Synthesis, Characterization, and Cycloaddition Reactivity of a Monocyclic Aromatic 1,2,3,5-Tetrazine.
ABSTRACT: Herein we disclose the synthesis and full characterization of the first monocyclic aromatic 1,2,3,5-tetrazine, 4,6-diphenyl-1,2,3,5-tetrazine. Initial studies of its cycloaddition reactivity, mode, regioselectivity, and scope illustrate that it participates as the 4?-component of well-behaved inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reactions where it preferentially reacts with electron-rich or strained dienophiles. It was found to exhibit an intrinsic reactivity comparable to that of the isomeric 3,6-diphenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine, display a single mode of cycloaddition with reaction only across C4/N1 (no N2/N5 cycloaddition observed), proceed with a predictable regioselectivity (dienophile most electron-rich atom attaches to C4), and manifest additional reactivity complementary to the isomeric 1,2,4,5-tetrazines. It not only exhibits a remarkable cycloaddition reactivity, surprisingly good stability (e.g., stable to chromatography, long-term storage, presence of H2O even as reaction co-solvent), and broad cycloaddition scope, but it also displays powerful orthogonal reactivity with the 1,2,4,5-tetrazines. Whereas the latter reacts at extraordinary cycloaddition rates with strained dienophiles (tetrazine ligation), the new and isomeric 1,2,3,5-tetrazine displays similarly remarkable cycloaddition rates and efficiencies with amidines (1,2,3,5-tetrazine/amidine ligation). The crossover reactivities (1,2,4,5-tetrazines with amidines and 1,2,3,5-tetrazines with strained dienophiles) are sufficiently low to indicate they may be capable of use concurrently without competitive reactions.
Project description:Strain-promoted inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition (SPIEDAC) reactions between 1,2,4,5-tetrazines and strained dienophiles, such as bicyclononynes, are among the fastest bioorthogonal reactions. However, the synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrazines is complex and can involve volatile reagents. 1,2,4-Triazines also undergo cycloaddition reactions with acyclic and unstrained dienophiles at elevated temperatures, but their reaction with strained alkynes has not been described. We postulated that 1,2,4-triazines would react with strained alkynes at low temperatures and therefore provide an alternative to the tetrazine cycloaddition reaction for use in in vitro or in vivo labelling experiments. We describe the synthesis of a 1,2,4-triazin-3-ylalanine derivative fully compatible with the fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) strategy for peptide synthesis and demonstrate its reaction with strained bicyclononynes at 37?°C with rates comparable to the reaction of azides with the same substrates. The synthetic route to triazinylalanine is readily adaptable to late-stage functionalization of other probe molecules, and the 1,2,4-triazine-SPIEDAC therefore has potential as an alternative to tetrazine cycloaddition for applications in cellular and biochemical studies.
Project description:Inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder (iEDDA) cycloaddition between 1,2,4,5-tetrazines and strained dienophiles belongs among the most popular bioconjugation reactions. In addition to its fast kinetics, this cycloaddition can be tailored to produce fluorescent products from non-fluorescent starting materials. Here we show that even the reaction intermediates formed in iEDDA cycloaddition can lead to the formation of new types of fluorophores. The influence of various substituents on their photophysical properties and the generality of the approach with use of various trans-cyclooctene derivatives were studied. Model bioimaging experiments demonstrate the application potential of fluorogenic iEDDA cycloaddition.
Project description:In spite of the wide application potential of 1,2,4,5-tetrazines, particularly in live-cell and in?vivo imaging, a major limitation has been the lack of practical synthetic methods. Here we report the in?situ synthesis of (E)-3-substituted 6-alkenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives through an elimination-Heck cascade reaction. By using this strategy, we provide 24 examples of ?-conjugated tetrazine derivatives that can be conveniently prepared from tetrazine building blocks and related halides. These include tetrazine analogs of biological small molecules, highly conjugated buta-1,3-diene-substituted tetrazines, and a diverse array of fluorescent probes suitable for live-cell imaging. These highly conjugated probes show very strong fluorescence turn-on (up to 400-fold) when reacted with dienophiles such as cyclopropenes and trans-cyclooctenes, and we demonstrate their application for live-cell imaging. This work provides an efficient and practical synthetic methodology for tetrazine derivatives and will facilitate the application of conjugated tetrazines, particularly as fluorogenic probes for live-cell imaging.
Project description:[reaction: see text] Two new unsymmetrical 1,2,4,5-tetrazines, 3-methylsulfinyl-6-methylthio-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (4) and 3-(benzyloxycarbonyl)amino-6-methylsulfinyl-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (5), were prepared, and the scope of their participation in intermolecular inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reactions was defined. As anticipated, sulfoxides 4 and 5 (4 > 5) display a reactivity that is substantially greater than that of their corresponding sulfides (2 and 3), being derived from their enhanced electron-deficient character and resulting in a wider range of potential dienophile choices or the use of milder reaction conditions. The cycloaddition reactions were expectedly regioselective, typically producing a single cycloadduct, ensuring their synthetic utility, but both were found to proceed with a regioselectivity opposite what would be anticipated and complementary to that observed with 2 and 3.
