Reconfigurable beam system for non-line-of-sight free-space optical communication.
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable beam-shaping system to permit energy-efficient non-line-of-sight (NLOS) free-space optical communication. Light is steered around obstacles blocking the direct communication pathway and reaches a receiver after reflecting off of a diffuse surface. A coherent array optical transmitter (CAO-Tx) is used to spatially shape the wavefront of the light incident on a diffuse surface. Wavefront shaping is used to enhance the amount of diffusely reflected light reaching the optical receiver. Synthetic NLOS experiments for a signal reflected over an angular range of 20° are presented. A record-breaking 30-Gbit/s orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signal is transmitted over a diffused optical wireless link with a >17-dB gain.
Project description:Multimode optical fibers have seen increasing applications in communication, imaging, high-power lasers, and amplifiers. However, inherent imperfections and environmental perturbations cause random polarization and mode mixing, causing the output polarization states to be different from the input polarization states. This difference poses a serious issue for employing polarization-sensitive techniques to control light-matter interactions or nonlinear optical processes at the distal end of a fiber probe. Here, we demonstrate complete control of polarization states for all output channels by only manipulating the spatial wavefront of a laser beam into the fiber. Arbitrary polarization states for individual output channels are generated by wavefront shaping without constraining the input polarization. The strong coupling between the spatial and polarization degrees of freedom in a multimode fiber enables full polarization control with the spatial degrees of freedom alone; thus, wavefront shaping can transform a multimode fiber into a highly efficient reconfigurable matrix of waveplates for imaging and communication applications.
Project description:Wavefront shaping based on digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) focuses light through or inside scattering media, but the low speed of DOPC prevents it from being applied to thick, living biological tissue. Although a fast DOPC approach was recently developed, the reported single-shot wavefront measurement method does not work when the goal is to focus light inside, instead of through, highly scattering media. Here, using a ferroelectric liquid crystal based spatial light modulator, we develop a simpler but faster DOPC system that focuses light not only through, but also inside scattering media. By controlling 2.6 × 105 optical degrees of freedom, our system focused light through 3 mm thick moving chicken tissue, with a system latency of 3.0 ms. Using ultrasound-guided DOPC, along with a binary wavefront measurement method, our system focused light inside a scattering medium comprising moving tissue with a latency of 6.0 ms, which is one to two orders of magnitude shorter than those of previous digital wavefront shaping systems. Since the demonstrated speed approaches tissue decorrelation rates, this work is an important step toward in vivo deep-tissue non-invasive optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy.
Project description:The phenomenon of orbital angular momentum (OAM) affects a variety of important applications in visible optics, including optical tweezers, free-space communication, and 3D localization for fluorescence imaging. The lack of suitable wavefront shaping optics such as spatial light modulators has inhibited the ability to impart OAM on x-ray and electron radiation in a controlled way. Here, we report the experimental observation of helical soft x-ray beams generated by holographically designed diffractive optical elements. We demonstrate that these beams rotate as a function of propagation distance and measure their vorticity and coherent mode structure using ptychography. Our results establish an approach for controlling and shaping of complex focused beams for short wavelength scanning microscopy and OAM-driven applications.
Project description:Optical scattering has traditionally limited the ability to focus light inside scattering media such as biological tissue. Recently developed wavefront shaping techniques promise to overcome this limit by tailoring an optical wavefront to constructively interfere at a target location deep inside scattering media. To find such a wavefront solution, a "guide-star" mechanism is required to identify the target location. However, developing guidestars of practical usefulness is challenging, especially in biological tissue, which hinders the translation of wavefront shaping techniques. Here, we demonstrate a guidestar mechanism that relies on magnetic modulation of small particles. This guidestar method features an optical modulation efficiency of 29% and enables micrometer-scale focusing inside biological tissue with a peak intensity-to-background ratio (PBR) of 140; both numbers are one order of magnitude higher than those achieved with the ultrasound guidestar, a popular guidestar method. We also demonstrate that light can be focused on cells labeled with magnetic particles, and to different target locations by magnetically controlling the position of a particle. Since magnetic fields have a large penetration depth even through bone structures like the skull, this optical focusing method holds great promise for deep-tissue applications such as optogenetic modulation of neurons, targeted light-based therapy, and imaging.
