The Chk1 inhibitor SAR-020106 sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to irradiation, to temozolomide, and to decitabine treatment.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive brain tumour in adults with a median overall survival of only 14?months after standard therapy with radiation therapy (IR) and temozolomide (TMZ). In a novel multimodal treatment approach we combined the checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibitor SAR-020106 (SAR), disrupting homologue recombination, with standard DNA damage inducers (IR, TMZ) and the epigenetic/cytotoxic drug decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine, 5-aza-dC). Different in vitro glioblastoma models are monitored to evaluate if the impaired DNA damage repair may chemo/radiosensitize the tumour cells. METHODS:Human p53-mutated (p53-mut) and -wildtype (p53-wt) glioblastoma cell lines (p53-mut: LN405, T98G; p53-wt: A172, DBTRG) and primary glioblastoma cells (p53-mut: P0297; p53-wt: P0306) were treated with SAR combined with TMZ, 5-aza-dC, and/or IR and analysed for induction of apoptosis (AnnexinV and sub-G1 assay), cell cycle distribution (nuclear PI staining), DNA damage (alkaline comet or gH2A.X assay), proliferation inhibition (BrdU assay), reproductive survival (clonogenic assay), and potential tumour stem cells (nestinpos/GFAPneg fluorescence staining). Potential treatment-induced neurotoxicity was evaluated on nestin-positive neural progenitor cells in a murine entorhinal-hippocampal slice culture model. RESULTS:SAR showed radiosensitizing effects on the induction of apoptosis and on the reduction of long-term survival in p53-mut and p53-wt glioblastoma cell lines and primary cells. In p53-mut cells, this effect was accompanied by an abrogation of the IR-induced G2/M arrest and an enhancement of IR-induced DNA damage by SAR treatment. Also TMZ and 5-aza-dC acted radioadditively albeit to a lesser extent. The multimodal treatment achieved the most effective reduction of clonogenicity in all tested cell lines and did not affect the ratio of nestinpos/GFAPneg cells. No neurotoxic effects were detected when the number of nestin-positive neural progenitor cells remained unchanged after multimodal treatment. CONCLUSION:The Chk1 inhibitor SAR-020106 is a potent sensitizer for DNA damage-induced cell death in glioblastoma therapy strongly reducing clonogenicity of tumour cells. Selectively enhanced p53-mut cell death may provide stronger responses in tumours defective of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Our results suggest that a multimodal therapy involving DNA damage inducers and DNA repair inhibitors might be an effective anti-tumour strategy with a low risk of neurotoxicity.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common type of primary brain tumor, is universally fatal, with a median survival duration ranging from 12-15 months despite maximum treatment efforts. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the current standard of care for GBM patients; however patients usually develop resistance to TMZ and limits its benefit. The identification of novel synergistic targets in GBM will lead to the development of new targeted drugs, which could be combined with broad-spectrum cytotoxic agents. In this study, we used a high-throughput synthetic lethality screen with a pooled short hairpin DNA repair library, in combination with TMZ, to identify targets that will enhance TMZ-induced antitumor effects. Using an unbiased bioinformatical analysis, we identified BRCA1 as a potential promising candidate gene that induced synthetic lethality with TMZ in glioma sphere-forming cells (GSCs). BRCA1 knockdown resulted in antitumor activity with TMZ in P53 wild-type GSCs but not in P53 mutant GSCs. TMZ treatment induced a DNA damage repair response; the activation of BRCA1 DNA repair pathway targets and knockdown of BRCA1, together with TMZ, led to increased DNA damage and cell death in P53 wild-type GSCs. Our study identified BRCA1 as a potential target that sensitizes TMZ-induced cell death in P53 wild-type GBM, suggesting that the combined inhibition of BRCA1 and TMZ treatment will be a successful targeted therapy for GBM patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ionizing radiation (IR) is one of the major clinical therapies of cancer, although it increases the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), unexpectedly. