Task sharing for family planning services, Burkina Faso.
ABSTRACT: Problem:In Burkina Faso, the coverage of services for family planning is low due to shortage of qualified health staff and limited access to services. Approach:Following the launch of the Ouagadougou Partnership, an alliance to catalyse the expansion of family planning services, the health ministry created a consortium of family planning stakeholders in 2011. The consortium adopted a collaborative framework to implement a pilot project for task sharing in family planning at community and primary health-care centre levels in two rural districts. Stakeholders were responsible for their areas of expertise. These areas included advocacy; monitoring and evaluation; and capacity development of community health workers (CHWs) to offer oral and injectable contraceptives to new users and of auxiliary nurses and auxiliary midwives to provide implants and intrauterine devices. The health ministry implemented supportive supervision cascades involving relevant planning and service levels. Local setting:In Burkina Faso, only 15% (2563/17 087) of married women used modern contraceptives in 2010. Relevant changes:Adoption of new policies and clinical care standards expanded task sharing roles in family planning. The consortium trained a total of 79 CHWs and 124 auxiliary nurses and midwives. Between January 2017 and December 2018, CHWs provided injectables to 3698 new users, and auxiliary nurses or midwives provided 726 intrauterine devices and 2574 implants to new users. No safety issues were reported. Lessons learnt:The pilot project was feasible and safe, however, financial constraints are hindering scale-up efforts. Supportive supervision cascades were critical in ensuring success.
Project description:High total fertility rates in Burkina Faso and Mali are leading to population growth beyond the agricultural and fiscal means of its citizens. Providing access to affordable family planning methods is a key step in driving the demographic transition where fertility and mortality rates decline. Furthermore, both nations face significant challenges as climate change is projected to disproportionately impact the western Sahel region undermining environmental, social and economic stability within the region. This analysis was included in formative research to inform family planning programming. The aim of this study was to examine possible indicators of long acting and permanent contraceptive method (LAPM) and short-term method (STM) use for young women in Burkina Faso and Mali.Secondary data analysis was conducted using the three most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets for Burkina Faso (1998, 2003, 2010) and Mali (2001, 2006, 2012). Women ages 15-24, at risk for unwanted pregnancy were included in these analyses. Summary descriptive statistics across all time points are reported and multinomial logistic regression was used with the most recent data to determine potential indicators of different types of modern contraceptive methods.In Burkina Faso in 2010, 24% of women ages 15-24 were using modern contraceptives. Only 2.9% reported using LAPMs in 2010, an increase from 0.3% in 1998. In Mali, modern contraceptive use increased more recently, rising from 9.4% in 2001 to 10.2% in 2006 to 15.3% in 2012. LAPM use also increased from 0.3% in 2001 to 4.1% in 2012. Significant indicators of LAPM contraceptive use in both countries included educational attainment, ideal family size, home ownership and husband's desire for more children.Young women in Burkina Faso and Mali are increasingly using modern contraceptives for family planning; however, the LAPM contraceptive prevalence rate remains low. Our analysis indicates that social norms around ideal family size for both men and women continue to drive young women's choices around family planning and impede use of LAPMs. To increase modern contraceptive use and curb fertility rates, local governments and development organizations should focus on women's empowerment and include male partners.
Project description:Introduction:In Burkina Faso, despite several efforts to improve contraceptive uptake, contraceptive prevalence remains low. Studies suggest that the low levels of family planning (FP) practices can be partially attributed to the low participation of men in reproductive health programmes. Involving men in FP programmes in Burkina Faso is thus imperative, but the obstacles to this are poorly documented. This study has two objectives to explore the perspectives of men and women on barriers to contraceptive use and to identify the strategies to increase male involvement in family planning. Methods:It is a qualitative study using 20 focus groups and 52 in-depth individual interviews in two regions (North Central Region and Central East Region) with a sample of 29 adult men and 23 women who were married and had children or not. Interviews were conducted in Moore (the national language commonly spoken in both regions). All interviews were recorded and transcribed into French using Microsoft Word. Then, content analysis was carried out using the constant comparison method to identify the major themes. Results:The results show that men's attitudes are still a significant barrier to women's use of modern contraceptives. The reasons women do not use contraception and men do not adhere to FP programmes include lack of method knowledge, negative beliefs and perceptions about modern contraceptive methods, and the side effects of contraceptives. Cultural norms and preferences for large families are also common barriers to FP. However, the results showed that men's awareness of FP, communication between spouses, and access to FP services can promote men's adherence to FP programmes in the Centre-East and Centre-North regions of Burkina Faso. Conclusion:Efforts should be made to improve educational standards, especially for men, and reorient FP services to make them more accessible to men.
