First Record of Stephanostomum Sp. Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae) Metacercariae Parasitising the Pleasure Oyster Crassostrea Corteziensis (Hertlein) from the Mexican Pacific Coast.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to identify the parasites present in the largely understudied pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Sinaloa state in the northwestern Mexican Pacific coast. Inspection of twenty-eight oysters collected on "Ceuta" lagoon revealed the presence of the digenean Stephanostomum sp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae) cysts. Metacercariae were found encapsulated and embedded in the digestive gland and mantle tissue of oysters. The prevalence of infection revealed that 84.6 % were infected, the abundance was 13.62, with a mean intensity of 16.09 per host. The members of this genus are characterized by a double crown of spines in the cephalic region surrounding the buccal opening of the worm. Significantly, we report the first incidence of the digenean Stephanostomum sp of the family Acanthocolpidae parasitizing Crassostrea corteziensis. Further we report that this bivalve is now considered a new intermediate host, and the northwestern Mexican Pacific coast is a new geographical distribution area for this digenean. The findings contribute to our understanding of the biology, biodiversity and host preference of these parasites, with implications for health risks posed by human consumption of the pleasure oyster.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The protozoan Perkinsus marinus (Mackin, Owen & Collier) Levine, 1978 causes perkinsosis in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, 1791. This pathogen is present in cultured C. virginica from the Gulf of Mexico and has been reported recently in Saccostrea palmula (Carpenter, 1857), Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) and Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) from the Mexican Pacific coast. Transportation of fresh oysters for human consumption and repopulation could be implicated in the transmission and dissemination of this parasite across the Mexican Pacific coast. The aim of this study was two-fold. First, we evaluated the P. marinus infection parameters by PCR and RFTM (Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium) in C. virginica from four major lagoons (Términos Lagoon, Campeche; Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex, Tabasco; Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz; and La Pesca Lagoon, Tamaulipas) from the Gulf of Mexico. Secondly, we used DNA sequence analyses of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer (rNTS) region of P. marinus to determine the possible translocation of this species from the Gulf of Mexico to the Mexican Pacific coast. RESULTS:Perkinsus marinus prevalence by PCR was 57.7% (338 out of 586 oysters) and 38.2% (224 out of 586 oysters) by RFTM. The highest prevalence was observed in the Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex in the state of Tabasco (73% by PCR and 58% by RFTM) and the estimated weighted prevalence (WP) was less than 1.0 in the four lagoons. Ten unique rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus [termed herein the "P. marinus (Pm) haplotype"] were identified in the Gulf of Mexico sample. They shared 96-100% similarity with 18 rDNA-NTS sequences from the GenBank database which were derived from 16 Mexican Pacific coast infections and two sequences from the USA. The phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network showed that the P. marinus rDNA-NTS sequences from Mexico were distant from the rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus reported from the USA. The ten rDNA-NTS sequences described herein were restricted to specific locations displaying different geographical connections within the Gulf of Mexico; the Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Pm1 haplotype from the state of Tabasco shared a cluster with P. marinus isolates reported from the Mexican Pacific coast. CONCLUSIONS:The rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus from the state of Tabasco shared high similarity with the reference rDNA-NTS sequences from the Mexican Pacific coast. The high similarity suggests a transfer of oysters infected with P. marinus from the Mexican part of the Gulf of Mexico into the Mexican Pacific coast.
Project description:The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is a kind of marine bivalve of great economic and ecological importance and is among the animals possessing the highest level of genome DNA variations. Despite large efforts made for the discovery of Pacific oyster SNPs in many research groups, challenge still remains as how to utilize SNPs in a high-throughput, transferable and economical manner. In the study, we constructed an oyster 190K SNP array with Affymetrix Axiom genotyping technology. A total of 190,420 SNPs were designed on the chip, which were selected from 54 M SNPs identified by re-sequencing of more than 400 Pacific oysters. Genotyping results from 96 wild oysters indicated that 133,984 (70.4%) SNPs were polymorphic and successfully converted on the chip. Carrying 133K polymorphic SNPs, the oyster 190K SNP array is the first high density SNP chip with the largest throughput currently in mollusc and is commercially available to the worldwide research community. Overall design: A total of 96 Pacific oysters were genotyped according to the manufacturer's directions to assess the performance of the oyster SNP array. All DNA were extracted from mantle tissues using a standard phenol-chloroform method.