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this role are not completely understood. METHODS:We used NSCLC cell lines as well as tumor specimens from 78 patients with NSCLC to evaluate p53, Cathepsin L (CTSL) and EMT phenotypic changes. Xenograft models was also utilized to examine the roles of mutant p53 (mut-p53) and CTSL in regulating IR-induced EMT of NSCLC. RESULTS:Expression of CTSL was markedly increased in human NSCLC tissues with mutant p53 (mut-p53), and p53 mutation positively correlated with metastasis of NSCLC patients. In human non-small cell lung cancer cell line, H1299 cells transfected with various p53 lentivirus vectors, mut-p53 could promote the invasion and motility of cells under IR, mainly through the EMT. This EMT process was induced by elevating intranuclear CTSL which was regulated by mut-p53 depending on Early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1) activation. In the subcutaneous tumor xenograft model, IR promoted the EMT of the cancer cells in the presence of mut-p53, owing to increase expression and nuclear transition of its downstream protein CTSL. CONCLUSION:Taken together, these data reveal the role of the mut-p53/Egr-1/CTSL axis in regulating the signaling pathway responsible for IR-induced EMT.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of high-grade malignant glioma, notably glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form of brain cancer. The drug induces a dozen DNA methylation adducts, including O?-methylguanine (O?MeG), which is the most toxic primary DNA lesion as it causes the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger apoptosis. In p53 wild-type cells, TMZ activates p-p53ser15 and p-p53ser46, which have opposing dual functions regulating survival and death, respectively. Since the use of TMZ in a therapeutic setting is limited because of its side effects, the question arises as to the existence of threshold doses that activate the death pathway and start apoptosis. To determine whether there is a threshold for the TMZ-induced DNA damage response and exploring the factors regulating the switch between p53 dependent survival and death, the glioblastoma lines LN-229 (deficient in MGMT) and LN-229MGMT (stably transfected with MGMT) were exposed to different doses of TMZ. p53 protein expression and phosphorylation levels of p-p53ser15 and p-p53ser46 were determined by Western blotting. Also, apoptosis, senescence and autophagy levels were checked after different doses of TMZ. The results show that pro-survival p-p53ser15 and pro-death p-p53ser46 were induced by O?MeG in a specific dose- and time-dependent manner. p-p53ser15 was an early response while p-p53ser46 was activated at later times following treatment. Unexpectedly, the dose-response curves for total p53, p-p53ser15 and p-p53ser46 were linear, without an obvious threshold. O?MeG induces apoptosis late after treatment as a linear function of TMZ dose. This was observed for both p53 proficient LN-229 and p53 lacking LN-308 cells. A linear dose-response after TMZ was also observed for senescence and autophagy as well as ?H2AX, an indicator of DSBs that are considered to be the downstream trigger of apoptosis, senescence and autophagy. LN-229MGMT cells were highly resistant to all measured endpoints because of repair of the critical primary lesion. Although LN-308 were less responsive than LN-229 to TMZ, they displayed the same TMZ-induced DSB level. The observed linear dose-responses are not compatible with the view that low DNA damage level evokes survival while high damage level activates death functions. The data bear important therapeutic implications as they indicate that even low doses of TMZ may elicit a cytotoxic response. However, since O?MeG triggers apoptosis, senescence and autophagy in the same dose range, it is likely that the accumulation of senescent cells in the population counteracts the killing effect of the anticancer drug.
Project description:Methylating drugs such as temozolomide (TMZ) are widely used in the treatment of brain tumors including malignant glioblastoma. The mechanism of TMZ-induced glioblastoma cell death and apoptosis, however, is not fully understood. Here, we tested the potential involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in this process. We found that methylating agents TMZ and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induce AMPK activation in primary cultured human glioblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. TMZ-induced O(6)-methylguanine production is involved in AMPK activation. O(6)-benzylguanine, an O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, enhances TMZ-induced O(6)-methylguanine production, leading to enhanced reactive oxygen species production, which serves as an upstream signal for AMPK activation. Activation of AMPK is involved in TMZ-induced glioblastoma cell death and apoptosis. AMPK inhibitor (Compound C) or AMPK? siRNA knockdown inhibits TMZ-induced glioblastoma cell death and apoptosis, whereas AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-d-ribofuranoside enhances it. In further studies, we found that activation of AMPK is involved in TMZ-induced p53 activation and subsequent p21, Noxa, and Bax up-regulation. Activation of AMPK by TMZ also inhibits mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and promotes anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 down-regulation, which together mediate TMZ-induced pro-cell apoptosis effects. Our study suggests that activation of AMPK by TMZ contributes to glioblastoma cell apoptosis, probably by promoting p53 activation and inhibiting mTORC1 signaling.
