Refinement of risk stratification for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma using FOXO1 fusion status in addition to established clinical outcome predictors: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Previous studies of the prognostic importance of FOXO1 fusion status in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have had conflicting results. We re-examined risk stratification by adding FOXO1 status to traditional clinical prognostic factors in children with localized or metastatic RMS. METHODS:Data from six COG clinical trials (D9602, D9802, D9803, ARST0331, ARTS0431, ARST0531; two studies each for low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients) accruing previously untreated patients with RMS from 1997 to 2013 yielded 1727 evaluable patients. Survival tree regression for event-free survival (EFS) was conducted to recursively select prognostic factors for branching and split. Factors included were age, FOXO1, clinical group, histology, nodal status, number of metastatic sites, primary site, sex, tumor size, and presence of metastases in bone/bone marrow, soft tissue, effusions, lung, distant lymph nodes, and other sites. Definition and outcome of the proposed risk groups were compared to existing systems and cross-validated results. RESULTS:The 5-year EFS and overall survival (OS) for evaluable patients were 69% and 79%, respectively. Extent of disease (localized versus metastatic) was the first split (EFS 73% vs 30%; OS 84% vs. 42%). FOXO1 status (positive vs negative) was significant in the second split both for localized (EFS 52% vs 78%; OS 65% vs 88%) and metastatic disease (EFS 6% vs 46%; OS 19% vs 58%). CONCLUSIONS:After metastatic status, FOXO1 status is the most important prognostic factor in patients with RMS and improves risk stratification of patients with localized RMS. Our findings support incorporation of FOXO1 status in risk stratified clinical trials.
Project description:Distinguishing alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) from embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) has historically been of prognostic and therapeutic importance. However, classification has been complicated by shifting histologic criteria required for an ARMS diagnosis. Children's Oncology Group (COG) studies after IRS-IV, which included the height of this diagnostic shift, showed both an increased number of ARMS and an increase in the proportion of fusion-negative ARMS. Following diagnostic standardization and histologic re-review of ARMS cases enrolled during this era, analysis of low-risk (D9602) and intermediate-risk (D9803) rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) studies showed that fusion status rather than histology best predicts prognosis for patients with RMS. This analysis remains to be completed for patients with high-risk RMS.We re-reviewed cases on high-risk COG studies D9802 and ARST0431 with an enrollment diagnosis of ARMS. We compared the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival by histology, PAX-FOXO1 fusion, and clinical risk factors (Oberlin score) for patients with metastatic RMS using the log-rank test.Histology re-review resulted in reclassification as ERMS for 12% of D9802 cases and 5% of ARST0431 cases. Fusion-negative RMS had a superior EFS to fusion-positive RMS; however, poorer outcome for metastatic RMS was most related to clinical risk factors including age, primary site, and number of metastatic sites.In contrast to low- or intermediate-risk RMS, in metastatic RMS, clinical risk factors have the most impact on patient outcome. PAX-FOXO1 fusion is more common in patients with a high Oberlin score, but fusion status is not an independent biomarker of prognosis.