Project description:Background:Abundance of the commercially and ecologically important Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, has declined across the US Eastern and Gulf coasts in recent decades, spurring substantial efforts to restore oyster reefs. These efforts are widely constrained by the availability, cost, and suitability of substrates to support oyster settlement and reef establishment. In particular, oyster shell is often the preferred substrate but is relatively scarce and increasingly expensive. Thus, there is a need for alternative oyster restoration materials that are cost-effective, abundant, and durable. Methods:We tested the viability of two low-cost substrates-concrete and recycled blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) traps-in facilitating oyster recovery in a replicated 22-month field experiment at historically productive but now degraded intertidal oyster grounds on northwestern Florida's Nature Coast. Throughout the trial, we monitored areal oyster cover on each substrate; at the end of the trial, we measured the densities of oysters by size class (spat, juvenile, and market-size) and the biomass and volume of each reef. Results:Oysters colonized the concrete structures more quickly than the crab traps, as evidenced by significantly higher oyster cover during the first year of the experiment. By the end of the experiment, the concrete structures hosted higher densities of spat and juveniles, while the density of market-size oysters was relatively low and similar between treatments. The open structure of the crab traps led to the development of larger-volume reefs, while oyster biomass per unit area was similar between treatments. In addition, substrates positioned at lower elevations (relative to mean sea level) supported higher oyster abundance, size, and biomass than those less frequently inundated at higher elevations. Discussion:Together, these findings indicate that both concrete and crab traps are viable substrates for oyster reef restoration, especially when placed at lower intertidal elevations conducive to oyster settlement and reef development.
Project description:Light-sensitivity is an important aspect of mollusk survival as it plays a vital role in reproduction and predator avoidance. In the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas light sensitivity has been demonstrated in the larval stage but has not yet been conclusively demonstrated in adult oysters. In this paper we describe an experiment which was undertaken to determine if adult Pacific oysters were sensitive to light. One LED flashlight was used to shine light onto adult oysters while they were filtering seawater through their shell openings. We found that the degree of opening increased gradually during the light period but rapidly decreased when the flashlight was turned off in the treated group but not in the control group. These results suggest that adult Pacific oyster may be sensitive to light.
Project description:The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, was voluntarily introduced from Japan and British Columbia into Europe in the early 1970s, mainly to replace the Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata, in the French shellfish industry, following a severe disease outbreak. Since then, the two species have been in contact in southern Europe and, therefore, have the potential to exchange genes. Recent evolutionary genomic works have provided empirical evidence that C. gigas and C. angulata exhibit partial reproductive isolation. Although hybridization occurs in nature, the rate of interspecific gene flow varies across the genome, resulting in highly heterogeneous genome divergence. Taking this biological property into account is important to characterize genetic ancestry and population structure in oysters. Here, we identified a subset of ancestry-informative makers from the most differentiated regions of the genome using existing genomic resources. We developed two different panels in order to (i) easily differentiate C. gigas and C. angulata, and (ii) describe the genetic diversity and structure of the cupped oyster with a particular focus on French Atlantic populations. Our results confirm high genetic homogeneity among Pacific cupped oyster populations in France and reveal several cases of introgressions between Portuguese and Japanese oysters in France and Portugal.
Project description:Invasions by shell-boring polychaetes such as Polydora websteri Hartman have resulted in the collapse of oyster aquaculture industries in Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii. These worms burrow into bivalve shells, creating unsightly mud blisters that are unappealing to consumers and, when nicked during shucking, release mud and detritus that can foul oyster meats. Recent findings of mud blisters on the shells of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) in Washington State suggest a new spionid polychaete outbreak. To determine the identity of the polychaete causing these blisters, we obtained Pacific oysters from two locations in Puget Sound and examined them for blisters and burrows caused by polychaete worms. Specimens were also obtained from eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin) collected in New York for morphological and molecular comparison. We compared polychaete morphology to original descriptions, extracted DNA and sequenced mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I [mtCOI]) and nuclear (small subunit 18S rRNA [18S rRNA]) genes to determine a species-level molecular identification for these worms. Our data show that Polydora websteri are present in the mud blisters from oysters grown in Puget Sound, constituting the first confirmed record of this species in Washington State. The presence of this notorious invader could threaten the sustainability of oyster aquaculture in Washington, which currently produces more farmed bivalves than any other US state.
