Excitatory neuron-specific SHP2-ERK signaling network regulates synaptic plasticity and memory.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in RAS signaling pathway components cause diverse neurodevelopmental disorders, collectively called RASopathies. Previous studies have suggested that dysregulation in RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is restricted to distinct cell types in different RASopathies. Some cases of Noonan syndrome (NS) are associated with gain-of-function mutations in the phosphatase SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11); however, SHP2 is abundant in multiple cell types, so it is unclear which cell type(s) contribute to NS phenotypes. Here, we found that expressing the NS-associated mutant SHP2D61G in excitatory, but not inhibitory, hippocampal neurons increased ERK signaling and impaired both long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory in mice, although endogenous SHP2 was expressed in both neuronal types. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the genes encoding SHP2-interacting proteins that are critical for ERK activation, such as GAB1 and GRB2, were enriched in excitatory neurons. Accordingly, expressing a dominant-negative mutant of GAB1, which reduced its interaction with SHP2D61G, selectively in excitatory neurons, reversed SHP2D61G-mediated deficits. Moreover, ectopic expression of GAB1 and GRB2 together with SHP2D61G in inhibitory neurons resulted in ERK activation. These results demonstrate that RAS-ERK signaling networks are notably different between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, accounting for the cell type-specific pathophysiology of NS and perhaps other RASopathies.
Project description:Noonan syndrome (NS), a genetic disease caused in half of cases by activating mutations of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (PTPN11), is characterized by congenital cardiopathies, facial dysmorphic features, and short stature. How mutated SHP2 induces growth retardation remains poorly understood. We report here that early postnatal growth delay is associated with low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in a mouse model of NS expressing the D61G mutant of SHP2. Conversely, inhibition of SHP2 expression in growth hormone (GH)-responsive cell lines results in increased IGF-1 release upon GH stimulation. SHP2-deficient cells display decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and rat sarcoma (RAS) activation in response to GH, whereas expression of NS-associated SHP2 mutants results in ERK1/2 hyperactivation in vitro and in vivo. RAS/ERK1/2 inhibition in SHP2-deficient cells correlates with impaired dephosphorylation of the adaptor Grb2-associated binder-1 (GAB1) on its RAS GTPase-activating protein (RASGAP) binding sites and is rescued by interfering with RASGAP recruitment or function. We demonstrate that inhibition of ERK1/2 activation results in an increase of IGF-1 levels in vitro and in vivo, which is associated with significant growth improvement in NS mice. In conclusion, NS-causing SHP2 mutants inhibit GH-induced IGF-1 release through RAS/ERK1/2 hyperactivation, a mechanism that could contribute to growth retardation. This finding suggests that, in addition to its previously shown beneficial effect on NS-linked cardiac and craniofacial defects, RAS/ERK1/2 modulation could also alleviate the short stature phenotype in NS caused by PTPN11 mutations.
Project description:Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) participates in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1-2) activation according to signal strength, through unknown mechanisms. We report herein that Gab1/Shp2 constitutes a PI3K-dependent checkpoint of ERK1-2 activation regulated according to signal intensity. Indeed, by up- and down-regulation of signal strength in different cell lines and through different methods, we observed that Gab1/Shp2 and Ras/ERK1-2 in concert become independent of PI3K upon strong epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation and dependent on PI3K upon limited EGFR activation. Using Gab1 mutants, we observed that this conditional role of PI3K is dictated by the EGFR capability of recruiting Gab1 through Grb2 or through the PI3K lipid product PIP(3), according to a high or weak level of receptor stimulation, respectively. In agreement, Grb2 siRNA generates, in cells with maximal EGFR stimulation, a strong dependence on PI3K for both Gab1/Shp2 and ERK1-2 activation. Therefore, Ras/ERK1-2 depends on PI3K only when PIP(3) is required to recruit Gab1/Shp2, which occurs only under weak EGFR mobilization. Finally, we show that, in glioblastoma cells displaying residual EGFR activation, this compensatory mechanism becomes necessary to efficiently activate ERK1-2, which could probably contribute to tumor resistance to EGFR inhibitors.
Project description:Despite being a cell-matrix adhesion molecule, beta4 integrin can prompt the multiplication of neoplastic cells dislodged from their substrates (anchorage-independent growth). However, the molecular events underlying this atypical behavior remain partly unexplored. We found that activation of the Met receptor for hepatocyte growth factor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of beta4, which is instrumental for integrin-mediated recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2. Shp2 binding to beta4 enhances the activation of Src, which, in turn, phosphorylates the multiadaptor Gab1 predominantly on consensus sites for Grb2 association, leading to privileged stimulation of the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. This signaling axis can be inhibited by small interfering RNA-mediated beta4 depletion, by a beta4 mutant unable to bind Shp2, and by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Shp2 or Src. Preservation of the beta4 docking sites for Shp2 as well as the integrity of Shp2, Src, or ERK activity are required for the beta4-mediated induction of anchorage-independent growth. These results unravel a novel pathway whereby beta4 directs tyrosine kinase-based signals toward adhesion-unrelated outcomes.