Project description:Parameningeal (PM) site is a well-known adverse prognostic factor in children with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To identify risk factors associated with outcome at this site, we pooled data from 1105 patients treated in 10 studies conducted by European and North American cooperative groups between 1984 and 2004.Clinical factors including age, histology, size, invasiveness, nodal involvement, Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) clinical group, site, risk factors for meningeal involvement (MI), study group, and application of radiotherapy (RT) were studied for their impact on event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS).Ten-year EFS and OS were 62.6 and 66.1% for the whole group. Patients without initial RT showed worse survival (10-year OS 40.8% versus 68.5% for RT treated patients). Multivariate analysis focusing on 862 patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment revealed four unfavorable prognostic factors: age <3 or >10 years, signs of MI, unfavorable site, and tumor size. Utilizing these prognostic factors, patients could be classified into different risk groups with 10-year OS ranging between 51.1 and 80.9%.While, in general, PM localization is regarded as an adverse prognostic factor, the current analysis differentiates those with good prognosis (36% patients with 0-1 risk factor: 10-year OS 80.9%) from high-risk PM patients (28% with 3-4 factors: 10-year OS 51.1%). Furthermore, this analysis reinforces the necessity for RT in PM RMS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in infants is a particular entity with various clinical presentations and outcomes. To better understand the clinical heterogeneity of RMS in infants, an integrative clinical, histological, and molecular analysis was performed. METHODS:From 1989 to 2015, 37 infants aged less than 6 months with a diagnosis of RMS and archival tumor materials were identified in France. Clinical data, central pathologic review, and molecular profile including RNA sequencing were analyzed. RESULTS:Nineteen patients (51%) had embryonal RMS (ERMS) (including three highly differentiated ERMS with PTCH deletion), eight (22%) had spindle cell RMS (SRMS) (three VGLL2-, one NTRK-, and two (B)RAF-fusions), six (16%) had alveolar RMS (ARMS) (all FOXO1- or PAX3-fusion), two had unclassified RMS, and two poorly differentiated RMS were retrospectively diagnosed as rhabdoid tumors (RT) with loss of INI1 expression. The two RT patients died of rapid disease progression. Five-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) for RMS were 62% (95%CI, 47-82) and 52% (95%CI, 37-72). Eleven patients (31%) relapsed and four (11%) had primary refractory disease (all ERMS). In univariate analysis, EFS and OS were only associated with histology subtype, with 100% survival of known fusion-positive SRMS. RNA cluster expression showed three main clusters: ARMS, ERMS, and "VGLL2-fusion" cluster, consisting of SRMS and ERMS. CONCLUSIONS:Biopathology findings from this study support the different prognosis of infantile RMS. New fusion-positive SRMS has a very good outcome which may allow more conservative treatment in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) remains unclear in patients with localized, completely resected (group I) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS). PROCEDURE:Patients with group I ARMS enrolled on any one of three prior Children's Oncology Group (COG) clinical trials (D9602, D9803, or ARST0531) were analyzed. All patients received systemic chemotherapy and 36 Gy adjuvant RT (if given) to the primary site at week 12 or week 4 for D9602/D9803 and ARST0531, respectively. RESULTS:Thirty-six patients with group I ARMS were treated on D9602 (n = 6), D9803 (n = 17), or ARST0531 (n = 13), of whom 24 (67%) were male. The median age was 4.1 years (range, 0.8-45.8). Twenty (56%) patients had an unfavorable primary site, and 10 (28%) had tumors > 5 cm. FOXO1-fusion status was negative, positive, and unknown in 10 (28%), 15 (42%), and 11 (30%) tumors, respectively. Twenty-two (61%) patients received RT. Overall, the four-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 70.8% and 88.3%, respectively. Patients with FOXO1 positivity who received RT had superior EFS compared with those who did not (77.8% vs 16.7%; P = 0.03). Among 10 patients who were FOXO1 negative, the outcome was similar with or without RT. CONCLUSIONS:Although limited by a small sample size, data from this study support the routine use of adjuvant RT in patients with FOXO1-positive disease even after complete resection. Additionally, omitting adjuvant RT is rational for patients with FOXO1-negative ARMS and will be prospectively investigated in the current COG trial ARST1431.
