A Solid-State Hard Microfluidic-Nanopore Biosensor with Multilayer Fluidics and On-Chip Bioassay/Purification Chamber.
ABSTRACT: Solid-state nanopores are an emerging biosensor for nucleic acid and protein characterization. For use in a clinical setting, solid-state nanopore sensing requires sample preparation and purification, fluid handling, a heating element, electrical noise insulators, and an electrical readout detector, all of which hamper its translation to a point-of-care diagnostic device. A stand-alone microfluidic-based nanopore device is described that combines a bioassay reaction/purification chamber with a solid-state nanopore sensor. The microfluidic device is composed of the high-temperature/solvent resistance Zeonex plastic, formed via micro-machining and heat bonding, enabling the use of both a heat regulator and a magnetic controller. Fluid control through the microfluidic channels and chambers is controlled via fluid port selector valves and allows up-to eight different solutions. Electrical noise measurements and DNA translocation experiments demonstrate the integrity of the device, with performance comparable to a conventional stand-alone nanopore setup. However, the microfluidic-nanopore setup is superior in terms of ease of use. To showcase the utility of the device, single molecule detection of a DNA PCR product, after magnetic bead DNA separation, is accomplished on chip.
Project description:A number of outstanding problems in genomics, such as identifying structural variations and sequencing through centromeres and telomeres, stand poised to benefit tremendously from emerging long-read genomics technologies such as nanopore sequencing and genome mapping in nanochannels. However, optimal application of these new genomics technologies requires facile methods for extracting long DNA from cells. These sample preparation tools should be amenable to automation and minimize fragmentation of the long DNA molecules by shear. We present one such approach in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) device, where gel-based high molecular weight DNA extraction and continuous flow purification in a 3D cell culture-inspired geometry is followed by electrophoretic extraction of the long DNA from the miniaturized gel. Molecular combing reveals that the device produces molecules that are typically in excess of 100 kilobase pairs in size, with the longest molecule extending up to 4 megabase pairs. The microfluidic format reduces the standard day-long and labor-intensive DNA extraction process to 4 hours, making it a promising prototype platform for routine long DNA sample preparation.
Project description:Microfluidic technologies have been used across diverse disciplines (e.g. high-throughput biological measurement, fluid physics, laboratory fluid manipulation) but widespread adoption has been limited in part due to the lack of openly disseminated resources that enable non-specialist labs to make and operate their own devices. Here, we report the open-source build of a pneumatic setup capable of operating both single and multilayer (Quake-style) microfluidic devices with programmable scripting automation. This setup can operate both simple and complex devices with 48 device valve control inputs and 18 sample inputs, with modular design for easy expansion, at a fraction of the cost of similar commercial solutions. We present a detailed step-by-step guide to building the pneumatic instrumentation, as well as instructions for custom device operation using our software, Geppetto, through an easy-to-use GUI for live on-chip valve actuation and a scripting system for experiment automation. We show robust valve actuation with near real-time software feedback and demonstrate use of the setup for high-throughput biochemical measurements on-chip. This open-source setup will enable specialists and novices alike to run microfluidic devices easily in their own laboratories.
Project description:Electrode-embedded nanopore is considered as a promising device structure for label-free single-molecule sequencing, the principle of which is based on nucleotide identification via transverse electron tunnelling current flowing through a DNA translocating through the pore. Yet, fabrication of a molecular-scale electrode-nanopore detector has been a formidable task that requires atomic-level alignment of a few nanometer sized pore and an electrode gap. Here, we report single-molecule detection using a nucleotide-sized sensing electrode embedded in-plane nanopore. We developed a self-alignment technique to form a nanopore-nanoelectrode solid-state device consisting of a sub-nanometer scale electrode gap in a 15?nm-sized SiO(2) pore. We demonstrate single-molecule counting of nucleotide-sized metal-encapsulated fullerenes in a liquid using the electrode-integrated nanopore sensor. We also performed electrical identification of nucleobases in a DNA oligomer, thereby suggesting the potential use of this synthetic electrode-in-nanopore as a platform for electrical DNA sequencing.
Project description:The ability to confine and manipulate single particles and molecules has revolutionized several fields of science. Hydrodynamic trapping offers an attractive method for particle manipulation in free solution without the need for optical, electric, acoustic, or magnetic fields. Here, we develop and demonstrate the Stokes trap, which is a new method for trapping multiple particles using only fluid flow. We demonstrate simultaneous manipulation of two particles in a simple microfluidic device using model predictive control. We further show that this approach can be used for fluidic-directed assembly of multiple particles in solution. Overall, this technique opens new vistas for fundamental studies of particle-particle interactions and provides a new method for the directed assembly of colloidal particles.
