Complication associated with intravitreal injection of tissue plasminogen activator for treatment of submacular hemorrhage due to rupture of retinal arterial macroaneurysm.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:To report the possible complications of intravitreal injection of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for the treatment of submacular hemorrhage associated with retinal arterial macroaneurysm (RAM). Observations:A 75-year-old man complained of a sudden diminution of visual acuity in his left eye. Fundus examination of this eye revealed rupture of a RAM (0.5 disc diameters (DD) in size), submacular hemorrhage and hemorrhage under the internal limiting membrane (ILM). The patient had untreated hypertension and his systolic blood pressure was over 200 mmHg. Intravitreal injection of t-PA (42,000 units/0.07 ml) was given 1 day before undergoing vitrectomy. On the following day, the fundus was no longer visible because of a dense vitreous hemorrhage. After performing vitrectomy to remove the dense vitreous hemorrhage, we confirmed a marked increase in subretinal hemorrhage, and seemed to have markedly enlarged the macroaneurysm (6 DD). In addition, macular hole was found to have occurred. One week after surgery, the macular hole closed. Four months after surgery, best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/400 to 20/40. Conclusions and Importance:Untreated hypertension and the use of t-PA can cause re-ruptured RAM and deterioration of subretinal hemorrhage. In this case, a macular hole was also occurred. Since there are risks of various complications, it is necessary to be careful in the use of t-PA for RAM.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Delivery of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products to the submacular space is increasingly evolving into a therapeutic modality. Cell replacement for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and gene therapy for RPE65 are recent successful examples. Herein, a nonhuman primate (NHP) model was used to investigate surgical means to detach the macula.<h4>Methods</h4>Sixteen eyes of 13 healthy macaques underwent a 25-gauge vitrectomy and subretinal injection of balanced salt solution monitored by microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (miOCT). The animals were followed with OCT and histology.<h4>Results</h4>The miOCT monitoring allowed a more precise definition of surgical trauma ranging from an initial full-thickness foveal tear, or induction of a cystoid macular edema (CME), until no foveal defect was discernible, as the technique improved. However, as the subretinal fluid wave detached the fovea, the aforementioned lesions formed, whereas persistent retinal adhesion reproducibly proved to remain in the distal parafoveal semi-annulus. Measures to reduce foveal trauma during submacular fluid injection included reducing intraocular pressure, injection volume, and velocity, as well as the retinal location for bleb initiation, use of a vitreous tamponade, and a dual-bore subretinal cannula.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A stable very low intraocular pressure and careful subretinal injection may avoid tangential macular stretching or mechanical CME formation, while vitreous tamponade may facilitate a more lamellar subretinal flow, all thereby reducing foveal trauma during submacular injection in NHP.<h4>Translational relevance</h4>These results can be relevant to any submacular surgery procedure used today, as they synergistically reduce the risk of compromising foveal integrity.
Project description:The development of a macular hole is relatively common in retinal dystrophies eligible for gene therapy such as choroideremia. However, the subretinal delivery of gene therapy requires an uninterrupted retina to allow dispersion of the viral vector. A macular hole may thus hinder effective gene therapy. Little is known about the outcome of macular hole surgery and its possible beneficial and/or adverse effects on retinal function in patients with choroideremia. We describe a case of a unilateral full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) in a 45year-old choroideremia patient (c.1349_1349+2dup mutation in CHM gene) and its management. Pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and 20% SF? gas tamponade was performed, and subsequent FTMH closure was confirmed at 4 weeks, 3 months and 5 months postoperatively. No postoperative adverse events occurred, and fixation stability improved on microperimetry from respectively 11% and 44% of fixation points located within a 1° and 2° radius, preoperatively, to 94% and 100% postoperatively. This case underlines that pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling and gas tamponade can successfully close a FTMH in choroideremia patients, with subsequent structural and functional improvement. Macular hole closure may be important for patients to be eligible for future submacular gene therapy.
Project description:Purpose:The formation of macular hole after receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is rare. We report a case of macular hole that occurred after intravitreal injection of an anti-VEGF agent for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a patient, who underwent vitrectomy combined with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) removal. Observations:A 64-year-old female with AMD affecting her right eye received an intravitreal injection of an anti-VEGF agent. After treatment, we identified a full thickness macular hole (MH) that was associated with the rapid resolution of the macular edema and contraction of the CNV. After performing vitrectomy combined with CNV removal, the MH closed and her visual acuity improved. Examination of the removed CNV revealed a network of microvessels devoid of pericytes. Conclusions:and Importance: The present findings suggest that rapid resolution of macular edema and contraction of the CNV and/or mild increase in the vitreous traction after anti-VEGF therapy could potentially cause MH. CNV removal via the MH may be an acceptable procedure, if the MH remains open, the CNV is of the classic type, and it spares a central portion of the fovea.
