Functional variations of the TLR4 gene in association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) share a number of common risk factors, including innate immunity-related genetic factors. In the present study, we compared the role of genetic variations of the TLR4 gene in susceptibility to COPD and PTB and illuminated the underlying molecular mechanism of functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). METHODS:A population-based case control study was performed in a Chinese Han population and included 152 COPD cases, 1601 PTB cases and 1727 controls. Five SNPs in the TLR4 gene (rs10759932, rs2737190, rs7873784, rs11536889, and rs10983755) were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination technology. We estimated the effects of SNPs using the odds ratio (OR) together with 95% confidence interval (CI). Dual-luciferase reporter vectors expressing different genotypes of SNPs were constructed and transfected into the human HEK 293?T cell line to explore their effects on potential transcription activity. RESULTS:After Bonferroni correction, the genetic polymorphisms of all five SNPs remained significantly associated with COPD, while rs10759932 and rs2737190 were also associated with PTB. Compared with rs10759932-TT, individuals carrying TC (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.28-0.64) or CC (OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09-0.63) had a significantly reduced risk of COPD. However, individuals carrying TC (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11-1.49) or CC (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.98-1.62) had an increased risk of PTB. The OR (95% CI) for allele rs10759932-C was 0.45 (0.32-0.62) for COPD and 1.18 (1.07-1.32) for PTB. For rs2737190, heterozygous AG was related to a decreased risk of COPD (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.21-0.49) and an increased risk of PTB (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.52). The dual-luciferase reporter assay showed decreased transcription activity caused by rs10759932-C and rs2737190-G. CONCLUSION:Genetic polymorphisms of rs10759932 and rs2737190 in TLR4 are significantly related to both COPD and PTB but with inverse effects. The altered transcription activity caused by mutations in these two loci may partly explain the observed relationship.
Project description:Genetic factors affect host susceptibility to pathogens. In this population-based case control study, we explored the genetic polymorphisms of IL-17, TLR4 and miR-146a in association with pulmonary tuberculosis in a Chinese Han population. We recruited 1601 pulmonary tuberculosis patients matched with 1526 healthy controls and genotyped twelve functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After the correction for multiple comparisons, two SNPs (rs10759932 and rs2737190) in the TLR4 gene remained significant. Individuals carrying the rs2737190-AG genotype (vs. AA) had a significantly increased risk of either clinical tuberculosis (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.11-1.53) or sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13-1.61). Stratification analysis revealed that the effects of genetic variations on tuberculosis were more evident among non-smokers. People with haplotype TLR4 rs10983755G-rs10759932C had a significantly increased risk of tuberculosis (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 2.34-5.05). Moreover, we found that SNPs of rs3819024 in IL-17A and rs763780 in IL-17F were weakly related to a prognosis of tuberculosis. Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms of IL-17 and TLR4 may play a role in host susceptibility to tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population. More work is necessary to identify specific causative variants of tuberculosis underlying the observed associations.
Project description:Dengue manifestations range from a mild form, dengue fever (DF), to more severe forms such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The ability of the host to present one of these clinical forms could be related to polymorphisms located in genes of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which activate the pro-inflammatory response. Therefore, the genotyping of single nucleotide genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in <i>TLR3</i> (rs3775291 and rs6552950), <i>TLR4</i> (rs2737190, rs10759932, rs4986790, rs4986791, rs11536865, and rs10983755), <i>TLR7</i> (rs179008 and rs3853839), and <i>TLR8</i> (rs3764880, rs5741883, rs4830805, and rs1548731) was carried out in non-genetically related DHF patients, DF patients, and general population (GP) subjects. The SNPs were analyzed by real-time PCR by genotyping assays from Applied Biosystems<sup>®</sup>. The codominance model showed that dengue patients had a lower probability of presenting the <i>TLR4</i>-rs2737190-G/G genotype (odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = 0.34 (0.14-0.8), <i>p</i> = 0.038). Dengue patients showed a lower probability of presenting <i>TLR4</i>-rs11536865-G/C genotype (OR (95% CI) = 0.19 (0.05-0.73), <i>p</i> = 0.0092) and had a high probability of presenting the TACG haplotype, but lower probability of presenting the TGCG haplotype in the <i>TLR4</i> compared to GP individuals (OR (95% CI) = 0.55 (0.35-0.86), <i>p</i> = 0.0084). In conclusion, the <i>TLR4</i>-rs2737190-G/G and <i>TLR4</i>-rs11536865-G/C genotypes and TGCG haplotype were associated with protection from dengue.