Project description:Solid-state nanopore sensors are highly versatile platforms for the rapid, label-free electrical detection and analysis of single molecules, applicable to next generation DNA sequencing. The versatility of this technology allows for both large scale device integration and interfacing with biological systems. Here we report on the development of a hybrid biological solid-state nanopore platform that incorporates a highly mobile lipid bilayer on a single solid-state Al(2)O(3) nanopore sensor, for the potential reconstitution of ion channels and biological nanopores. Such a system seeks to combine the superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical stability of Al(2)O(3) solid-state nanopores with the chemical specificity of biological nanopores. Bilayers on Al(2)O(3) exhibit higher diffusivity than those formed on TiO(2) and SiO(2) substrates, attributed to the presence of a thick hydration layer on Al(2)O(3), a key requirement to preserving the biological functionality of reconstituted membrane proteins. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that the electrostatic repulsion between the dipole of the DOPC headgroup and the positively charged Al(2)O(3) surface may be responsible for the enhanced thickness of this hydration layer. Lipid bilayer coated Al(2)O(3) nanopore sensors exhibit excellent electrical properties and enhanced mechanical stability (G? seals for over 50 h), making this technology ideal for use in ion channel electrophysiology, the screening of ion channel active drugs and future integration with biological nanopores such as ?-hemolysin and MspA for rapid single molecule DNA sequencing. This technology can find broad application in bio-nanotechnology.
Project description:Small molecules inhibitors are powerful tools for studying multiple aspects of cell biology and stand at the forefront of drug discovery pipelines. However, in the early Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) embryo, which is a powerful model system for cell and developmental biology, the use of small molecule inhibitors has been limited by the impermeability of the embryonic eggshell, the low-throughput manual embryo isolation methods, and the lack of well-controlled drug delivery protocols. This work reports a fully integrated microfluidic approach for studies of C. elegans early embryogenesis, including the possibility of testing small molecule inhibitors with increased throughput and versatility. The setup enables robust on-chip extraction of embryos from gravid adult worms in a dedicated pillar array chamber by mechanical compression, followed by rapid fluidic transfer of embryos into an adjacent microtrap array. Parallel analysis of ?100 embryos by high-resolution time-lapse imaging from the one-cell stage zygote until hatching can be performed with this device. The implementation of versatile microfluidic protocols, in particular time-controlled and reversible drug delivery to on-chip immobilized embryos, demonstrates the potential of the device for biochemical and pharmacological assays.
Project description:We report an experimental study of using DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores to detect the sequential arrangement of two double-stranded 12-mer hybridization segments on a single-stranded DNA molecule. The sample DNA is a trimer molecule formed by hybridizing three single-stranded oligonucleotides. A polystyrene bead is attached to the end of the trimer DNA, providing a mechanism in slowing down the translocation and suppressing the thermal diffusion, thereby allowing the detection of short features of DNA by standard patch-clamp electronics. The electrical signature of the translocation of a trimer molecule through a nanopore has been identified successfully in the temporal traces of ionic current. The results reported here represent the first successful attempt in using a solid-state nanopore as an ionic scanning device in resolving individual hybridization segments (or 'probes') on a DNA molecule.
Project description:Exchange of components such as particles and cells in droplets is important and highly desired in droplet microfluidic assays, and many current technologies use electrical or magnetic fields to accomplish this process. Bead-based microfluidic techniques offer an alternative approach that uses the bead's solid surface to immobilize targets like particles or biological material. In this paper, we demonstrate a bead-based technique for exchanging droplet content by separating fluorescent microparticles in a microfluidic device. The device uses posts to filter surface-functionalized beads from a droplet and re-capture the filtered beads in a new droplet. With post spacing of 7 ?m, beads above 10 ?m had 100% capture efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of this system using targeted particles that bind onto the functionalized beads and are, therefore, transferred from one solution to another in the device. Binding capacity tests performed in the bulk phase showed an average binding capacity of 5 particles to each bead. The microfluidic device successfully separated the targeted particles from the non-targeted particles with up to 98% purity and 100% yield.
Project description:Living slices of brain tissue are widely used to model brain processes in vitro. In addition to basic neurophysiology studies, brain slices are also extensively used for pharmacology, toxicology, and drug discovery research. In these experiments, high parallelism and throughput are critical. Capability to conduct long-term electrical recording experiments may also be necessary to address disease processes that require protein synthesis and neural circuit rewiring. We developed a novel perfused drop microfluidic device for use with long term cultures of brain slices (organotypic cultures). Slices of hippocampus were placed into wells cut in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film. Fluid level in the wells was hydrostatically controlled such that a drop was formed around each slice. The drops were continuously perfused with culture medium through microchannels. We found that viable organotypic hippocampal slice cultures could be maintained for at least 9 days in vitro. PDMS microfluidic network could be readily integrated with substrate-printed microelectrodes for parallel electrical recordings of multiple perfused organotypic cultures on a single MEA chip. We expect that this highly scalable perfused drop microfluidic device will facilitate high-throughput drug discovery and toxicology.
Project description:We report a 3D microfluidic device with 32 detection channels and 64 sheath flow channels and embedded microball lens array for high throughput multicolor fluorescence detection. A throughput of 358 400 cells/s has been accomplished. This device is realized by utilizing solid immersion micro ball lens arrays for high sensitivity and parallel fluorescence detection. High refractive index micro ball lenses (n = 2.1) are embedded underneath PDMS channels close to cell detection zones in channels. This design permits patterning high N.A. micro ball lenses in a compact fashion for parallel fluorescence detection on a small footprint device. This device also utilizes 3D microfluidic fabrication to address fluid routing issues in two-dimensional parallel sheath focusing and allows simultaneous pumping of 32 sample channels and 64 sheath flow channels with only two inlets.