Access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV along HIV services cascade through integrated active case management in 15 operational districts in Cambodia.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Following the introduction of option B+ in 2013, and with the perspective of eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV by 2025, Cambodia has implemented an integrated active case management (IACM) approach since 2014 to improve the notification and follow-up of all HIV-infected cases including pregnant women, and to ensure access to and use of the full prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service package by HIV-infected pregnant women and their HIV-exposed infants. This study aimed to analyse PMTCT cascade data in 15 operational districts (ODs) implementing the IACM approach in Cambodia. METHODS:We analysed PMTCT cohort data from 15 ODs implementing IACM approach between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016. We measured key indicators along the PMTCT cascade and compared them to available (cross-sectional) PMTCT indicators during the 2011 to 2013 period. RESULTS:During the period 2014 to 2016, among 938 identified HIV-infected pregnant women, 308 (32.8%) were tested HIV positive during their pregnancy, 9 (1.0%) during labour, while the remaining 621 (66.2%) were women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who became pregnant. During the study period, 867 (92.4%) of the 938 women received ART during pregnancy and labour. Subsequently, 456 (85.6%) of the 533 HEI born and alive during the study period received 6-week antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis, 390 (76.6%) and 396 (77.8%) of the 509 infants aged six weeks or older received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and HIV-DNA PCR test respectively. Among the 396 HEI who received HIV-DNA PCR test, 7 (1.8%) were found HIV positive. The comparison with cross-sectional PMTCT indicator obtained during the previous 2011 to 2013 period in the same 15 ODs, showed a significant increase in ARV uptake among HIV-infected pregnant women (from 72.3% to 92.4%), in cotrimoxazole uptake (from 41.6% to 73.2%), and in HIV-DNA PCR testing coverage among HEI (from 41.2% to 74.3%). CONCLUSIONS:The implementation of option B+ and IACM may have contributed to the improvement of the PMTCT cascade in Cambodia. However, some gaps in accessing PMTCT services along the HIV cascade persist and need to be addressed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In the typical prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV cascade of care discussion or analysis, the period of analysis begins at the first visit for antenatal care (ANC) for that pregnancy. This starting point is problematic for two reasons: (1) a large number of HIV-infected women are already on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART) when presenting for ANC; and (2) women present to ANC at different gestational ages. The PMTCT ART Coverage Tool (PMTCT-ACT), which estimates the proportion of days covered (PDC) with ART, was developed to address each of these problems.<h4>Methods</h4>PDC is a preferred method to measure adherence to chronic medications, such as ART. For evaluating the PMTCT cascade of care, as indicated by PDC with ART over various time periods, a "starting point" based on a specific day before delivery must be defined that applies to all women (treatment experienced or naïve at the first ANC visit at any gestational age). Using the example of 168?days prior to delivery (24?weeks), PMTCT-ACT measures PDC with ART during that period. PMTCT-ACT is provided as a STATA do-file. Using an example dataset for two women (ID1 is treatment experienced; ID2 is treatment naïve), the details of each major portion of the tool (Parts 1-5) are presented. PMTCT-ACT along with the intermediate datasets created during the analysis are provided as supplemental files.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Evaluating the PMTCT cascade of care requires a standard definition of the follow-up period during pregnancy that applies to all HIV-infected pregnant women and a standard measure of adherence. PMTCT-ACT is a new tool that fits this purpose. PMTCT-ACT can also be easily adjusted to evaluate other ante- and post-natal periods (e.g., final 4?weeks, final 8?weeks, complete pregnancy period, initial 24?weeks postpartum, time periods consistent with infant HIV testing guidelines).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) have not translated well into effective programs. Previous studies of systems engineering applications to PMTCT lacked comparison groups or randomization. METHODS:Thirty-six health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, and Mozambique were randomized to usual care or a systems engineering intervention, stratified by country and volume. The intervention guided facility staff to iteratively identify and then rectify barriers to PMTCT implementation. Registry data quantified coverage of HIV testing during first antenatal care visit, antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV-positive pregnant women, and screening HIV-exposed infants (HEI) for HIV by 6-8 weeks. We compared the change between baseline (January 2013-January 2014) and postintervention (January 2015-March 2015) periods