Project description:Cycloaddition reactions involving tetrazines have proven to be powerful bioorthogonal tools for various applications. Conceivably, sequential and selective labeling using tetrazine-based reactions can be achieved by tuning the reaction rate. By varying the substituents on tetrazines, cycloaddition rate variations of over 200 fold have been achieved with the same dienophile. Upon coupling with different dienophiles, such as norbornene, the reaction rate difference can be over 14,000 fold. These substituted tetrazines can be very useful for selective labeling under different conditions.
Project description:Substituted cyclopropenes have recently attracted attention as stable "mini-tags" that are highly reactive dienophiles with the bioorthogonal tetrazine functional group. Despite this interest, the synthesis of stable cyclopropenes is not trivial and their reactivity patterns are poorly understood. Here, the synthesis and comparison of the reactivity of a series of 1-methyl-3-substituted cyclopropenes with different functional handles is described. The rates at which the various substituted cyclopropenes undergo Diels-Alder cycloadditions with 1,2,4,5-tetrazines were measured. Depending on the substituents, the rates of cycloadditions vary by over two orders of magnitude. The substituents also have a dramatic effect on aqueous stability. An outcome of these studies is the discovery of a novel 3-amidomethyl substituted methylcyclopropene tag that reacts twice as fast as the fastest previously disclosed 1-methyl-3-substituted cyclopropene while retaining excellent aqueous stability. Furthermore, this new cyclopropene is better suited for bioconjugation applications and this is demonstrated through using DNA templated tetrazine ligations. The effect of tetrazine structure on cyclopropene reaction rate was also studied. Surprisingly, 3-amidomethyl substituted methylcyclopropene reacts faster than trans-cyclooctenol with a sterically hindered and extremely stable tert-butyl substituted tetrazine. Density functional theory calculations and the distortion/interaction analysis of activation energies provide insights into the origins of these reactivity differences and a guide to the development of future tetrazine coupling partners. The newly disclosed cyclopropenes have kinetic and stability advantages compared to previously reported dienophiles and will be highly useful for applications in organic synthesis, bioorthogonal reactions, and materials science.
Project description:1,2,4,5-Tetrazines have been established as effective dienes for inverse electron demand [4 + 2] Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions with strained alkenes for over 50 years. Recently, this reaction pair combination has been applied to bioorthogonal labeling and cell detection applications; however, to date, there has been no detailed examination and optimization of tetrazines for use in biological experiments. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of 12 conjugatable tetrazines. The tetrazines were all synthesized in a similar fashion and were screened in parallel to identify candidates most ideally suited for biological studies. In depth follow-up studies revealed compounds with varying degrees of stability and reactivity that could each be useful in different bioorthogonal applications. One promising, highly stable, and water-soluble derivative was used in pretargeted cancer cell labeling studies, confirming its utility as a bioorthogonal moiety.
Project description:The isocyano group is a structurally compact bioorthogonal functional group that reacts with tetrazines under physiological conditions. Now it is shown that bulky tetrazine substituents accelerate this cycloaddition. Computational studies suggest that dispersion forces between the isocyano group and the tetrazine substituents in the transition state contribute to the atypical structure-activity relationship. Stable asymmetric tetrazines that react with isonitriles at rate constants as high as 57?L?mol-1 ?s-1 were accessible by combining bulky and electron-withdrawing substituents. Sterically encumbered tetrazines react selectively with isonitriles in the presence of strained alkenes/alkynes, which allows for the orthogonal labeling of three proteins. The established principles will open new opportunities for developing tetrazine reactants with improved characteristics for diverse labeling and release applications with isonitriles.
Project description:High-molecular-weight multiblock copolymers are synthesized as robust polymer fibers via interfacial bioorthogonal polymerization employing the rapid cycloaddition of s-tetrazines with strained trans-cyclooctenes. When cell-adhesive peptide is incorporated in the tetrazine monomer, the resulting protein-mimetic polymer fibers provide guidance cues for cell attachment and elongation.
Project description:Site-specific introduction of bioorthogonal handles into biomolecules provides powerful tools for studying and manipulating the structures and functions of proteins. Recent advances in bioorthogonal chemistry demonstrate that tetrazine-based bioorthogonal cycloaddition is a particularly useful methodology due to its high reactivity, biological selectivity, and turn-on property for fluorescence imaging. Despite its broad applications in protein labeling and imaging, utilization of tetrazine-based bioorthogonal cycloaddition has been limited to date by the requirement of a hydrophobic strained alkene reactive moiety. Circumventing this structural requirement, we report the site-specific incorporation of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) with a small isocyanide (or isonitrile) group into proteins in both bacterial and mammalian cells. We showed that under physiological conditions and in the absence of a catalyst these isocyanide-containing ncAAs could react selectively with tetrazine molecules via [4 + 1]-cycloaddition, thus providing a versatile bioorthogonal handle for site-specific protein labeling and protein decaging. Significantly, these bioorthogonal reactions between isocyanides and tetrazines also provide a unique mechanism for the activation of tetrazine-quenched fluorophores. The addition of these isocyanide-containing ncAAs to the list of 20 commonly used, naturally occurring amino acids expands our repertoire of reagents for bioorthogonal chemistry, therefore enabling new biological applications ranging from protein labeling and imaging studies to the chemical activation of proteins.