Fluorescence polarization assay for the identification and evaluation of inhibitors at YAP-TEAD protein-protein interface 3.
ABSTRACT: The Hippo signaling pathway controls cell-cell contact, cell proliferation, as well as organ size by integrating changes in the cellular microenvironment. In recent years, the pivotal role of Hippo signaling in cancers has been well recognized. Inhibition of the pathway promotes the translocation of the major Hippo pathway effectors, the yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog TAZ, to the nucleus, where they interact with the transcription factor family transcriptional enhancer associate domain (TEAD), thus coactivating the expression of downstream genes, leading to cell transformation, tissue overgrowth, and tumor development. Therefore, the interruption of the YAP-TEAD transcriptional complex represents a novel opportunity for the treatment of cancer. Here, we established a fluorescence polarization (FP)-based assay for the identification and evaluation of YAP-TEAD protein-protein interface (PPI) inhibitors at the YAP ?-loop binding region of TEAD, which is also called interface 3?at the YAP-TEAD binding surface. Furthermore, a patented small molecule (Patent-22) was evaluated by the FP assay, which confirmed that it was a YAP-TEAD PPI inhibitor at interface 3. Possessing great application value, this FP method is reliable, robust, and economical for inhibitor assessment and drug discovery.
Project description:The Hippo pathway has emerged as a key signaling pathway that regulates a broad range of biological functions, and dysregulation of the Hippo pathway is a feature of a variety of cancers. Given this, some have suggested that disrupting the interaction of the Hippo core component YAP and its paralog TAZ with transcriptional factor TEAD may be an effective strategy for cancer therapy. However, there are currently no clinically available drugs targeting the YAP/TAZ-TEAD interaction for cancer treatment. To facilitate screens for small molecule compounds that disrupt the YAP-TEAD interaction, we have developed the first ultra-bright NanoLuc biosensor to quantify YAP/TAZ-TEAD protein-protein interaction (PPI) both in living cells and also in vitro using biosensor fusion proteins purified from bacteria. Using this biosensor, we have performed an in vitro high throughput screen (HTS) of small molecule compounds and have identified and validated the drug Celastrol as a novel inhibitor of YAP/TAZ-TEAD interaction. We have also demonstrated that Celastrol can inhibit cancer cell proliferation, transformation, and cell migration. In this study, we describe a new inhibitor of the YAP/TAZ-TEAD interaction warranting further investigation and offer a novel biosensor tool for the discovery of other new Hippo-targeting drugs in future work.
Project description:TEAD (TEA/ATTS domain) transcription factors are the most distal effectors of the Hippo pathway. YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a coactivator protein which, upon binding to TEAD proteins, stimulates their transcriptional activity. Since the Hippo pathway is deregulated in various cancers, designing inhibitors of the YAP:TEAD interaction is an attractive therapeutic strategy for oncology. Understanding the molecular events that take place at the YAP:TEAD interface is therefore important not only to devise drug discovery approaches, but also to gain knowledge on TEAD regulation. In this report, combining single site-directed mutagenesis and double mutant analyses, we conduct a detailed analysis on the role of several residues located at the YAP:TEAD interface. Our results provide quantitative understanding of the interactions taking place at the YAP:TEAD interface and give insights into the formation of the YAP:TEAD complex and more particularly on the interaction between TEAD and the ?-loop found in YAP.
Project description:The Yes-associated protein (YAP) transcriptional coactivator is a key regulator of organ size and a candidate human oncogene inhibited by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. The TEAD family of transcription factors binds directly to and mediates YAP-induced gene expression. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of the YAP (residues 50-171)-TEAD1 (residues 194-411) complex, in which YAP wraps around the globular structure of TEAD1 and forms extensive interactions via three highly conserved interfaces. Interface 3, including YAP residues 86-100, is most critical for complex formation. Our study reveals the biochemical nature of the YAP-TEAD interaction, and provides a basis for pharmacological intervention of YAP-TEAD hyperactivation in human diseases.
Project description:The Hippo pathway is an important signaling pathway modulating growth control and cancer cell proliferation. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway is a common feature of several types of cancer cells. The modulation of the interaction between yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional enhancer associated domain (TEAD) in the Hippo pathway is considered an attractive target for cancer therapeutic development, although the inhibition of PPI is a challenging task. In order to investigate the hot spots of the YAP and TEAD1 interacting complex, an ab initio Fragment Molecular Orbital (FMO) method was introduced. With the hot spots, pharmacophores for the inhibitor design were constructed, then virtual screening was performed to an in-house library. Next, we performed molecular docking simulations and FMO calculations for screening results to study the binding modes and affinities between PPI inhibitors and TEAD1. As a result of the virtual screening, three compounds were selected as virtual hit compounds. In order to confirm their biological activities, cellular (luciferase activity, proximity ligation assay and wound healing assay in A375 cells, qRT-PCR in HEK 293T cells) and biophysical assays (surface plasmon resonance assays) were performed. Based on the findings of the study, we propose a novel PPI inhibitor BY03 and demonstrate a profitable strategy to analyze YAP-TEAD PPI and discover novel PPI inhibitors.
Project description:The Hippo signaling pathway, which plays a central role in the control of organ size in animals, is well conserved in metazoans. The most downstream elements of this pathway are the TEAD transcription factors that are regulated by their association with the transcriptional coactivator YAP. Therefore, the creation of the binding interface that ensures the formation of the YAP:TEAD complex is a critical molecular recognition event essential for the development/survival of many living organisms. In this report, using the available structural information on the YAP:TEAD complex, we study the TEAD-binding domain of YAP from different animal species. This analysis of more than 400 amino acid sequences reveals that the residues from YAP involved in the formation of the two main contact regions with TEAD are very well conserved. Therefore, the binding interface between YAP and TEAD, as found in humans, probably appeared at an early evolutionary stage in metazoans. We find that, in contrast to most other animal species, several Actinopterygii species possess YAP variants with a different TEAD-binding domain. However, these variants bind to TEAD with a similar affinity. Our studies show that the protein identified as a YAP homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans does not contain the TEAD-binding domain found in YAP of other metazoans. Finally, we do not identify in non-metazoan species, amino acid sequences containing both a TEAD-binding domain, as in metazoan YAP, and WW domain(s).