Project description:Evidence suggests that Src homologous protein phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2 (SHP2) mutations promote cancer development in several solid tumours. In this study, we focused on the in vivo and in vitro effects of an SHP2 mutation on the breast cancer phenotype to determine whether this mutation is correlated with a malignant phenotype.Mutant PTPN11 cDNA (D61G) was transduced into MDA-MB231 and MCF-7 cells. The effects of the D61G mutation on tumourigenesis and malignant behaviours, such as cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion, were examined. Potential underlying molecular mechanisms, i.e., activation of the Gab1-Ras-Erk axis, were also examined.In vitro experiments revealed that tumour adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion were significantly increased in the SHP2 D61G mutant groups. Consistently, in vivo experiments also showed that the tumour sizes and weights were increased significantly in the SHP2 D61G-MB231 group (p < 0.001) in association with tumour metastasis. Mechanistically, the PTPN11 mutation resulted in activation of the Ras-ErK pathway. The binding between Gab1 and mutant SHP2 was significantly increased.Mutant SHP2 significantly promotes tumour migration and invasion at least partially through activation of the Gab1-Ras-Erk axis. This finding could have direct implications for breast cancer therapy.
Project description:Shp2, an ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase, is essential for regulation of Ras/ERK signaling pathway and tumorigenesis. Here we report that Shp2 is modified by SUMO1 at lysine residue 590 (K590) in its C-terminus, which is reduced by SUMO1-specific protease SENP1. Analysis of wild-type Shp2 and SUMOylation-defective Shp2(K590R) mutant reveals that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes EGF-stimulated ERK signaling pathway and increases anchorage-independent cell growth and xenografted tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Furthermore, we find that mutant Shp2(K590R) reduces its binding with the scaffolding protein Gab1, and consistent with this, knockdown of SENP1 increased the interaction between Shp2 and Gab1. More surprisingly, we show that human Shp2 (hShp2) and mouse Shp2 (mShp2) have differential effects on ERK activation as a result of different SUMOylation level, which is due to the event of K590 at hShp2 substituted by R594 at mShp2. In summary, our data demonstrate that SUMOylation of Shp2 promotes ERK activation via facilitating the formation of Shp2-Gab1 complex and thereby accelerates HCC cell and tumor growth, which presents a novel regulatory mechanism underlying Shp2 in regulation of HCC development.
Project description:Three members of Gab family docking proteins, Gab1, Gab2 and Gab3, have been identified in humans. Previous studies have found that the hepatocyte growth factor preferentially utilizes Gab1 for signalling, whereas Bcr-Abl selectively signals through Gab2. Gab1-SHP2 interaction has been shown to mediate ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) activation by EGF (epidermal growth factor). However, it was unclear whether EGF selectively utilizes Gab1 for signalling to ERK and whether Gab2 is dispensable in cells where Gab1 and Gab2 are co-expressed. Using T47D and MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells that express endogenous Gab1 and Gab2, we examined the role of these docking proteins in EGF-induced ERK activation. It was found that EGF induced a similar amount of SHP2-Gab1 and SHP2-Gab2 complexes. Expression of either SHP2-binding defective Gab1 or Gab2 mutant blocked EGF-induced ERK activation. Down-regulation of either Gab1 or Gab2 by siRNAs (small interfering RNAs) effectively inhibited the EGF-stimulated ERK activation pathway and cell migration. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of Gab1 siRNA could be rescued not only by expression of an exogenous mouse Gab1 but also by an exogenous human Gab2 and vice versa, but not by IRS1 (insulin receptor substrate 1). These results reveal that Gab2 plays a pivotal role in the EGF-induced ERK activation pathway and that it can complement the function of Gab1 in the EGF signalling pathway. Furthermore, Gab1 and Gab2 are critical signalling threshold proteins for ERK activation by EGF.
Project description:In this review, we focus on elucidating the cardiac function of germline mutations in the PTPN11 gene, encoding the Src homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. PTPN11 mutations cause LEOPARD syndrome (LS) and Noonan syndrome (NS), two disorders that are part of a newly classified family of autosomal dominant syndromes termed "RASopathies," which are caused by germline mutations in components of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK mitogen activating protein kinase pathway. LS and NS mutants have opposing biochemical properties, and yet, in patients, these mutations produce similar cardiac abnormalities. Precisely how LS and NS mutations lead to such similar disease etiology remains largely unknown. Recent complementary in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo analyses reveal new insights into the functions of SHP2 in normal and pathological cardiac development. These findings also reveal the need for individualized therapeutic approaches in the treatment of patients with LS and NS and, more broadly, patients with the other "RASopathy" gene mutations as well.
