prevention. Our findings suggest that the most severely injured patients may not be making it to the referral centers with the capacity to treat their injuries, thus efforts to improve prehospital care and triage are needed. African relevance:Injury is a public health priority in Africa. Institutional trauma registries play a crucial role in efforts to improve trauma care by describing injury epidemiology to identify targets for injury prevention and systems strengthening efforts. In our context, pedestrian safety is a key target for injury prevention. Improving prehospital care and developing referral networks are goals for systems strengthening.
Project description:This is a European cohort study on predictors of spinal injury in adult (?16 years) major trauma patients, using prospectively collected data of the Trauma Audit and Research Network from 1988 to 2009. Predictors for spinal fractures/dislocations or spinal cord injury were determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. 250,584 patients were analysed. 24,000 patients (9.6%) sustained spinal fractures/dislocations alone and 4,489 (1.8%) sustained spinal cord injury with or without fractures/dislocations. Spinal injury patients had a median age of 44.5 years (IQR = 28.8-64.0) and Injury Severity Score of 9 (IQR = 4-17). 64.9% were male. 45% of patients suffered associated injuries to other body regions. Age <45 years (?45 years OR 0.83-0.94), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 3-8 (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19), falls >2 m (OR 4.17, 95% CI 3.98-4.37), sports injuries (OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.41-3.23) and road traffic collisions (RTCs) (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.83-2.00) were predictors for spinal fractures/dislocations. Age <45 years (?45 years OR 0.78-0.90), male gender (female OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.85), GCS <15 (OR 1.36-1.93), associated chest injury (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20), sports injuries (OR 3.98, 95% CI 3.04-5.21), falls >2 m (OR 3.60, 95% CI 3.21-4.04), RTCs (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.96-2.46) and shooting (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.21-3.00) were predictors for spinal cord injury. Multilevel injury was found in 10.4% of fractures/dislocations and in 1.3% of cord injury patients. As spinal trauma occurred in >10% of major trauma patients, aggressive evaluation of the spine is warranted, especially, in males, patients <45 years, with a GCS <15, concomitant chest injury and/or dangerous injury mechanisms (falls >2 m, sports injuries, RTCs and shooting). Diagnostic imaging of the whole spine and a diligent search for associated injuries are substantial.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Every year more than 1.2 million people worldwide die due to trauma sustained in road crashes, with an additional number of people injured exceeding 50 million. To a large extent, this applies to so called "unprotected road users", including pedestrians. The risk involved in a traffic crash for pedestrians can result from many factors, one of which is participation in road traffic when under the influence of alcohol. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of alcohol use among pedestrians as unprotected road traffic participants, and the consequences of them being struck by motor vehicles. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The source of data was the medical documentation of the Department of Forensic Medicine at the Medical University of Warsaw. The sample for this research consisted of 313 pedestrians who were victims of fatal road crashes resulting from a collision with a mechanical vehicle. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using the STATISTICA version 12.5 program (StatSoft Polska, Cracow, Poland). RESULTS:Male fatalities constituted the majority of the study sample. Nearly half of the fatal pedestrian victims were found to be under the influence of alcohol. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between the gender and age of the victims, as well as between the place of the event, the place of death, the mechanism of the event, and the presence of alcohol in pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS:Among pedestrians, victims of road crashes who were under the influence of alcohol were predominantly drunk young males. Victims under the influence of alcohol were more likely to become fatalities in crashes where the mechanism of the incident was being struck by a passenger car, and when the place of the incident was a rural area, in these cases the rates of death directly at the scene were much more frequent. The eradication of alcohol consumption by all road users should be the overriding objective of all measures aimed at reducing the number of road crashes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Road trauma is a leading cause of death and injury in young people. Traffic offences are common, but their importance as a risk indicator for subsequent road trauma is unknown. This cohort study assessed whether severe road trauma could be predicted by a history of prior traffic offences. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Clinical data of all adult road trauma patients admitted to the Western Australia (WA) State Trauma Centre between 1998 and 2013 were linked to traffic offences records at the WA Department of Transport. The primary outcomes were alcohol exposure prior to road trauma, severe trauma (defined by Injury Severity Score >15), and intensive care admission (ICU) or death, analyzed by logistic regression. Traffic offences directly leading to the road trauma admissions were excluded. Of the 10,330 patients included (median age 34 years-old, 78% male), 1955 (18.9%) had alcohol-exposure before road trauma, 2415 (23.4%) had severe trauma, 1360 (13.2%) required ICU admission, and 267 (2.6%) died. Prior traffic offences were recorded in 6269 (60.7%) patients. The number of prior traffic offences was significantly associated with alcohol-related road trauma (odds ratio [OR] per offence 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.05), severe trauma (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.14-1.15), and ICU admission or death (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08-1.11). Drink-drinking, seat-belt, and use of handheld electronic device offences were specific offences strongly associated with road trauma leading to ICU admission or death--all in a 'dose-related' fashion. For those who recovered from road trauma after an ICU admission, there was a significant reduction in subsequent traffic offences (mean difference 1.8, 95%CI 1.5 to 2.0) and demerit points (mean difference 7.0, 95%CI 6.5 to 7.6) compared to before the trauma event. SIGNIFICANCE:Previous traffic offences were a significant risk factor for alcohol-related road trauma and severe road trauma leading to ICU admission or death.