Project description:Hippo signaling restricts tumor growth by inhibiting the oncogenic potential of YAP/TAZ-TEAD transcriptional complex. Here, we uncover a context-dependent tumor suppressor function of YAP in androgen receptor (AR) positive prostate cancer (PCa) and show that YAP impedes AR+ PCa growth by antagonizing TEAD-mediated AR signaling. TEAD forms a complex with AR to enhance its promoter/enhancer occupancy and transcriptional activity. YAP and AR compete for TEAD binding and consequently, elevated YAP in the nucleus disrupts AR-TEAD interaction and prevents TEAD from promoting AR signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of MST1/2 or LATS1/2, or transgenic activation of YAP suppressed the growth of PCa expressing therapy resistant AR splicing variants. Our study uncovers an unanticipated crosstalk between Hippo and AR signaling pathways, reveals an antagonistic relationship between YAP and TEAD in AR+ PCa, and suggests that targeting the Hippo signaling pathway may provide a therapeutical opportunity to treat PCa driven by therapy resistant AR variants.
Project description:The Hippo pathway controls organ size and tissue homeostasis, with deregulation leading to cancer. The core Hippo components in mammals are composed of the upstream serine/threonine kinases Mst1/2, MAPK4Ks and Lats1/2. Inactivation of these upstream kinases leads to dephosphorylation, stabilization, nuclear translocation and thus activation of the major functional transducers of the Hippo pathway, YAP and its paralogue TAZ. YAP/TAZ are transcription co-activators that regulate gene expression primarily through interaction with the TEA domain DNA-binding family of transcription factors (TEAD). The current paradigm for regulation of this pathway centres on phosphorylation-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of YAP/TAZ through a complex network of upstream components. However, unlike other transcription factors, such as SMAD, NF-?B, NFAT and STAT, the regulation of TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling has been largely overlooked. In the present study, we show that environmental stress promotes TEAD cytoplasmic translocation via p38 MAPK in a Hippo-independent manner. Importantly, stress-induced TEAD inhibition predominates YAP-activating signals and selectively suppresses YAP-driven cancer cell growth. Our data reveal a mechanism governing TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and show that TEAD localization is a critical determinant of Hippo signalling output.
Project description:The Hippo pathway is a tumor suppressor pathway that is implicated in the regulation of organ size. The pathway has three components: the upstream regulatory factors, the kinase core, and the downstream transcriptional machinery, which consists of YAP, TAZ (transcription co-activators) and TEAD (transcription factor). Formation of YAP/TAZ-TEAD complexes leads to the transcription of growth-promoting genes. Herein, we report the crystal structure of TAZ-TEAD4 complex, which reveals two binding modes. The first is similar to the published YAP-TEAD structure. The second is a unique binding mode, whereby two molecules of TAZ bind to and bridge two molecules of TEAD4. We validated the latter using cross-linking and multi-angle light scattering. Using siRNA, we showed that TAZ knockdown leads to a decrease in TEAD4 dimerization. Lastly, results from luciferase assays, using YAP/TAZ transfected or knockdown cells, give support to the non-redundancy of YAP/TAZ co-activators in regulating gene expression in the Hippo pathway.
Project description:The Hippo signaling pathway, which is implicated in the regulation of organ size, has emerged as a potential target for the development of cancer therapeutics. YAP, TAZ (transcription co-activators) and TEAD (transcription factor) are the downstream transcriptional machinery and effectors of the pathway. Formation of the YAP/TAZ-TEAD complex leads to transcription of growth-promoting genes. Conversely, disrupting the interactions of the complex decreases cell proliferation. Herein, we screened a 1000-member fragment library using Thermal Shift Assay and identified a hit fragment. We confirmed its binding at the YAP/TAZ-TEAD interface by X-ray crystallography, and showed that it occupies the same hydrophobic pocket as a conserved phenylalanine of YAP/TAZ. This hit fragment serves as a scaffold for the development of compounds that have the potential to disrupt YAP/TAZ-TEAD interactions. Structure-activity relationship studies and computational modeling were also carried out to identify more potent compounds that may bind at this validated druggable binding site.
Project description:The Hippo signaling pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of various cardiovascular diseases. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional enhancer activator domain (TEAD) transcriptional factors, the main transcriptional complex of the Hippo pathway, were recently identified as modulators of phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the intrinsic regulator of YAP/TEAD-mediated gene expressions involved in vascular pathophysiology remains to be elucidated. Here, we identified Homeobox A4 (HOXA4) as a potent repressor of YAP/TEAD transcriptional activity using lentiviral shRNA screen. Mechanistically, HOXA4 interacts with TEADs and attenuates YAP/TEAD-mediated transcription by competing with YAP for TEAD binding. We also clarified that the expression of HOXA4 is relatively abundant in the vasculature, especially in VSMCs. In vitro experiments in human VSMCs showed HOXA4 maintains the differentiation state of VSMCs via inhibition of YAP/TEAD-induced phenotypic switching. We generated Hoxa4-deficient mice and confirmed the downregulation of smooth muscle-specific contractile genes and the exacerbation of vascular remodeling after carotid artery ligation in vivo. Our results demonstrate that HOXA4 is a repressor of VSMC phenotypic switching by inhibiting YAP/TEAD-mediated transcription.