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Intravitreal injection of saline has been shown potentially to lead to improved visual acuity compared with observation alone in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage. Therefore, it is important to determine if intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor can reduce vitrectomy rates (and risks associated with vitrectomy) compared with saline for vitreous hemorrhage from PDR that precludes placement or confirmation of complete panretinal photocoagulation.To evaluate intravitreal ranibizumab compared with intravitreal saline injections on vitrectomy rates for vitreous hemorrhage from PDR.Phase 3, double-masked, randomized, multicenter clinical trial. Data reported were collected from June 2010 to March 2012 and include 16 weeks of follow-up.Community-based and academic-based ophthalmology practices specializing in retinal diseases.Two hundred sixty-one eyes of 261 study participants, who were at least 18 years of age with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study eyes had vitreous hemorrhage from PDR precluding panretinal photocoagulation completion.Eyes were randomly assigned to 0.5-mg intravitreal ranibizumab (n = 125) or intravitreal saline (n = 136) at baseline and 4 and 8 weeks.Cumulative probability of vitrectomy within 16 weeks.Cumulative probability of vitrectomy by 16 weeks was 12% with ranibizumab vs 17% with saline (difference, 4%; 95% CI, -4% to 13%) and of complete panretinal photocoagulation without vitrectomy by 16 weeks was 44% and 31%, respectively (P = .05). The mean (SD) visual acuity improvement from baseline to 12 weeks was 22 (23) letters and 16 (31) letters, respectively (P = .04). Recurrent vitreous hemorrhage occurred within 16 weeks in 6% and 17%, respectively (P = .01). One eye developed endophthalmitis after saline injection.Overall, the 16-week vitrectomy rates were lower than expected in both groups. This study suggests little likelihood of a clinically important difference between ranibizumab and saline on the rate of vitrectomy by 16 weeks in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage from PDR. Short-term secondary outcomes including visual acuity improvement, increased panretinal photocoagulation completion rates, and reduced recurrent vitreous hemorrhage rates suggest biologic activity of ranibizumab. Long-term benefits remain unknown. Whether vitrectomy rates after saline or ranibizumab injection are different than observation alone cannot be determined from this study.The study is listed on www.clinicaltrials.gov, under identifier NCT00996437 (website registration date October 14, 2009).
Project description:To introduce a hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy, which we have reported, using a 3D visualization system developed recently.We report a single center, retrospective, consecutive surgical case series of 113 eyes that underwent 25 G vitrectomy (rhegmatogenous retinal detachment or proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 49 eyes; epiretinal membrane, 18 eyes; proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 17 eyes; vitreous opacity or vitreous hemorrhage, 11 eyes; macular hole, 11 eyes; vitreomacular traction syndrome, 4 eyes; and luxation of intraocular lens, 3 eyes).This system was successfully used to perform hybrid vitrectomy in the difficult cases, such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.Hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy using a 3D visualization system appears to be a valuable and promising method for managing various types of vitreo-retinal disease.
Project description:To determine the influence of omega-3 supplementation on vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) levels in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment.Prospective, randomized, open-label, single-center, clinical trial, consecutive interventional case series.The study included 3 cohorts with wet AMD and a control group with epiretinal membrane or macular hole. Twenty wet AMD patients being treated with anti-VEGF were randomized to daily supplementation of antioxidants, zinc, and carotenoids with omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid; group 1, n = 10) or without omega-3 fatty acids (group 2, n = 10). They were compared with an anti-VEGF treatment-naïve wet AMD group (group 3, n = 10) and an epiretinal membrane or macular hole group (group 4, n = 10). Primary outcome was vitreal VEGF-A levels (at the time of anti-VEGF injection). Secondary outcomes were plasma VEGF-A and central foveal thickness. Patients with new submacular hemorrhage or any other treatment within 3 months were excluded. Final analyses included 9, 6, 7, and 8 patients in groups 1 through 4, respectively.Patients receiving omega-3s (group 1) had significantly lower levels of vitreal VEGF-A (141.11 ± 61.89 pg/mL) when compared with group 2 (626.09 ± 279.27 pg/mL; P = .036) and group 3 (735.48 ± 216.43 pg/mL; P = .013), but similar levels to group 4 (235.81 ± 33.99 pg/mL; P = .215). All groups showed similar values for plasma VEGF-A and central foveal thickness measurements.This study demonstrated that omega-3 supplementation combined with anti-VEGF treatment is associated with decreased vitreal VEGF-A levels in wet AMD patients.
