Neuropeptide CGRP Limits Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Responses and Constrains Type 2 Inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Innate lymphocytes maintain tissue homeostasis at mucosal barriers, with group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) producing type 2 cytokines and controlling helminth infection. While the molecular understanding of ILC2 responses has advanced, the complexity of microenvironmental factors impacting ILC2s is becoming increasingly apparent. Herein, we used single-cell analysis to explore the diversity of gene expression among lung lymphocytes during helminth infection. Following infection, we identified a subset of ILC2s that preferentially expressed Il5-encoding interleukin (IL)-5, together with Calca-encoding calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its cognate receptor components. CGRP in concert with IL-33 and neuromedin U (NMU) supported IL-5 but constrained IL-13 expression and ILC2 proliferation. Without CGRP signaling, ILC2 responses and worm expulsion were enhanced. Collectively, these data point to CGRP as a context-dependent negative regulatory factor that shapes innate lymphocyte responses to alarmins and neuropeptides during type 2 innate immune responses.
Project description:Signaling abnormalities in immune responses in the small intestine can trigger chronic type 2 inflammation involving interaction of multiple immune cell types. To systematically characterize this response, we analyzed 58,067 immune cells from the mouse small intestine by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) at steady state and after induction of a type 2 inflammatory reaction to ovalbumin (OVA). Computational analysis revealed broad shifts in both cell-type composition and cell programs in response to the inflammation, especially in group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Inflammation induced the expression of exon 5 of Calca, which encodes the alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (?-CGRP), in intestinal KLRG1+ ILC2s. ?-CGRP antagonized KLRG1+ ILC2s proliferation but promoted IL-5 expression. Genetic perturbation of ?-CGRP increased the proportion of intestinal KLRG1+ ILC2s. Our work highlights a model where ?-CGRP-mediated neuronal signaling is critical for suppressing ILC2 expansion and maintaining homeostasis of the type 2 immune machinery.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and regulatory T (Treg) cells are systemically induced by helminth infection but also sustain metabolic homeostasis in adipose tissue and contribute to tissue repair during injury. Here we show that interleukin-33 (IL-33) mediates activation of ILC2s and Treg cells in resting adipose tissue, but also after helminth infection or treatment with IL-2. Unexpectedly, ILC2-intrinsic IL-33 activation was required for Treg cell accumulation in vivo and was independent of ILC2 type 2 cytokines but partially dependent on direct co-stimulatory interactions via ICOSL-ICOS. IFN-? inhibited ILC2 activation and Treg cell accumulation by IL-33 in infected tissue, as well as adipose tissue, where repression increased with aging and high-fat diet-induced obesity. IL-33 and ILC2s are central mediators of type 2 immune responses that promote tissue and metabolic homeostasis, and IFN-? suppresses this pathway, likely to promote inflammatory responses and divert metabolic resources necessary to protect the host.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s; also called nuocytes, innate helper cells, or natural helper cells) provide protective immunity during helminth infection and play an important role in influenza-induced and allergic airway hyperreactivity. Whereas the transcription factor GATA binding protein 3 (Gata3) is important for the production of IL-5 and -13 by ILC2s in response to IL-33 or -25 stimulation, it is not known whether Gata3 is required for ILC2 development from hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we show that chimeric mice generated with Gata3-deficient fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells fail to develop systemically dispersed ILC2s. In these chimeric mice, in vivo administration of IL-33 or -25 fails to expand ILC2 numbers or to induce characteristic ILC2-dependent IL-5 or -13 production. Moreover, cell-intrinsic Gata3 expression is required for ILC2 development in vitro and in vivo. Using mutant and transgenic mice in which Gata3 gene copy number is altered, we show that ILC2 generation from common lymphoid progenitors, as well as ILC2 homeostasis and cytokine production, is regulated by Gata3 expression levels in a dose-dependent fashion. Collectively, these results identify Gata3 as a critical early regulator of ILC2 development, thereby extending the paradigm of Gata3-dependent control of type 2 immunity to include both innate and adaptive lymphocytes.
Project description:Type 2 lymphocytes promote both physiologic tissue remodeling and allergic pathology, yet their physical tissue niches are poorly described. Here, we used quantitative imaging to define the tissue niches of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which are critical instigators of type 2 immunity. We identified a dominant adventitial niche around lung bronchi and larger vessels in multiple tissues, where ILC2s localized with subsets of dendritic and regulatory T cells. However, ILC2s were most intimately associated with adventitial stromal cells (ASCs), a mesenchymal fibroblast-like subset that expresses interleukin-33 (IL-33) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). In vitro, ASCs produced TSLP that supported ILC2 accumulation and activation. ILC2s and IL-13 drove reciprocal ASC expansion and IL-33 expression. During helminth infection, ASC depletion impaired lung ILC2 and Th2 cell accumulation and function, which are in part dependent on ASC-derived IL-33. These data indicate that adventitial niches are conserved sites where ASCs regulate type 2 lymphocyte expansion and function.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) release interleukin-13 (IL-13) during protective immunity to helminth infection and detrimentally during allergy and asthma. Using two mouse models to deplete ILC2s in vivo, we demonstrate that T helper 2 (Th2) cell responses are impaired in the absence of ILC2s. We show that MHCII-expressing ILC2s interact with antigen-specific T cells to instigate a dialog in which IL-2 production from T cells promotes ILC2 proliferation and IL-13 production. Deletion of MHCII renders IL-13-expressing ILC2s incapable of efficiently inducing Nippostrongylus brasiliensis expulsion. Thus, during transition to adaptive T cell-mediated immunity, the ILC2 and T cell crosstalk contributes to their mutual maintenance, expansion and cytokine production. This interaction appears to augment dendritic-cell-induced T cell activation and identifies a previously unappreciated pathway in the regulation of type-2 immunity.