Project description:The G protein-coupled formylpeptide receptor (FPR), known to mediate phagocytic leucocyte chemotaxis in response to bacterial- and host-derived agonists, was expressed by tumor cells in specimens of surgically removed more highly malignant human gliomas. In human glioblastoma cell lines, FPR activation increased cell motility, tumorigenicity and production of angiogenic factors. In studies of the mechanistic basis for the selective expression of FPR in more highly malignant gliomas, we found that the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza), while promoting the differentiation of human glioblastoma cells, downregulated FPR expression. Aza also reduced the global methylation levels in glioblastoma cells and activated the pathway of p53 tumor suppressor. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction revealed that Aza treatment of tumor cells reduced the methylation of p53 promoter, which was accompanied by increased expression of p53 gene and protein. In addition, overexpression of p53 in glioblastoma cells mimicked the effect of Aza treatment as shown by increased cell differentiation but reduction in FPR expression, the capacity of tumor sphere formation in soft agar and tumorigenesis in nude mice. Furthermore, Aza treatment or overexpression of the wild-type p53 in glioblastoma cells increased the binding of p53 to FPR promoter region shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation. These results indicate that increased methylation of p53 gene retains human glioblastoma cells at a more poorly differentiated phase associated with the aberrant expression of FPR as a tumor-promoting cell surface receptor.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is notoriously resistant to treatment. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. ATM elicits the DNA damage response (DDR), which confers cellular radioresistance; thus, targeting the DDR with an ATM inhibitior (ATMi) is very attractive. Herein, we show that dynamic ATM kinase inhibition in the nanomolar range results in potent radiosensitization of human glioma cells, inhibits growth and does not conflict with temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. The second generation ATMi analog KU-60019 provided quick, reversible and complete inhibition of the DDR at sub-micromolar concentrations in human glioblastoma cells. KU-60019 inhibited the phosphorylation of the major DNA damage effectors p53, H2AX and KAP1 as well as AKT. Colony-forming radiosurvival showed that continuous exposure to nanomolar concentrations of KU-60019 effectively radiosensitized glioblastoma cell lines. When cells were co-treated with KU-60019 and TMZ, a slight increase in radiation-induced cell killing was noted, although TMZ alone was unable to radiosensitize these cells. In addition, without radiation, KU-60019 with or without TMZ reduced glioma cell growth but had no significant effect on the survival of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived astrocytes. Altogether, transient inhibition of the ATM kinase provides a promising strategy for radiosensitizing GBM in combination with standard treatment. In addition, without radiation, KU-60019 limits growth of glioma cells in co-culture with human astrocytes that seem unaffected by the same treatment. Thus, inter-fraction growth inhibition could perhaps be achieved in vivo with minor adverse effects to the brain.
Project description:Cancer cells often accumulate spontaneous and treatment-induced DNA damage i.e. potentially lethal DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Targeting DSB repair mechanisms with specific inhibitors could potentially sensitize cancer cells to the toxic effect of DSBs. Current treatment for glioblastoma includes tumor resection followed by radiotherapy and/or temozolomide (TMZ) - an alkylating agent inducing DNA damage. We hypothesize that combination of PARP inhibitor (PARPi) with TMZ in glioblastoma cells displaying downregulation of DSB repair genes could trigger synthetic lethality. In our study, we observed that PARP inhibitor (BMN673) was able to specifically sensitize DNA ligase 4 (LIG4)-deprived glioblastoma cells to TMZ while normal astrocytes were not affected. LIG4 downregulation resulting in low effectiveness of DNA-PK-mediated non-homologous end-joining (D-NHEJ), which in combination with BMN673 and TMZ resulted in accumulation of lethal DSBs and specific eradication of glioblastoma cells. Restoration of the LIG4 expression caused loss of sensitivity to BMN673+TMZ. In conclusion, PARP inhibitor combined with DNA damage inducing agents can be utilized in patients with glioblastoma displaying defects in D-NHEJ.