Project description:?The World Health Organization recommends that all malaria management be based on parasitological identification. We monitored performance of trained community health workers (CHWs) in adhering to this recommendation to restrict artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) to positive rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-confirmed cases in children in 3 malaria-endemic sub-Saharan African countries.?In 33 villages in Burkina Faso, 45 villages in Nigeria, and 84 villages in Uganda, 265 CHWs were trained over a minimum of 3 days to diagnose malaria using RDTs (prepare, read, record results, and inform the patient about results) and treat RDT-confirmed uncomplicated malaria cases with ACTs. In Nigeria, CHWs were also taught to obtain a thick blood smear. Spent RDT kits and prepared blood slides were collected and interpreted independently in Burkina Faso and Nigeria to confirm CHWs' diagnoses. Interviews were held with 12 of 17 CHWs who prescribed ACTs for patients with RDT-negative test results, and with 16 of 29 caregivers to determine factors related to noncompliance.?Of 12 656 patients treated with ACTs in the participating countries (5365 in Burkina Faso, 1648 in Nigeria, and 5643 in Uganda), 29 patients (8 from Burkina Faso, 17 from Nigeria, 4 from Uganda) were RDT negative. The small number of RDT-negative ACT-treated cases limits statistical analysis. Only a few CHWs were involved, and they were more likely to be traders rather than farmers (odds ratio [OR], 6.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.09-18.07; P = .0004). RDT-negative children who were treated with ACTs had a significantly higher probability of residing in a village other than that of the CHW (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.59-9.30; P = .0018). Parental pressure was identified in interviews with parents.?Noncompliance with results of RDT tests is relatively rare when CHWs are trained and well supervised.?ISRCTN13858170.
Project description:Background: The Family Health Directorate of the Ministry of Health (MoH/FHD) and Marie Stopes Burkina Faso (MS BF), with implementing partners, Association Burkinabé pour le Bien-être Familial (ABBEF) and Equilibres & Populations (Equipop) collaborated to conduct a pilot project in Burkina Faso focused on "increasing access to family planning (FP) services through task-sharing short- and long-acting family planning methods to primary care cadres." Four cadres of providers were trained to provide intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants, while community health workers (CHWs) were trained to provide pills and subcutaneous injectables. FHI 360 and the Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population (ISSP) evaluated the project's impact on method uptake, client satisfaction, safety, acceptability and the feasibility of task sharing. Methods: The evaluation employed service statistics, client exit interviews (quantitative) and in-depth interviews (qualitative). New FP clients, community representatives, MoH officials, and pilot project-trained FP providers from Dandé and Tougan districts participated in these interviews. Results: Providers, community representatives and government officials all spoke favorably of the pilot project and considered it a boon to women and the communities in which they lived. FP clients were satisfied with their methods and the services they received from their respective providers, and they reported no safety concerns. However, service statistics did not show a clear and steady increase in method uptake for the four methods beyond spikes coinciding with pre-existing free contraceptive weeks. Conclusions: Results of the evaluation were largely positive. These evaluation findings are being used to guide decisions about scale-up.
Project description:?Community health workers (CHWs) are members of a community who are chosen by their communities as first-line, volunteer health workers. The time they spend providing healthcare and the value of this time are often not evaluated. Our aim was to quantify the time CHWs spent on providing healthcare before and during the implementation of an integrated program of diagnosis and treatment of febrile illness in 3 African countries.?In Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda, CHWs were trained to assess and manage febrile patients in keeping with Integrated Management of Childhood Illness recommendations to use rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination therapy, and rectal artesunate for malaria treatment. All CHWs provided healthcare only to young children usually <5 years of age, and hence daily time allocation of their time to child healthcare was documented for 1 day (in the high malaria season) before the intervention and at several time points following the implementation of the intervention. Time spent in providing child healthcare was valued in earnings of persons with similar experience.?During the high malaria season of the intervention, CHWs spent nearly 50 minutes more in daily healthcare provision (average daily time, 30.2 minutes before the intervention vs 79.5 minutes during the intervention; test for difference in means P < .01). On average, the daily time spent providing healthcare during the intervention was 55.8 minutes (Burkina Faso), 77.4 minutes (Nigeria), and 72.2 minutes (Uganda). Using the country minimum monthly salary, CHWs' time allocated to child healthcare for 1 year was valued at US Dollars (USD) $52 in Burkina Faso, USD $295 in Nigeria, and USD $141 in Uganda.?CHWs spend up to an hour and a half daily on child healthcare in their communities. These data are informative in designing reward systems to motivate CHWs to continue providing good-quality services.?ISRCTN13858170.