Project description:We analyzed the outcome of 47 patients with superficial facial rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Protocols-III, -IV-Pilot, and -IV.We reviewed patients' records. Clinico-pathologic features, treatment, and outcome were examined to identify prognostic factors.Thirty-two patients were males; 35 patients were 1-9 years old at diagnosis. Tumor sites were buccal/cheek (N = 21), external nasal/nasolabial (N = 12), lip/chin (N = 9), and masseter (N = 5). Patients (46/47) had localized disease: 18 biopsy only (Group III), 17 microscopic residual tumor (Group II), and 11 complete resection without residual tumor (Group I). Eight-year estimated event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OAS) rates were 61% and 65%. Patients <12 months old had inferior EFS, 21%, compared to approximately 68% in older patients (P = 0.077). Eight-year EFS rates were 80% for females and 50% for males (P = 0.096). Eight-year EFS rates were 72% in 33 patients without regional lymph-nodal tumor and 39% in 14 patients with regional nodal tumor (P = 0.07). Eight-year EFS rates were 72% for 22 patients with embryonal RMS and 53% for 23 patients with alveolar RMS (P = 0.28). Location of the primary tumor was not significantly related to outcome.Patients with superficial facial RMS often have localized, grossly resectable lesions at the time of presentation. Favorable prognostic factors include age >12 months, female gender, embryonal histology, and no lymph-nodal tumor.
Project description:This prospective phase II study was designed to assess disease control and to describe acute and late adverse effects of treatment with proton radiotherapy in children with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).Fifty-seven patients with localized RMS (age 21 years or younger) or metastatic embryonal RMS (age 2 to 10 years) were enrolled between February 2005 and August 2012. All patients were treated with chemotherapy based on either vincristine, actinomycin, and cyclophosphamide or vincristine, actinomycin, and ifosfamide-based chemotherapy and proton radiation. Surgical resection was based on tumor site and accessibility. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0, was used to assess and grade adverse effects of treatment. Concurrent enrollment onto Children's Oncology Group or European Pediatric Sarcoma Study Group protocols was allowed. All pathology and imaging were reviewed at the treating institution.Median follow-up was 47 months (range, 14 to 102 months) for survivors. Five-year event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and local control (LC) were 69%, 78%, and 81%, respectively, for the entire cohort. The 5-year LC by risk group was 93% for low-risk and 77% for intermediate-risk disease. There were 13 patients with grade 3 acute toxicity and three patients with grade 3 late toxicity. There were no acute or late toxicities higher than grade 3.Five-year LC, EFS, and OS rates were similar to those observed in comparable trials that used photon radiation. Acute and late toxicity rates were favorable. Proton radiation appears to represent a safe and effective radiation modality for pediatric RMS.
Project description:Five-year overall survival (OS) of localized RMS exceeds 70% in children (<18) but is very poor in adult patients. We analyzed the outcome and prognostic factors (PF) of a national series of adult patients with RMS in a large study. The study population consisted of two different cohorts: a retrospective cohort (157 adult patients treated in 13 reference centers between 05/1981 and 02/2010) and the prospective cohort (292 patients with RMS diagnosed and treated between 01/2010 and 12/2014 in France) included in the NetSarc database. A descriptive analysis of patients' characteristics and prognostic factors was conducted on both series which were compared. In the retrospective series, histological subtypes were embryonal (E-RMS) for 21% of patients, alveolar (A-RMS) for 35% of patients, and "adult-type" P-RMS (pleomorphic, spindle cell RMS, not otherwise specified) (P) for 44% patients. This distribution significantly differed in the prospective cohort: A-RMS: 18%; E-RMS: 17%; and P-RMS 65%. With a median follow-up of 8.5 years, 5-year OS for localized RMS and advanced RMS (with nodes and/or metastases) was 43% and 5%, respectively, (P < 0.0001), and median OS was 51, 33, and 16 months for E-RMS, A-RMS, and P-RMS, respectively, in the retrospective cohort. The median OS was less than 40 months for the prospective nationwide cohort for the entire population. In a multivariate analysis of the retrospective study, independent prognostic factors for OS were A-RMS, R0 resection, and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). For localized RMS, age and use of pediatric chemotherapy (CT) regimen are independent prognostic factors. Adult patients with RMS have a poorer overall survival than pediatric patients, and survival varies considerably across histological subtypes.