Project description:The present study was undertaken to explore the relationship of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 genes polymorphisms with Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) risk in a sample of Chinese population.For this study, we recruited 467 subjects with PTB and 504 healthy subjects from a Tibetan population living in near or in Xi'an, China. Association analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2 and TLR4 were performed with SPSS Statistics (version 17.0), SNPStats, Haploview (version 4.2), and SHEsis software.The research results that is association analysis of pulmonary tuberculosis show there are two increased-risk SNPs (rs7696323, OR=1.32, 95%CI =1.08-1.62, P= 0.007; rs12377632, OR=1.30, 95%CI =1.09-1.55, P= 0.004) and three decreased-risk SNPs (rs3804099, OR=0.64, 95%CI =0.52-0.79, P= 1.9510-5; rs3804100, OR=0.67, 95%CI =0.54-0.82, P= 0.0001; rs11536889, OR=0.54, 95%CI =0.42-0.69, P= 9.1410-7).We found that two SNPs are associated with increased PTB risk and three SNPs decreased PTB risk in the Chinese Tibetan population. Our findings demonstrate an association between TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms and PTB.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We investigated whether polymorphisms in the toll-like receptor genes or gene-gene interactions are associated with susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or subsequent pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a Chinese population. METHODS: Two matched case-control studies were undertaken. Previously reported polymorphisms in the toll-like receptors (TLRs) were compared between 422 healthy controls (HC) and 205 LTBI patients and between 205 LTBI patients and 109 PTB patients, to assess whether these polymorphisms and their interactions are associated with LTBI or PTB. A PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to detect genetic polymorphisms in the TLR genes. Nonparametric multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to analyze the effects of interactions between complex disease genes and other genes or environmental factors. RESULTS: Sixteen markers in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, TLR8, TLR9, and TIRAP were detected. In TLR2, the frequencies of the CC genotype (OR = 2.262; 95% CI: 1.433-3.570) and C allele (OR = 1.566; 95% CI: 1.223-1.900) in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3804100 were significantly higher in the LTBI group than in the HC group, whereas the GA genotype of SNP rs5743708 was associated with PTB (OR = 6.087; 95% CI: 1.687-21.968). The frequencies of the GG genotype of SNP rs7873784 in TLR4 (OR = 2.136; 95% CI: 1.312-3.478) and the CC genotype of rs3764879 in TLR8 (OR = 1.982; 95% CI: 1.292-3.042) were also significantly higher in the PTB group than in the HC group. The TC genotype frequency of SNP rs5743836 in TLR9 was significantly higher in the LTBI group than in the HC group (OR = 1.664; 95% CI: 1.201-2.306). An MDR analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions identified three SNPs (rs10759932, rs7873784, and rs10759931) that predicted LTBI with 84% accuracy (p = 0.0004) and three SNPs (rs3804100, rs1898830, and rs10759931) that predicted PTB with 80% accuracy (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic variation in TLR2, 4, 8 and 9, implicating TLR-related pathways affecting the innate immunity response, modulate LTBI and PTB susceptibility in Chinese.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Genetic polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important influence on gastric lesion development and Helicobacter pylori susceptibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS:TLR2 rs3804099 and rs3804100 and TLR4 rs10759932 were determined in a total of 400 patients. The association among genotypes and the risk of gastric lesion development and H. pylori susceptibility were evaluated by the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) from logistic regression analyses. RESULTS:TLR4 rs10759932, C/C homozygous genotype was associated with an increased risk of premalignant/malignant (OR=2.48, 95% CI=1.96-4.62, p=0.015). The recessive model of TLR4 rs10759932 showed a decreased risk of H. pylori susceptibility (adjusted OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.38-0.82, p=0.046). Meanwhile, the recessive model was associated with an increased risk of non-malignant (OR=3.46, 95% CI=2.25-5.67, p=0.001). In subjects with H. pylori infection, the recessive model was associated with an increased risk of non-malignant (OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.24-3.57, p=0.001) and premalignant/malignant (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.16-2.84, p=0.027). CONCLUSION:TLR4 rs10759932, but not TLR2 rs3804099 and rs3804100, was associated with risk of premalignant and/or malignant and H. pylori susceptibility. H. pylori infection seems to contribute to chronic gastritis, and premalignant/malignant supported the development of the premalignant/malignant lesions involved in H. pylori infection that is critical to gastric cancer in Thai patients.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the correlation between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene and the susceptibility to chronic periodontitis. Design:241 Chinese subjects from the cohort of Beijing Shijingshan Community were recruited. Buccal swab samples, the whole unstimulated saliva and periodontal clinical parameters were collected. Human DNA extracted from buccal swab samples were used for genotyping eight SNPs of the TLR4 gene (rs11536889, rs1927906, rs1927911, rs2149356, rs4986790, rs4986791, rs2737190, rs787384) by the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) was detected from the deposition of the whole unstimulated saliva through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on 16S rRNA. The correlation between SNPs of TLR4 and chronic periodontitis susceptibility in the whole subjects and the patients detected with P. gingivalis was investigated. Results:The variants of rs4986790 and rs4986791 were not found in 241 Chinese subjects. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the distribution of theother6 SNPs of TLR4 between groups of none/mild -periodontitis and moderate/severe-periodontitis subjects. When combined with P. gingivalis infection, rs1927911 (TT/CC+CT), rs2149356 (TT/GG+GT) and rs2737190 (GG/AA+AG) were independent risk factors of chronic periodontitis. Conclusion:Three SNPs of TLR4, i.e., rs1927911 (TT/CC+CT), rs2149356 (TT/GG+GT) and rs2737190 (GG/AA+AG), were associated with moderate/severe chronic periodontitis in Chinese population infected with P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis, which interacted with TLR4 gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND Findings regarding the association of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4986790 and rs4986791 in Toll-like receptor 4 and rs187084, rs574386, and rs352139 in Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) susceptibility are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to systematically summarize and clarify the association between these SNPs and PTB susceptibility. MATERIAL AND METHODS A systematic literature search for relevant studies up to December, 2014 was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases. Information was gathered from each eligible study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to pool the effect size. RESULTS Finally, a total of 16 case-control studies on these polymorphisms were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis results suggest there was no association between these polymorphisms and PTB risk PTB risk in all the genetic models overall. However, for TLR4 rs4986791, a significant increased PTB risk was found in Africans, and for TLR9 rs352139 a significant increased PTB risk was found in Asians after subgroup analysis by ethnicity, although the enrolled studies were limited. CONCLUSIONS There was no association between the polymorphisms in TLR4 and 9 and PTB risk overall, but TLR4 rs4986791 and TLR9 rs352139 might be associated with increased PTB risk in Africans and Asians, respectively. Additional well-designed, larger-scale epidemiological studies are needed to validate our results.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sepsis is now the leading cause of death in the non-cardiovascular intensive care unit (ICU). Recent research suggests that sepsis is likely to be due to an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Genetic mutations of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) genes are involved in the immune and (or) inflammatory response. These may contribute to the susceptibility to sepsis in patients. This study was designed to evaluate whether the TLR4 and cluster CD14 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to sepsis. METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TLR4 (rs10759932, rs11536889, rs7873784, rs12377632, rs1927907, rs1153879) and CD14 (rs2569190 and rs2563298) in patients with sepsis and control subjects in the Guangxi Province were analyzed by using the polymerase chain reaction-single base extension (PCR-SBE) and DNA sequencing methods. RESULTS: The rs11536889 polymorphism in TLR4 and rs2563298 polymorphism in CD14 were significantly associated with the risk of sepsis when compared to the control group. The frequencies of rs11536889 and rs2563298 polymorphisms in the group with sepsis were higher than that in the control group (OR = 1.430, 95% CI, 1.032-1.981, P<0.05; OR = 2.454, 95% CI, 1.458-4.130, P<0.05, respectively). Followed up haplotype analysis suggested that there were two haplotypes in which increased risk factors for sepsis were indicated. CONCLUSIONS: The rs11536889 polymorphism in TLR4 and rs2563298 polymorphism in CD14, and two haplotypes were associated with increased susceptibility to sepsis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a key innate immunity receptor that initiates an inflammatory response. Growing evidence suggests that mutation of TLR4 gene may play a role in the development of cancers. This study aimed to investigate the temporal relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms of TLR4 and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, a single center-based case-control study was conducted. METHODS: A systematic genetic analysis of sequence variants of TLR4 by evaluating ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms was performed from 216 hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 228 controls. RESULTS: Six single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TLR4 in the 5'-untranslated region and intron were associated with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Individuals carrying the heterozygous genotypes for the rs10759930, rs2737190, rs10116253, rs1927914, rs12377632 and rs1927911 had significantly decreased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (adjusted odds ratio [OR], from 0.527 to 0.578, P<0.01) comparing with those carrying wild-type homozygous genotypes. In haplotype analysis, one haplotype (GCCCTTAG) of TLR4 was associated significantly with decrease of the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (OR, 0.556, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.407-0.758, P?=?0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results suggested that the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with TLR4 sequence variation. TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms may play an important protective role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Project description:PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that polymorphisms in innate immunity genes are associated with Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation and may influence susceptibility in developing noncardia gastric cancer. Therefore, we investigate the effect of polymorphisms of innate immunity genes and interactions with environmental factors in the Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped four polymorphisms of TLR2 (rs1898830), TLR4 (rs10983755 and rs10759932), and CD14 (rs2569190) in a case-control study of 487 noncardia gastric cancer patients and 487 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to detect the effects of genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors, which were stratified by the histological type of gastric cancer. RESULTS: TLR4 rs10983755 A carriers were found to have higher risk of intestinal-type noncarida gastric cancer than G homozygotes (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.97), but other genetic variants showed no association with the risk of noncardia gastric cancer. Among H. pylori-positive participants, smokers carrying TLR4 rs10983755 A had a higher risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer than nonsmoking TLR4 rs10983755 G homozygotes (OR, 4.28; 95% CI, 2.12 to 8.64). In addition, compared with tap water, other drinking water sources during childhood were found to be associated with the elevated risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer, and these associations were slightly stronger among TLR4 rs10983755 A carriers. CONCLUSION: The genetic polymorphisms of innate immunity genes are associated with the development of intestinal-type noncardia gastric cancer and these associations may differ in accordance to an exposure to certain environmental factors.