Project description:Method-related concerns represent an important cause of contraceptive non-use and discontinuation. User preferences must be incorporated into the design of new contraceptive technologies to ensure product success and improve family planning outcomes. We assessed preferences among potential users in Burkina Faso and Uganda for six contraceptive methods currently under development or ready for introduction: a new copper intra-uterine device (IUD), a levonorgestrel intra-uterine system, a new single-rod implant, a biodegradable implant, a longer-acting injectable, and a method of non-surgical permanent contraception. Questions were added to nationally-representative PMA2020 household surveys that asked 2,743 and 2,403 women in Burkina Faso and Uganda, respectively, their interest in using each new method. We assessed factors associated with interest through multivariable logistic regression models. We conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with 398 women, 78 men, and 52 family planning providers and key informants to explore perceived advantages and disadvantages of the methods. Respondents expressed interest in using all new methods, with greatest interest in the longer-acting injectable (77% in Burkina Faso, 61% in Uganda), followed by a new single-rod implant. Least interest was expressed in a new copper IUD (26% Burkina Faso, 15% in Uganda). In both countries, women with less education had higher odds of interest in a longer-acting injectable. Interest in most new methods was associated with desiring a method lasting longer than one year and acceptance of lack of menstrual bleeding as a contraceptive side effect. Perceived advantages and disadvantages were similar between countries, including concerns about menstrual side effects and fear of the biodegradable nature of the biodegradable implant. Potential users, their partners, and providers are interested in new longer-acting methods, however, familiar forms including the injectable and implant may be the most immediately acceptable. A biodegradable implant will require clear counseling messages to allay potential fears.
Project description:Background:We investigated whether adding community scheduled malaria screening and treatment (CSST) with artemether-lumefantrine by community health workers (CHWs) to standard intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) would improve maternal and infant health. Methods:In this 2-arm cluster-randomized, controlled trial, villages in Burkina Faso, The Gambia, and Benin were randomized to receive CSST plus IPTp-SP or IPTp-SP alone. CHWs in the intervention arm performed monthly CSST during pregnancy. At each contact, filter paper and blood slides were collected, and at delivery, a placental biopsy was collected. Primary and secondary endpoints were the prevalence of placental malaria, maternal anemia, maternal peripheral infection, low birth weight, antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance, and IPTp-SP coverage. Results:Malaria infection was detected at least once for 3.8% women in The Gambia, 16.9% in Benin, and 31.6% in Burkina Faso. There was no difference between study arms in terms of placenta malaria after adjusting for birth season, parity, and IPTp-SP doses (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06 [95% confidence interval, .78-1.44]; P = .72). No difference between the study arms was found for peripheral maternal infection, anemia, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. ANC attendance was significantly higher in the intervention arm in Burkina Faso but not in The Gambia and Benin. Increasing number of IPTp-SP doses was associated with a significantly lower risk of placenta malaria, anemia at delivery, and low birth weight. Conclusions:Adding CSST to existing IPTp-SP strategies did not reduce malaria in pregnancy. Increasing the number of IPTp-SP doses given during pregnancy is a priority. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT01941264; ISRCTN37259296.