Project description:EphA2 is an important oncogenic protein and emerging drug target, but the oncogenic role and mechanism of ligand-independent phosphorylation of EphA2 at tyrosine 772 (pY772-EphA2) is unclear. In this study, we established nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines with stable expression of exogenous EphA2 and EphA2-Y772A (phosphorylation inactivation) using endogenous EphA2-knockdown cells, and observed that pY772A EphA2 was responsible for EphA2-promoting NPC cell proliferation and anchorage-independent and in vivo growth in mice. Mechanistically, EphA2-Y772A mediated EphA2-activating Shp2/Erk-1/2 signaling pathway in the NPC cells, and Gab1 (Grb2-associated binder 1) and Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) were involved in pY772-EphA2 activating this signaling pathway. Our results further showed that Shp2/Erk-1/2 signaling mediated pY772-EphA2-promoting NPC cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Moreover, we observed that EphA2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor ALW-II-41-27 inhibited pY772-EphA2 and EphA2-Y772A decreased the inhibitory effect of ALW-II-41-27 on NPC cell proliferation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that pY772-EphA2 is responsible for EphA2-dependent NPC cell growth in vitro and in vivo by activating Shp2/Erk-1/2 signaling pathway, and is a pharmacologic target of ALW-II-41-27, suggesting that pY772-EphA2 can serve as a therapeutic target in NPC and perhaps in other cancers.
Project description:Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) coordinates various receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Although skeletal muscle differentiation is regulated by some growth factors, it remains elusive whether Gab1 coordinates myogenic signals. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated myogenic differentiation, focusing on Gab1 and its downstream signaling. Gab1 underwent tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent complex formation with protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 upon IGF-I stimulation in C2C12 myoblasts. On the other hand, Gab1 constitutively associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85. To delineate the role of Gab1 in IGF-I-dependent signaling, we examined the effect of adenovirus-mediated forced expression of wild-type Gab1 (Gab1(WT)), mutated Gab1 that is unable to bind SHP2 (Gab1(DeltaSHP2)), or mutated Gab1 that is unable to bind p85 (Gab1(Deltap85)), on the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. IGF-I-induced myogenic differentiation was enhanced in myoblasts overexpressing Gab1(DeltaSHP2), but inhibited in those overexpressing either Gab1(WT) or Gab1(Deltap85). Conversely, IGF-I-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was significantly repressed in myoblasts overexpressing Gab1(DeltaSHP2) but enhanced in those overexpressing either Gab1(WT) or Gab1(Deltap85). Furthermore, small interference RNA-mediated Gab1 knockdown enhanced myogenic differentiation. Overexpression of catalytic-inactive SHP2 modulated IGF-I-induced myogenic differentiation and ERK1/2 activation similarly to that of Gab1(DeltaSHP2), suggesting that Gab1-SHP2 complex inhibits IGF-I-dependent myogenesis through ERK1/2. Consistently, the blockade of ERK1/2 pathway reversed the inhibitory effect of Gab1(WT) overexpression on myogenic differentiation, and constitutive activation of the ERK1/2 pathway suppressed the enhanced myogenic differentiation by overexpression of Gab1(DeltaSHP2). Collectively, these data suggest that the Gab1-SHP2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway comprises an inhibitory axis for IGF-I-dependent myogenic differentiation.
Project description:Growth retardation is a constant feature of Noonan syndrome (NS) but its physiopathology remains poorly understood. We previously reported that hyperactive NS-causing SHP2 mutants impair the systemic production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) through hyperactivation of the RAS/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signalling pathway. Besides endocrine defects, a direct effect of these mutants on growth plate has not been explored, although recent studies have revealed an important physiological role for SHP2 in endochondral bone growth. We demonstrated that growth plate length was reduced in NS mice, mostly due to a shortening of the hypertrophic zone and to a lesser extent of the proliferating zone. These histological features were correlated with decreased expression of early chondrocyte differentiation markers, and with reduced alkaline phosphatase staining and activity, in NS murine primary chondrocytes. Although IGF1 treatment improved growth of NS mice, it did not fully reverse growth plate abnormalities, notably the decreased hypertrophic zone. In contrast, we documented a role of RAS/ERK hyperactivation at the growth plate level since 1) NS-causing SHP2 mutants enhance RAS/ERK activation in chondrocytes in vivo (NS mice) and in vitro (ATDC5 cells) and 2) inhibition of RAS/ERK hyperactivation by U0126 treatment alleviated growth plate abnormalities and enhanced chondrocyte differentiation. Similar effects were obtained by chronic treatment of NS mice with statins. In conclusion, we demonstrated that hyperactive NS-causing SHP2 mutants impair chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone growth through a local hyperactivation of the RAS/ERK signalling pathway, and that statin treatment may be a possible therapeutic approach in NS.