Project description:Fast growth is one of the most desired traits for all food animals, which affects the profitability of animal production. The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is an important aquaculture shellfish around the world with the largest annual production. Growth of the Pacific oyster has been greatly improved by artificial selection breeding, but molecular mechanisms underlying growth remains poorly understood, which limited the molecular integrative breeding of fast growth with other superior traits. In this study, comparative transcriptome analyses between the fast-growing selectively bred Pacific oyster and unselected wild Pacific oysters were conducted by RNA-Seq. A total of 1,303 protein-coding genes differentially expressed between fast-growing oysters and wild controls were identified, of which 888 genes were expressed at higher levels in the fast-growing oysters. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that genes involved in microtubule motor activity and biosynthesis of nucleotides and proteins are potentially important for growth in the oyster. Positive selection analysis of genes at the transcriptome level showed that a significant number of ribosomal protein genes had undergone positive selection during the artificial selection breeding process. These results also indicated the importance of protein biosynthesis and metabolism for the growth of oysters. The alternative splicing (AS) of genes was also compared between the two groups of oysters. A total of 3,230 differential alternative splicing events (DAS) were identified, involved in 1,818 genes. These DAS genes were associated with specific functional pathways related to growth, such as "long-term potentiation," "salivary secretion," and "phosphatidylinositol signaling system." The findings of this study will be valuable resources for future investigation to unravel molecular mechanisms underlying growth regulation in the oyster and other marine invertebrates and to provide solid support for breeding application to integrate fast growth with other superior traits in the Pacific oyster.
Project description:The Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, is one of the major aquacultural shellfish species that has been introduced to Europe and America from its native source in the West Pacific. In Taiwan, the cultivated cupped oysters along the west coast have been identified as C. gigas for over centuries; however, several molecular phylogenetic studies have cast doubt upon the existence of this species in Taiwan and adjacent waters. Indeed, our analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequences from 313 Crassostrea collected from 12 locations along Taiwanese and southern Chinese coastlines confirm that all samples were the Portuguese oyster, C. angulata, rather than C. gigas. Multiple lines of evidence, including haplotypic and nucleotide diversity of the COI gene, demographic history, and population genetics, suggest that Taiwanese C. angulata is unique, probably experienced a sudden population expansion after the Last Glacial Maxima around 20,000 years ago, and has a significantly limited genetic connectivity across the Taiwan Strait. Our study applies an extended sampling and DNA barcoding to confirm the absence of C. gigas in natural and cultivated populations in Taiwan and southern China, where we only found C. angulata. We highlight the importance of conserving the gene pool of the C. angulata population in Taiwan, particularly considering the current threats by large-scale environmental disturbances such as marine pollution, habitat destruction, and climate change.
Project description:Light-sensitivity is important for mollusc survival, as it plays a vital role in reproduction and predator avoidance. Light-sensitivity has been demonstrated in the adult Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, but the genes associated with light-sensitivity remain unclear. In the present study, we designed experiments to identify the genes associated with light-sensitivity in adult oysters. First, we assessed the Pacific oyster genome and identified 368 genes annotated with the terms associated with light-sensitivity. Second, the function of the four rhodopsin-like superfamily member genes was tested by using RNAi. The results showed that the highest level of mRNA expression of the vision-related genes was in the mantle; however, this finding is not true for all oyster genes. Interestingly, we also found four rhodopsin-like superfamily member genes expressed at an very high level in the mantle tissue. In the RNAi experiment, when one of rhodopsin-like superfamily member genes (CGI_1001253) was inhibited, the light-sensitivity capacity of the injected oysters was significantly reduced, suggesting that CGI_10012534 may be associated with light-sensitivity in the adult Pacific oyster.
Project description:The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, was introduced to Europe for aquaculture purposes, and has had a rapid and unforeseen northward expansion in northern Europe. The recent dramatic increase in number of C. gigas populations along the species' northern distribution limit has questioned the efficiency of Skagerrak as a dispersal barrier for transport and survival of larvae. We investigated the genetic connectivity and possible spreading patterns between Pacific oyster populations on the southern Norwegian coast (4 localities) and Swedish and Danish populations by means of DNA microsatellite analysis of adult oysters, and by simulating larvae drift. In the simulations we used a 3D oceanographic model to explore the influence of recent climate change (1990-2010) on development, survival, and successful spreading of Danish and Swedish Pacific oyster larvae to Norwegian coastal waters. The simulations indicated adequate temperature conditions for development, survival, and settlement of larvae across the Skagerrak in warm years since 2000. However, microsatellite genotyping revealed genetic differences between the Norwegian populations, and between the Norwegian populations and the Swedish and Danish populations, the latter two populations being more similar. This patchwork pattern of genetic dissimilarity among the Norwegian populations points towards multiple local introduction routes rather than the commonly assumed unidirectional entry of larvae drifted from Denmark and Sweden. Alternative origins of introduction and implications for management, such as forecasting and possible mitigation actions, are discussed.