Project description:The use of temozolomide (TMZ) has improved the prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients. However, TMZ resistance may be one of the main reasons why treatment fails. Although this resistance has frequently been linked to the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) it seems that this enzyme is not the only molecular mechanism that may account for the appearance of drug resistance in glioblastoma multiforme patients as the mismatch repair (MMR) complex, P-glycoprotein, and/or the presence of cancer stem cells may also be implicated.Four nervous system tumor cell lines were used to analyze the modulation of MGMT expression and MGMT promoter methylation by TMZ treatment. Furthermore, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was used to demethylate the MGMT promoter and O(6)-benzylguanine to block GMT activity. In addition, MMR complex and P-glycoprotein expression were studied before and after TMZ exposure and correlated with MGMT expression. Finally, the effect of TMZ exposure on CD133 expression was analyzed.Our results showed two clearly differentiated groups of tumor cells characterized by low (A172 and LN229) and high (SF268 and SK-N-SH) basal MGMT expression. Interestingly, cell lines with no MGMT expression and low TMZ IC50 showed a high MMR complex expression, whereas cell lines with high MGMT expression and high TMZ IC50 did not express the MMR complex. In addition, modulation of MGMT expression in A172 and LN229 cell lines was accompanied by a significant increase in the TMZ IC50, whereas no differences were observed in SF268 and SK-N-SH cell lines. In contrast, P-glycoprotein and CD133 was found to be unrelated to TMZ resistance in these cell lines.These results may be relevant in understanding the phenomenon of TMZ resistance, especially in glioblastoma multiforme patients laking MGMT expression, and may also aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of TMZ in glioblastoma multiforme patients.
Project description:Development of temozolomide (TMZ) resistance contributes to the poor prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. It was previously demonstrated that delivery of exogenous wild-type tumor suppressor gene p53 via a tumor-targeted nanocomplex (SGT-53) which crosses the blood-brain barrier could sensitize highly TMZ-resistant GBM tumors to TMZ. Here we assessed whether SGT-53 could inhibit development of TMZ resistance. SGT-53 significantly chemosensitized TMZ-sensitive human GBM cell lines (U87 and U251), in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, in an intracranial GBM tumor model, two cycles of concurrent treatment with systemically administered SGT-53 and TMZ inhibited tumor growth, increased apoptosis and most importantly, significantly prolonged median survival. In contrast TMZ alone had no significant effect on median survival compared to a single cycle of TMZ. These results suggest that combining SGT-53 with TMZ appears to limit development of TMZ resistance, prolonging its anti-tumor effect and could be a more effective therapy for GBM.Using human glioblastoma multiforma cell lines, this research team demonstrated that the delivery of exogenous wild-type tumor suppressor gene p53 via a tumor-targeted nanocomplex limited the development of temozolomide resistance and prolonged its anti-tumor effect, which may enable future human application of this or similar techniques.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the precursor and active forms of a p53 small-molecule inhibitor for their effects on temozolomide (TMZ) antitumor activity against glioblastoma (GBM), using both in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches. Results from in vitro cell viability analysis showed that the cytotoxic activity of TMZ was substantially increased when p53 wild-type (p53(wt)) GBMs were cotreated with the active form of p53 inhibitor, and this heightened cytotoxic response was accompanied by increased poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage as well as elevated cellular phospho-H2AX. Analysis of the same series of GBMs, as intracranial xenografts in athymic mice, and administering corresponding p53 inhibitor precursor, which is converted to the active compound in vivo, yielded results consistent with the in vitro analyses: TMZ + p53 inhibitor precursor cotreatment of three distinct p53(wt) GBM xenografts resulted in significant enhancement of TMZ antitumor effect relative to treatment with TMZ alone, as indicated by serial bioluminescence monitoring as well as survival analysis (P < 0.001 for cotreatment survival benefit in each case). Mice receiving intracranial injection with p53(null) GBM showed similar survival benefit from TMZ treatment regardless of the presence or absence of p53 inhibitor precursor. In total, our results indicate that the p53 active and precursor inhibitor pair enhances TMZ cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, respectively, and do so in a p53-dependent manner.