Project description:?Community health workers (CHWs) were trained in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda to diagnose febrile children using malaria rapid diagnostic tests, and treat positive malaria cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and those who could not take oral medicines with rectal artesunate. We quantified the impact of this intervention on private household costs for childhood febrile illness.?Households with recent febrile illness in a young child in previous 2 weeks were selected randomly before and during the intervention and data obtained on household costs for the illness episode. Household costs included consultation fees, registration costs, user fees, diagnosis, bed, drugs, food, and transport costs. Private household costs per episode before and during the intervention were compared. The intervention's impact on household costs per episode was calculated and projected to districtwide impacts on household costs.?Use of CHWs increased from 35% of illness episodes before the intervention to 50% during the intervention (P < .0001), and total household costs per episode decreased significantly in each country: from US Dollars (USD) $4.36 to USD $1.54 in Burkina Faso, from USD $3.90 to USD $2.04 in Nigeria, and from USD $4.46 to USD $1.42 in Uganda (all P < .0001). There was no difference in the time used by the child's caregiver to care for a sick child (59% before intervention vs 51% during intervention spent ?2 days). Using the most recent population figures for each study district, we estimate that the intervention could save households a total of USD $29 965, USD $254 268, and USD $303 467, respectively, in the study districts in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda.?Improving access to malaria diagnostics and treatments in malaria-endemic areas substantially reduces private household costs. The key challenge is to develop and strengthen community human resources to deliver the intervention, and ensure adequate supplies of commodities and supervision. We demonstrate feasibility and benefit to populations living in difficult circumstances.?ISRCTN13858170.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative, launched at the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning, aims to enable 120 million additional women to use modern contraceptive methods by 2020 in the world's 69 poorest countries. It will require almost doubling the pre-2012 annual growth rate of modern contraceptive prevalence rates from an estimated 0·7 to 1·4 percentage points to achieve the goal. We examined the post-Summit trends in modern contraceptive prevalence rates in nine settings in eight sub-Saharan African countries (Burkina Faso; Kinshasa, DR Congo; Ethiopia; Ghana; Kenya; Niamey, Niger; Kaduna, Nigeria; Lagos, Nigeria; and Uganda). These settings represent almost 73% of the population of the 18 initial FP2020 commitment countries in the region. METHODS:We used data from 45 rounds of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) surveys, which were all undertaken after 2012, to ascertain the trends in modern contraceptive prevalence rates among all women aged 15-49 years and all similarly aged women who were married or cohabitating. The analyses were done at the national level in five countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda) and in selected high populous regions for three countries (DR Congo, Niger, and Nigeria). We included the following as modern contraceptive methods: oral pills, intrauterine devices, injectables, male and female sterilisations, implants, condom, lactational amenorrhea method, vaginal barrier methods, emergency contraception, and standard days method. We fitted design-based linear and quadratic logistic regression models and estimated the annual rate of changes in modern contraceptive prevalence rates for each country setting from the average marginal effects of the fitted models (expressed in absolute percentage points). Additionally, we did a random-effects meta-analysis to summarise the overall results for the PMA2020 countries. FINDINGS:The annual rates of changes in modern contraceptive prevalence rates among all women of reproductive age (15-49 years) varied from as low as 0·77 percentage points (95% CI -0·73 to 2·28) in Lagos, Nigeria, to 3·64 percentage points (2·81 to 4·47) in Ghana, according to the quadratic model. The rate of change was also high (>1·4 percentage points) in Burkina Faso, Kinshasa (DR Congo), Kaduna (Nigeria), and Uganda. Although contraceptive use was rising rapidly in Ethiopia during the pre-Summit period, our results suggested that the yearly growth rate stalled recently (0·92 percentage points, 95% CI -0·23 to 2·07) according to the linear model. From the meta-analysis, the overall weighted average annual rate of change in modern contraceptive prevalence rates in all women across all nine settings was 1·92 percentage points (95% CI 1·14 to 2·70). Among married or cohabitating women, the annual rates of change were higher in most settings, and the overall weighted average was 2·25 percentage points (95% CI 1·37-3·13). INTERPRETATIONS:Overall, the annual growth rates exceeded the 1·4 percentage points needed to achieve the FP2020 goal of 120 million additional users of modern contraceptives by 2020 in the select study settings. Local programme experiences can be studied for lessons to be shared with other countries aiming to respond to unmet demands for family planning. The findings of this study have implications for the way progress is tracked toward achieving the FP2020 goal. FUNDING:The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Family planning and maternal care services have become increasingly available in West Africa but the level of non-use remains high. This unfavorable outcome may be partly due to the unaffordability of reproductive health care services. METHODS:Using the Demographic Health Survey data from Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Ghana, and Senegal, we perform a decomposition analysis to quantify the contribution of socio-demographic characteristics to disparities in exposure to mass media information on family planning, use of modern contraceptives, adequate antenatal care visits, facility-based childbirth and C-section between low-wealth and high-wealth women. RESULTS:Our study shows that differences in maternal characteristics between the wealth groups explain at least 40% of the gap in exposure to mass media family planning information, 30% in modern contraceptive use, 24% of adequate antenatal care visits, 47% of the difference in facility-based childbirths, and 62% in C-section. Lack of information on pregnancy complications, living in rural residence, religion, lack of autonomy in health facility seeking decision, need to pay, and distance explains the disparity in reproductive health care use across all countries. In countries with complete fee exemption policies for specific groups in the population, Ghana, Niger, and Senegal, the inequality gaps between wealth groups in having an adequate number of antenatal care visits and facility-based childbirth are smaller than in countries with partial or no exemption policies. But this is not the case for C-section. CONCLUSIONS:There is evidence that current policies addressing the cost of maternal care services may increase the wealth-based inequality in maternal care use if socio-demographic differences are not addressed. Public health interventions are needed to target socio-demographic disparities and health facility seeking problems that disadvantage women in poor households.