using t-tests. All analyses were intent-to-treat. RESULTS:ARV coverage increased 3-fold [+13.3% points (95% CI: 0.5 to 26.0) in intervention vs. +4.1 (-12.6 to 20.7) in control facilities] and HEI screening increased 17-fold [+11.6 (-2.6 to 25.7) in intervention vs. +0.7 (-12.9 to 14.4) in control facilities]. In prespecified subgroup analyses, ARV coverage increased significantly in Kenya [+20.9 (-3.1 to 44.9) in intervention vs. -21.2 (-52.7 to 10.4) in controls; P = 0.02]. HEI screening increased significantly in Mozambique [+23.1 (10.3 to 35.8) in intervention vs. +3.7 (-13.1 to 20.6) in controls; P = 0.04]. HIV testing did not differ significantly between arms. CONCLUSIONS:In this first randomized trial of systems engineering to improve PMTCT, we saw substantially larger improvements in ARV coverage and HEI screening in intervention facilities compared with controls, which were significant in prespecified subgroups. Systems engineering could strengthen PMTCT service delivery and protect infants from HIV.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Strategies to improve the uptake of Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) are needed. We integrated HIV and maternal, newborn and child health services in a One Stop Clinic to improve the PMTCT cascade in a rural Tanzanian setting.<h4>Methods</h4>The One Stop Clinic of Ifakara offers integral care to HIV-infected pregnant women and their families at one single place and time. All pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants attended during the first year of Option B+ implementation (04/2014-03/2015) were included. PMTCT was assessed at the antenatal clinic (ANC), HIV care and labour ward, and compared with the pre-B+ period. We also characterised HIV-infected pregnant women and evaluated the MTCT rate.<h4>Results</h4>1,579 women attended the ANC. Seven (0.4%) were known to be HIV-infected. Of the remainder, 98.5% (1,548/1,572) were offered an HIV test, 94% (1,456/1,548) accepted and 38 (2.6%) tested HIV-positive. 51 were re-screened for HIV during late pregnancy and one had seroconverted. The HIV prevalence at the ANC was 3.1% (46/1,463). Of the 39 newly diagnosed women, 35 (90%) were linked to care. HIV test was offered to >98% of ANC clients during both the pre- and post-B+ periods. During the post-B+ period, test acceptance (94% versus 90.5%, p<0.0001) and linkage to care (90% versus 26%, p<0.0001) increased. Ten additional women diagnosed outside the ANC were linked to care. 82% (37/45) of these newly-enrolled women started antiretroviral treatment (ART). After a median time of 17 months, 27% (12/45) were lost to follow-up. 79 women under HIV care became pregnant and all received ART. After a median follow-up time of 19 months, 6% (5/79) had been lost. 5,727 women delivered at the hospital, 20% (1,155/5,727) had unknown HIV serostatus. Of these, 30% (345/1,155) were tested for HIV, and 18/345 (5.2%) were HIV-positive. Compared to the pre-B+ period more women were tested during labour (30% versus 2.4%, p<0.0001). During the study, the MTCT rate was 2.2%.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The implementation of Option B+ through an integrated service delivery model resulted in universal HIV testing in the ANC, high rates of linkage to care, and MTCT below the elimination threshold. However, HIV testing in late pregnancy and labour, and retention during early ART need to be improved.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The Chinese government has invested US$140 million annually on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. This study evaluates the programme by examining the improvements in programme coverage HIV testing and provision of antiviral drugs along the PMTCT cascade. METHODS:Data for PMTCT cascade indicators were collected through a comprehensive systematic review of published peer-reviewed English and Chinese literature during 2003-2011. Meta-analysis was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS:This study included 113 publications. HIV prevalence among pregnant women in China who accessed antenatal care (ANC) remained below 0.1% during the past decade. HIV testing coverage in pregnant women attending ANC and in HIV-exposed infants at 18?months significantly increased from 62.4% (95% CI 4.7% to 98.2%) and 22.1% (16.3% to 32.3%) in 2003 to 90.3% (88.4% to 91.8%) and 82.8% (66.9% to 99.5%) in 2011 respectively, whereas antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis uptake increased from 35.2% (12.2% to 47.3%) and 26.9% (24.3% to 28.9%) to 86.2% (53.2% to 97.2%) and 90.3% (85.5% to 93.7%). HIV vertical transmission rate substantially decreased from 31.8% (25.7% to 38.6%) prior to the programme to 2.3% (1.4% to 3.8%) in 2011. During 2003-2011, among 25,312 (23,995-26,644) infants born to HIV-positive mothers who received ARV prophylaxis, 975 (564-1395) were diagnosed with HIV, corresponding to an average transmission rate of 3.9% (3.2% to 4.6%). However, while including transmissions among HIV-positive pregnant women who were lost along the cascade, the average transmission rate during 2003-2011 was 17.4% (15.8% to 19.0%). CONCLUSIONS:PMTCT programmes have reduced HIV mother-to-child transmission in China. Further improvements in the continuum of care remain essential in realising the full potential of the programme.