Project description:Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) in children and adolescents are heterogeneous sarcomas broadly defined by skeletal muscle features and the presence/absence of PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion genes. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a cell context specific manner. Sequencing analyses of microRNAs in 64 RMS revealed expression patterns separating skeletal muscle, fusion gene positive and negative RMS. Integration with parallel gene expression data assigned biological functions to 12 co-expression networks/modules that reassuringly included myogenic roles strongly correlated with microRNAs known in myogenesis and RMS development. Modules also correlated with clinical outcome and fusion status. Regulation of microRNAs by the fusion protein was demonstrated after PAX3-FOXO1 reduction, exemplified by miR-9-5p. MiR-9-5p levels correlated with poor outcome, even within fusion gene positive RMS, and were higher in metastatic versus non-metastatic disease. MiR-9-5p reduction inhibited RMS cell migration. Our findings reveal microRNAs in a regulatory framework of biological and clinical significance in RMS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL), the identification of additional genetic alterations associated with poor prognosis is still of importance. We determined the frequency and prognostic impact of somatic mutations in children and adult cases with B-ALL treated with Spanish PETHEMA and SEHOP protocols.<h4>Methods</h4>Mutational status of hotspot regions of TP53, JAK2, PAX5, LEF1, CRLF2 and IL7R genes was determined by next-generation deep sequencing in 340 B-ALL patients (211 children and 129 adults). The associations between mutation status and clinicopathological features at the time of diagnosis, treatment outcome and survival were assessed. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed to identify independent prognostic factors associated with overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS) and relapse rate (RR).<h4>Results</h4>A mutation rate of 12.4% was identified. The frequency of adult mutations was higher (20.2% vs 7.6%, P=0.001). TP53 was the most frequently mutated gene (4.1%), followed by JAK2 (3.8%), CRLF2 (2.9%), PAX5 (2.4%), LEF1 (0.6%) and IL7R (0.3%). All mutations were observed in B-ALL without ETV6-RUNX1 (P=0.047) or BCR-ABL1 fusions (P<0.0001). In children, TP53mut was associated with lower OS (5-year OS: 50% vs 86%, P=0.002) and EFS rates (5-year EFS: 50% vs 78.3%, P=0.009) and higher RR (5-year RR: 33.3% vs 18.6% P=0.037), and was independently associated with higher RR (hazard ratio (HR)=4.5; P=0.04). In adults, TP53mut was associated with a lower OS (5-year OS: 0% vs 43.3%, P=0.019) and a higher RR (5-year RR: 100% vs 61.4%, P=0.029), whereas JAK2mut was associated with a lower EFS (5-year EFS: 0% vs 30.6%, P=0.035) and a higher RR (5-year RR: 100% vs 60.4%, P=0.002). TP53mut was an independent risk factor for shorter OS (HR=2.3; P=0.035) and, together with JAK2mut, also were independent markers of poor prognosis for RR (TP53mut: HR=5.9; P=0.027 and JAK2mut: HR=5.6; P=0.036).<h4>Conclusions</h4>TP53mut and JAK2mut are potential biomarkers associated with poor prognosis in B-ALL patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clinical impact on patients' stratification and outcome. METHODS: Specimens were obtained from RMS patients and cell lines, and ALK expression was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting, IHC, and copy number analysis. RESULTS: High ALK mRNA expression was detected in the vast majority of PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours, whereas PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS displayed considerably lower amounts of both mRNA and protein. Notably, ALK mRNA distinguished unfavourable PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours from PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS (P<0.0001), and also correlated with larger tumour size (P<0.05) and advanced clinical stage (P<0.01), independently of fusion gene status. High ALK mRNA levels were of prognostic relevance by Cox univariate regression analysis and correlated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.001) and survival (P=0.01), whereas by multivariate analysis elevated ALK mRNA expression resulted a negative prognostic marker when clinical stage was not included. CONCLUSION: Quantitative assessment of ALK mRNA expression helps to improve risk stratification of RMS patients and identifies tumours with adverse biological characteristics and aggressive behaviour.