Project description:Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a highly versatile method which allows for three dimensional optical imaging in scattering media. A number of recent publications demonstrated the technique to benefit from structured illumination and beam shaping approaches, e.g. to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio or the penetration depth with samples such as biological tissue. We present a compact and easy to implement design for independent wavefront manipulation and beam shaping at the reference and sample arm of the interferometric OCT device. The design requires a single spatial light modulator and can be integrated to existing free space SD-OCT systems by modifying the source arm only. We provide analytical and numerical discussion of the presented design as well as experimental data confirming the theoretical analysis. The system is highly versatile and lends itself for applications where independent phase or wavefront control is required. We demonstrate the system to be used for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics as well as for iterative optical wavefront shaping for OCT signal enhancement in strongly scattering media.
Project description:Non-invasively focusing light into strongly scattering media, such as biological tissue, is highly desirable but challenging. Recently, ultrasonically guided wavefront shaping technologies have been developed to address this limitation. So far, the focusing resolution of most implementations has been limited by acoustic diffraction. Here, we introduce nonlinear photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping (PAWS), which achieves optical diffraction-limited focusing in scattering media. We develop an efficient dual-pulse excitation approach to generate strong nonlinear photoacoustic (PA) signals based on the Grueneisen relaxation effect. These nonlinear PA signals are used as feedback to guide iterative wavefront optimization. As a result, light is effectively focused to a single optical speckle grain on the scale of 5-7 µm, which is ~10 times smaller than the acoustic focus with an enhancement factor of ~6,000 in peak fluence. This technology has the potential to benefit many applications that desire highly confined strong optical focus in tissue.
Project description:Generation of coherent light with desirable amplitude and phase profiles throughout the optical spectrum is a key issue in optical technologies. Nonlinear wavefront shaping offers an exceptional way to achieve this goal by converting an incident light beam into the beam (or beams) of different frequency with spatially modulated amplitude and phase. The realization of such frequency conversion and shaping processes critically depends on the matching of phase velocities of interacting waves, for which nonlinear photonic crystals (NPCs) with spatially modulated quadratic nonlinearity have shown great potential. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of nonlinear wavefront shaping with three-dimensional (3D) NPCs formed by ultrafast-light-induced ferroelectric domain inversion approach. Compared with those previously used low-dimensional structures, 3D NPCs provide all spatial degrees of freedom for the compensation of phase mismatch in nonlinear interactions and thereby constitute an unprecedented system for the generation and control of coherent light at new frequencies.
Project description:Surface plasmon polaritons have attracted broad attention in the optoelectronics field due to their ability to merge nanoscale electronics with high-speed optical communication. As the complexity of optoelectronic devices increases to meet various needs, this integration has been hampered by the low coupling efficiency of light to plasmonic modes. Here we present a method to maximize the coupling of far-field optical waves to plasmonic waves for arbitrarily complex devices. The method consists of experimentally identifying the eigenchannels of a given nanostructure and shaping the wavefront of incident light to a particular eigenchannel that maximizes the generation of plasmonic waves. Our proposed approach increases the coupling efficiency almost four-fold with respect to the uncontrolled input. Our study will help to facilitate the integration of electronics and photonics.
Project description:Focusing light inside scattering media in a freely addressable fashion is challenging, as the wavefront of the scattered light is highly disordered. Recently developed ultrasound-guided wavefront shaping methods are addressing this challenge, albeit with relatively low modulation efficiency and resolution limitations. In this paper, we present a new technique, time-reversed ultrasound microbubble encoded (TRUME) optical focusing, which can focus light with improved efficiency and sub-ultrasound wavelength resolution. This method ultrasonically destroys microbubbles, and measures the wavefront change to compute and render a suitable time-reversed wavefront solution for focusing. We demonstrate that the TRUME technique can create an optical focus at the site of bubble destruction with a size of ?2??m. We further demonstrate a twofold enhancement in addressable focus resolution in a microbubble aggregate target by exploiting the nonlinear pressure-to-destruction response of the microbubbles. The reported technique provides a deep tissue-focusing solution with high efficiency, resolution, and specificity.
Project description:Propagation of light in multimode optical fibers usually gives a spatial and temporal randomization of the transmitted field similar to the propagation through scattering media. Randomization still applies when scattering or multimode propagation occurs in gain media. We demonstrate that appropriate structuration of the input beam wavefront can shape the light amplified by a rare-earth-doped multimode fiber. Profiling of the wavefront was achieved by a deformable mirror in combination with an iterative optimization process. We present experimental results and simulations showing the shaping of a single sharp spot at different places in the output cross-section of an ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier. Cleaning and narrowing of the amplifier far-field pattern was realized as well. Tailoring the wavefront to shape the amplified light can also serve to improve the effective gain. The shaping approach still works under gain saturation, showing the robustness of the method. Modeling and experiments attest that the shaping is effective even with a highly multimode fiber amplifier carrying up to 127 modes.