Project description:Despite the progress in the Prevention of the Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT), the paediatric HIV epidemic remains worrying in Cameroon. HIV prevalence rate for the population of pregnant women was 7.6% in 2010 in Cameroon. The extent of the paediatric HIV epidemic is needed to inform policymakers. We developed a stochastic simulation model to estimate the number of new paediatric HIV infections through MTCT based on the observed uptake of services during the different steps of the PMTCT cascade in Cameroon in 2011. Different levels of PMTCT uptake was also assessed.A discrete events computer simulation-based approach with stochastic structure was proposed to generate a cohort of pregnant women followed-up until 6 weeks post-partum, and optionally until complete breastfeeding cessation in both prevalent and incident lactating HIV-infected women. The different parameters of the simulation model were fixed using data sources available from the 2011 national registry surveys, and from external cohorts in Cameroon. Different PMTCT coverages were simulated to assess their impact on MTCT. Available data show a low coverage of PMTCT services in Cameroon in 2011.Based on a simulation approach on a population of 995, 533 pregnant women, the overall residual MTCT rate in 2011 was estimated to be 22.1% (95 % CI: 18.6%-25.2%), the 6-week perinatal MTCT rate among prevalent HIV-infected mothers at delivery is estimated at 12.1% (95% CI: 8.1%-15.1%), with an additional postnatal MTCT rate estimated at 13.3% (95% CI: 9.3%-17.8%). The MTCT rate among children whose mothers seroconverted during breastfeeding was estimated at 20.8% (95% CI: 14.1%-26.9%). Overall, we estimated the number of new HIV infections in children in Cameroon to be 10, 403 (95% CI: 9, 054-13, 345) in 2011. When PMTCT uptake have been fixed at 100%, 90% and 80%, global MTCT rate failed to 0.9% (9% CI: 0.5%-1.7%), 2.0% (95% CI: 0.9%-3.2%) and 4.3% (95% CI: 2.4%-6.7%) respectively.This model is helpful to provide MTCT estimates to guide the national HIV policy in Cameroon. Increasing supply and uptake of PMTCT services among prevalent HIV infected pregnant women, as well as HIV-prevention interventions including the offer and acceptance of HIV testing and counselling in lactating women could reduce significantly the residual HIV MTCT in Cameroon. A public health effort should be made to encourage health care workers and pregnant women to use PMTCT services until complete breastfeeding cessation.
Project description:The routine antenatal screening through the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services results in pregnancy being often the point at which an HIV diagnosis is made. Disclosure to partners presents particular complexities during pregnancy. However, research on the pattern and experiences of disclosure in pregnancy is limited in Lesotho, despite the high prevalence of HIV among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the disclosure experiences of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) after receiving a positive HIV test result during pregnancy. Methods. Descriptive phenomenology using semistructured in-depth interview was used to collect data from AGYM sampled purposively from PMTCT sites located in urban areas of Maseru, Lesotho. Data analysis was inductive and followed the thematic approach. Findings. There were 15 AGYW involved in this study with the mean age of 20 years. Fourteen reported being pregnant with their first child and perceived HIV testing in antenatal care as compulsory. Ten AGYM disclosed their HIV status in the immediate posttesting period to protect their partners from HIV infection. The narratives revealed that the AGYM hoped that after disclosing, the partner would be tested for HIV. Furthermore, the AGYM disclosed because they wanted freedom to take their medication. Their experience of disclosure was relief, as they did not have to hide their HIV status. The AGYM reported being supported to adhere to medication and clinic attendance by their partners who also provided emotional support to them to deal with being HIV positive and pregnant. Conclusion. The AGYM recounted an overall positive experience of disclosure to their partners who agreed to test for HIV and adopted safe sex practices. This has positive implications for the PMTCT programme and the involvement of men in reproductive health. Therefore, there is need to integrate disclosure and partner testing interventions in the cascade of services in PMTCT programmes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-infected children before the age of two since 2010, but this implies an early identification of these infants. We described the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT) cascade, the staffing and the quality of infrastructures in pediatric HIV care facilities, in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2011 in all health care facilities involved in PMTCT and pediatric HIV care in Ouagadougou. We assessed them according to their coverage in pediatric HIV care and WHO standards, through a desk review of medical registers and a semi-structured questionnaire administered to health-care workers (HCW). RESULTS: In 2011, there was no offer of care in primary health care facilities for HIV-infected children in Ouagadougou. Six district hospitals and two university hospitals provided pediatric HIV care. Among the 67 592 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2011, 85.9% were tested for HIV. The prevalence of HIV was 1.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 1.7%-1.9%). Among the 1 064 HIV-infected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics, 41.4% received a mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention intervention. Among the HIV-exposed infants, 313 (29.4%) had an early infant HIV test, and 306 (97.8%) of these infants tested received their result within a four-month period. Among the 40 children initially tested HIV-infected, 33 (82.5%) were referred to a health care facility, 3 (9.0%) were false positive, and 27 (90.0%) were initiated on ART. Although health care facilities were adequately supplied with HIV drugs, they were hindered by operational challenges such as shortage of infrastructures, laboratory reagents, and trained HCW. CONCLUSIONS: The PMTCT cascade revealed bottle necks in PMTCT intervention and HIV early infant diagnosis. The staffing in HIV care and quality of health care infrastructures were also insufficient in 2011 in Ouagadougou.