Project description:The type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 have important roles in stimulating innate and adaptive immune responses that are required for resistance to helminth infection, promotion of allergic inflammation, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce type 2 cytokines, and although advances have been made in understanding the cytokine milieu that promotes ILC2 responses, how ILC2 responses are regulated by other stimuli remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that ILC2s in the mouse gastrointestinal tract co-localize with cholinergic neurons that express the neuropeptide neuromedin U (NMU). In contrast to other haematopoietic cells, ILC2s selectively express the NMU receptor 1 (NMUR1). In vitro stimulation of ILC2s with NMU induced rapid cell activation, proliferation, and secretion of the type 2 cytokines IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 that was dependent on cell-intrinsic expression of NMUR1 and G?q protein. In vivo administration of NMU triggered potent type 2 cytokine responses characterized by ILC2 activation, proliferation and eosinophil recruitment that was associated with accelerated expulsion of the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or induction of lung inflammation. Conversely, worm burden was higher in Nmur1-/- mice than in control mice. Furthermore, use of gene-deficient mice and adoptive cell transfer experiments revealed that ILC2s were necessary and sufficient to mount NMU-elicited type 2 cytokine responses. Together, these data indicate that the NMU-NMUR1 neuronal signalling circuit provides a selective mechanism through which the enteric nervous system and innate immune system integrate to promote rapid type 2 cytokine responses that can induce anti-microbial, inflammatory and tissue-protective type 2 responses at mucosal sites.
Project description:Helminths, allergens, and certain protists induce type 2 immune responses, but the underlying mechanisms of immune activation remain poorly understood. In the small intestine, chemosensing by epithelial tuft cells results in the activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), which subsequently drive increased tuft cell frequency. This feedforward circuit is essential for intestinal remodeling and helminth clearance. ILC2 activation requires tuft-cell-derived interleukin-25 (IL-25), but whether additional signals regulate the circuit is unclear. Here, we show that tuft cells secrete cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) to rapidly activate type 2 immunity following chemosensing of helminth infection. CysLTs cooperate with IL-25 to activate ILC2s, and tuft-cell-specific ablation of leukotriene synthesis attenuates type 2 immunity and delays helminth clearance. Conversely, cysLTs are dispensable for the tuft cell response induced by intestinal protists. Our findings identify an additional tuft cell effector function and suggest context-specific regulation of tuft-ILC2 circuits within the small intestine.
Project description:Neuroimmune interactions have emerged as critical modulators of allergic inflammation, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are an important cell type for mediating these interactions. Here, we show that ILC2s expressed both the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its receptor. CGRP potently inhibited alarmin-driven type 2 cytokine production and proliferation by lung ILC2s both in vitro and in vivo. CGRP induced marked changes in ILC2 expression programs in vivo and in vitro, attenuating alarmin-driven proliferative and effector responses. A distinct subset of ILCs scored highly for a CGRP-specific gene signature after in vivo alarmin stimulation, suggesting CGRP regulated this response. Finally, we observed increased ILC2 proliferation and type 2 cytokine production as well as exaggerated responses to alarmins in mice lacking the CGRP receptor. Together, these data indicate that endogenous CGRP is a critical negative regulator of ILC2 responses in vivo.
Project description:Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important for mucosal immunity. The intestine harbors all ILC subsets, but how these cells are balanced to achieve immune homeostasis and mount appropriate responses during infection remains elusive. Here, we show that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) expression in the gut regulates ILC balance. Among ILCs, Ahr is most highly expressed by gut ILC2s and controls chromatin accessibility at the Ahr locus via positive feedback. Ahr signaling suppresses Gfi1 transcription-factor-mediated expression of the interleukin-33 (IL-33) receptor ST2 in ILC2s and expression of ILC2 effector molecules IL-5, IL-13, and amphiregulin in a cell-intrinsic manner. Ablation of Ahr enhances anti-helminth immunity in the gut, whereas genetic or pharmacological activation of Ahr suppresses ILC2 function but enhances ILC3 maintenance to protect the host from Citrobacter rodentium infection. Thus, the host regulates the gut ILC2-ILC3 balance by engaging the Ahr pathway to mount appropriate immunity against various pathogens.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are rare innate immune cells that accumulate in tissues during allergy and helminth infection, performing critical effector functions that drive type 2 inflammation. ILC2s express ST2, the receptor for the cytokine IL-33, and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2), a receptor for the bioactive lipid prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The IL-33-ST2 and the PGD2-CRTH2 pathways have both been implicated in promoting ILC2 accumulation during type 2 inflammation. However, whether these two pathways coordinate to regulate ILC2 population size in the tissue in vivo remains undefined. In this study, we show that ILC2 accumulation in the murine lung in response to systemic IL-33 treatment was partially dependent on CRTH2. This effect was not a result of reduced ILC2 proliferation, increased apoptosis or cell death, or differences in expression of the ST2 receptor in the absence of CRTH2. Rather, data from adoptive transfer studies suggested that defective accumulation of CRTH2-deficient ILC2s in response to IL-33 was due to altered ILC2 migration patterns. Whereas donor wild-type ILC2s preferentially accumulated in the lungs compared with CRTH2-deficient ILC2s following transfer into IL-33-treated recipients, wild-type and CRTH2-deficient ILC2s accumulated equally in the recipient mediastinal lymph node. These data suggest that CRTH2-dependent effects lie downstream of IL-33, directly affecting the migration of ILC2s into inflamed lung tissues. A better understanding of the complex interactions between the IL-33 and PGD2-CRTH2 pathways that regulate ILC2 population size will be useful in understanding how these pathways could be targeted to treat diseases associated with type 2 inflammation.