Project description:PurposeA pilot study to validate the collection of vitreous reflux (VR) after intravitreal injection using Schirmers tear strips was carried out. We assessed its efficiency for proteomics studies by estimating the differential expression of 27 cytokines using multiplexed bead array in diabetic macular oedema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. To set, validate and assess the efficacy of Schirmer tear strips for collecting VR in patients undergoing intravitreal injections for diabetic macular oedema (DME).Patients and methodsVR samples were collected from 11 eyes of DME patients after intravitreal injections using Schirmer tear strips. Undiluted vitrectomy samples were obtained from six eyes of non-diabetic patients with idiopathic macular hole and seven eyes of diabetic patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy (Hr-PDR), which were also subsampled on the Schirmer tear strips. Tear sampling was done in a subset of the DME patients. Total protein concentration between VR and vitrectomy samples was compared. Levels of the set of 27 cytokines in Schirmer tear strips samples were measured. Inter-group comparison for cytokines was done using Mann-Whitney U-test.ResultsSimilar protein concentration in VR samples and vitrectomy samples (P<0.05) was obtained. Tear protein contamination was not detected in VR samples. In comparison with no-DR patients, 25 and 20 of the measured 27 cytokines were significantly elevated (P<0.05) in the Hr-PDR and DME patients, respectively. As compared with no-DR patients, vascular endothelial growth factor was only moderately elevated in DME patients (P>0.05), but significantly elevated in Hr-PDR patients (P<0.05). Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist/interleukin 1b (IL1RA/IL1b) ratio was 13 times higher in DME patients as compared with Hr-PDR group.ConclusionWe demonstrated a simple, safe method of VR sampling. This technique provides a pure, albeit small, vitreous sample for proteomics. IL1RA/IL1b ratio was found to be 13-fold higher in the DME group as compared to the Hr-PDR.
Project description:We present an atypical case of submacular fluid leading to serous macular detachment.A 69-year-old man was evaluated for metamorphopsia in the left eye.Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 in both eyes. He had undergone cataract surgeries in both eyes 12 years ago. The axial length was 25.93 mm (OD) and 24.12 mm (OS). Optical coherence tomography showed posterior staphylomas and subretinal fluid on the superior border of the staphylomas in both eyes; in the left eye, submacular fluid was noted extending up to the macula. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed leakage from the superior border of the staphylomas in both eyes. The fluid persisted for 4 months. Four consecutive, monthly injections of bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) were administered in the left eye; subsequently, the subretinal fluid gradually dissipated from the macula and became localized at the superior border of the staphyloma. This localization persisted for 12 months.We have detailed a case of submacular fluid that spread from the superior border of the posterior staphyloma in a patient with macular detachment, in whom intravitreal injections of bevacizumab were highly effective in eliminating the fluid.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the surgical technique for subretinal implantation of two sizes of PRIMA photovoltaic wireless microchip in two animal models, and refine these surgical procedures for human trials. METHODS:Cats and Macaca fascicularis primates with healthy retina underwent vitrectomy surgery and were implanted with subretinal wireless photovoltaic microchip at the macula/central retina. The 1.5mm PRIMA chip was initially studied in feline eyes. PRIMA implant (2mm,1.5mm sizes) arrays were studied in primates. Feasibility of subretinal chip implantation was evaluated with a newly-developed surgical technique, with surgical complications and adverse events recorded. RESULTS:The 1.5mm implant was placed in the central retina of 11 feline eyes, with implantation duration 43-106 days. The 1.5mm implant was correctly positioned into central macula of 11 primate eyes, with follow-up periods of minimum 6 weeks (n = 11), 2 years (n = 2), and one eye for 3 years. One primate eye underwent multi-chip 1.5mm implantation using two 1.5mm chips. The 2mm implant was delivered to 4 primate eyes. Optical coherence tomography confirmed correct surgical placement of photovoltaic arrays in the subretinal space in all 26 eyes. Intraoperative complications in primate eyes included retinal tear, macular hole, retinal detachment, and vitreous hemorrhage that resolved spontaneously. Postoperatively, there was no case of significant ocular inflammation in the 1.5mm implant group. CONCLUSIONS:We report subretinal implantation of 1.5mm and 2mm photovoltaic arrays in the central retina of feline and central macula of primate eyes with a low rate of device-related complications. The in vivo PRIMA implantation technique has been developed and refined for use for a 2mm PRIMA implant in ongoing human trials.