Project description:Background:Great strides have been made in decreasing paediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In South Africa, new paediatric HIV infections decreased by 84% between 2009 and 2015. This achievement is a result of a strong political will and the rapid evolution of the country's prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines. Objectives:In this paper we report on the implementation of a large PMTCT programme in Soweto, South Africa. Methods:We reviewed routinely collected PMTCT data from 13 healthcare facilities, for the period 2002-2015. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage among pregnant women living with HIV (PWLHIV) and the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate at early infant diagnosis were evaluated. Results:In total, 360 751 pregnant women attended the facilities during the review period, and the HIV prevalence remained high throughout at around 30%. The proportion of PWLHIV presenting with a known HIV status increased from 14.3% in 2009 when the indicator was first collected to 45% in 2015, p < 0.001. In 2006, less than 10% of the PWLHIV were initiated on ART, increasing to 88% by 2011. The MTCT rate decreased from 6.9% in 2007 to under 1% from 2013 to 2015, p < 0.001. Conclusion:The achievements in decreasing paediatric HIV infections have been hailed as one of the greatest public health achievements of our times. While there are inherent limitations with using routinely collected aggregate data, the Soweto data reflect progress made in the implementation of PMTCT programmes in South Africa. Progress with PMTCT has, however, not been accompanied by a decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women.
Project description:Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for non-adherence to HIV treatment for women, however the evidence on the impact of IPV on uptake of the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade is inconclusive. We examined data from 433 HIV positive pregnant women in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, enrolled between April 2013 and August 2014 and followed-up through 6 weeks postpartum. Participants were asked about their IPV experiences in a face-to-face interview at enrollment. Measures of PMTCT cascade included: uptake of clinical appointments and services, viral suppression, and adherence to antiretrovirals (ARV). Approximately half of the sample (51%) had experienced some form of IPV; 35% had experienced emotional abuse, 29% physical abuse, and 19% sexual abuse. There were no statistically significant associations between experiencing any form of IPV and uptake of clinical appointments and services (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio [aPR] = 1.02; 95% [CI]: 0.89-1.17), viral load suppression (aPR = 1.07, 95% CI:0.96-1.19) and ARV adherence (aPR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.87-1.18). Findings from this study indicate that, among HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in PMTCT care, experiencing IPV does not reduce adherence to clinic visits and services, adherence to ARV. The high prevalence of IPV in this population suggests that IPV screening and intervention should be included as part of standard care for PMTCT.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to identify factors associated with access to HIV care and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV among HIV-positive pregnant women in a community cohort in rural Tanzania (Kisesa). METHODS:Kisesa-resident women who tested HIV-positive during HIV serosurveillance and were pregnant (while HIV-positive) between 2005 and 2012 were eligible. Community cohort records were linked to PMTCT and HIV clinic data from four facilities (PMTCT programme implemented in 2009; referrals to city-based hospitals since 2005) to ascertain service use. Factors associated with access to HIV care and ARVs during pregnancy were analysed using logistic regression. RESULTS:Overall, 24% of women accessed HIV care and 12% accessed ARVs during pregnancy (n=756 pregnancies to 420 women); these proportions increased over time. In multivariate analyses for 2005-2012, being married, prior voluntary counselling and testing, increasing age, increasing year of pregnancy and increasing duration of infection were independently associated with access to care and ARVs. Residence in roadside areas was an independent predictor of access to care but not ARVs. There was no evidence of an interaction with time period. CONCLUSIONS:Access to PMTCT services was low in this rural setting but improved markedly over time. There were fairly few sociodemographic differentials although support for young women and those without partners may be needed. Further decentralisation of HIV services to more remote areas, promotion of voluntary counselling and testing and implementation of Option B+ are likely to improve uptake and may bring women into care and treatment sooner after infection.