Project description:Trauma is becoming a leading cause of death in most of the low-income and middle-income countries worldwide. The growing number of motor vehicles far surpasses the development and upkeep of the road and highway networks, traffic laws, and driver training and licensing. In Thailand, road traffic injuries have become the second leading cause of death and morbidity overall since 1990. The lack of improvement to existing roadways, implementation of traffic safety and ridership laws including seatbelt regulations, and poor emergency medical assistance support systems all contribute to these statistics. An insufficient number and inequitable distribution of healthcare professionals is also a national problem, especially at the district level. Prehospital care of trauma patients remains insufficient and improvements at the national level are suggested.
Project description:Many studies have been undertaken in Nigeria on maxillofacial trauma. However, only a few have considered both the skeletal and soft tissue injuries (in general) involving all the aspects of the maxillofacial region or considered other etiological sources of trauma apart from road traffic crashes. Fewer still have reviewed the outcome of management of facial injuries in our low-resource environment. This study sets out to examine the recent trends in both the clinical and epidemiological patterns of all facial injuries from all causes seen in a low-resource practice of a developing country. It also assessed the in-hospital treatment outcomes, and the levels of the patients' satisfaction with treatment received in this setting. Over a 12-month period, the clinical records of consecutive patients who were evaluated and treated for maxillofacial injuries in our unit were prospectively acquired, entered into predesigned forms and subsequently analyzed. There were 259 patients (79.5% males) during the study period. The mean age was 32.21( ± 16.588) years. Overall, motor bike crashes, 42.1%, were the commonest source of these traumas; and armed robbery was the commonest form (69.0%) of assault. Mandibular fractures were the commonest maxillofacial fractures (37.8%) whereas head injury had the highest frequency among the associated injuries (71.4%). Closed reduction and immobilization was deployed in 88.0% of those who had treatment and majority was satisfied with the esthetic outcome of the treatment received. Mean length of hospital stay was 12.6 ( ± 4.423) days. Maxillofacial trauma poses a significant socioeconomic burden on affected individuals in this study population. This is made worse by the presence of associated injuries in the other body systems. More local studies on the outcome of management of maxillofacial trauma will improve the available literature in this region.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Few low income countries have emergency medical services to provide prehospital medical care and transport to road traffic crash casualties. In Ghana most roadway casualties receive care and transport to the hospital from taxi, bus, or truck drivers. This study reports the methods used to devise a model for prehospital trauma training for commercial drivers in Ghana.<h4>Methods</h4>Over 300 commercial drivers attended a first aid and rescue course designed specifically for roadway trauma and geared to a low education level. The training programme has been evaluated twice at one and two year intervals by interviewing both trained and untrained drivers with regard to their experiences with injured persons. In conjunction with a review of prehospital care literature, lessons learnt from the evaluations were used in the revision of the training model.<h4>Results</h4>Control of external haemorrhage was quickly learnt and used appropriately by the drivers. Areas identified needing emphasis in future trainings included consistent use of universal precautions and protection of airways in unconscious persons using the recovery position.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In low income countries, prehospital trauma care for roadway casualties can be improved by training laypersons already involved in prehospital transport and care. Training should be locally devised, evidence based, educationally appropriate, and focus on practical demonstrations.