Quantifying Tongue Tip Shape in Apical and Laminal /s/: Contributions of Palate Shape.
ABSTRACT: Purpose Anterior tongue shape during /s/ production is often described as "tip-up" or apical, versus "tip-down" or laminal. Typically, this is determined by observing the shape of the anterior midline tongue. The purpose of this study was to identify methods of curvature calculation that quantify the observed shape differences and to examine whether the shape differences were affected by palate shape. Previous work shows that palate height has some effect (Grimm et al., 2017). Method Four curvature-based measures were applied to a series of points selected along the tongue surface in midsagittal cine magnetic resonance images during speech. The measures were minimal curvature, averaged largest curvature (ALC), normalized ALC, and interpolated normalized ALC. These measures were compared to visual judgments of apical and laminal /s/. Anterior palate shape was measured from dental casts. Results The apical /s/ contained a flat or concave region in the anterior tongue, while the laminal /s/ had a convex shape along the entire tongue. Thus, the laminal shape was less complex than the apical. The last 2 metrics, based on averages of multiple normalized curvatures, captured this complexity difference. Subjects with a more steeply sloped anterior palate tended to use laminal /s/. Conclusions The tongue shape for the 2 /s/ types was best defined by complexity of the shape, rather than local anterior shape. Statistical quantities that measured curvature in multiple locations, and normalized across subjects, were best at distinguishing the 2 /s/ shapes. Interpolating additional points between the manually selected ones did not improve the method. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.9733709.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tongue plays an important part in oral and maxillofacial system. Measurement of tongue pressure helps to evaluate the performance of tongue movement. OBJECTIVES:To establish a system for measuring tongue pressure against hard palate and to preliminarily explore pressure distribution of individual normal occlusions and the relationship with dental arch form. METHODS:A total of 19 volunteers of individual normal occlusions out of 189 dental students met inclusion criteria (nine males, ten females, aged 25.53 ± 0.96 years). A force-sensing resistor device was used to measure tongue pressure at rest and functional state (swallowing). We observed tongue pressure of four channel (anterior, posterior and lateral sides of hard palate) in sitting, supine position and swallowing. We analysed pressure differences according to gender and explored correlation relationship between tongue pressure and dental arch width and length using 3D digital maxillary image. RESULTS:In rest, tongue pressure against hard palate increased from front to back in both sitting and supine position, without gender differences. When swallowing saliva, the pressure at lateral sides of females was found significantly higher than that of males. Bivariate correlation analysis revealed duration of swallowing was positively correlated with BMI and weight at posterior region and positively correlated with palatal length at anterior palate. The greater the dental arch width, the smaller the pressure of swallowing in the anterior and lateral region. CONCLUSION:In rest, there was consistent pressure of tongue against hard palate. The pressure increased significantly during swallowing, especially in females. Tongue pressure was related to dental arch length, width, BMI and weight.
Project description:Epithelial bending is a central feature of morphogenesis in animals. Here we show that mutual antagonism by the small Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoA determines cell shape, tissue curvature, and invagination activity in the model epithelium of the developing mouse lens. The epithelial cells of the invaginating lens placode normally elongate and change from a cylindrical to an apically constricted, conical shape. RhoA mutant lens placode cells are both longer and less apically constricted than control cells, thereby reducing epithelial curvature and invagination. By contrast, Rac1 mutant lens placode cells are shorter and more apically restricted than controls, resulting in increased epithelial curvature and precocious lens vesicle closure. Quantification of RhoA- and Rac1-dependent pathway markers over the apical-basal axis of lens pit cells showed that in RhoA mutant epithelial cells there was a Rac1 pathway gain of function and vice versa. These findings suggest that mutual antagonism produces balanced activities of RhoA-generated apical constriction and Rac1-dependent cell elongation that controls cell shape and thus curvature of the invaginating epithelium. The ubiquity of the Rho family GTPases suggests that these mechanisms are likely to apply generally where epithelial morphogenesis occurs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:OSA results from the collapse of different pharyngeal structures (soft palate, tongue, lateral walls, and epiglottis). The structure involved in collapse has been shown to impact non-CPAP OSA treatment. Different inspiratory airflow shapes are also observed among patients with OSA. We hypothesized that inspiratory flow shape reflects the underlying pharyngeal structure involved in airway collapse. METHODS:Subjects with OSA were studied with a pediatric endoscope and simultaneous nasal flow and pharyngeal pressure recordings during natural sleep. The mechanism causing collapse was classified as tongue-related, isolated palatal, lateral walls, or epiglottis. Flow shape was classified according to the degree of negative effort dependence (NED), defined as the percent reduction in inspiratory flow from peak to plateau. RESULTS:Thirty-one subjects with OSA (mean apnea-hypopnea index score ± SD, 54 ± 27 events/h) who were 50 ± 9 years of age were studied. NED was associated with the structure causing collapse (P < .001). Tongue-related obstruction (n = 13) was associated with a small amount of NED (median, 19; interquartile range [IQR], 14%-25%). Moderate NED was found among subjects with isolated palatal collapse (median, 45; IQR, 39%-52%; n = 8) and lateral wall collapse (median, 50; IQR, 44%-64%; n = 8). The epiglottis was associated with severe NED (median, 89; IQR, 78%-91%) and abrupt discontinuities in inspiratory flow (n = 9). CONCLUSIONS:Inspiratory flow shape is influenced by the pharyngeal structure causing collapse. Flow shape analysis may be used as a noninvasive tool to help determine the pharyngeal structure causing collapse.
Project description:To determine if particle shape can be engineered to inhibit phagocytosis of drug delivery particles by macrophages, which can be a significant barrier to successful therapeutic delivery.Non-spherical polystyrene particles were fabricated by stretching spherical particles embedded in a polymer film. A rat alveolar macrophage cell line was used as model macrophages. Phagocytosis of particles was assessed using time-lapse video microscopy and fluorescence microscopy.We fabricated worm-like particles with very high aspect ratios (>20). This shape exhibits negligible phagocytosis compared to conventional spherical particles of equal volume. Reduced phagocytosis is a result of decreasing high curvature regions of the particle to two single points, the ends of the worm-like particles. Internalization is possible only at these points, while attachment anywhere along the length of the particles inhibits internalization due to the low curvature.Shape-induced inhibition of phagocytosis of drug delivery particles is possible by minimizing the size-normalized curvature of particles. We have created a high aspect ratio shape that exhibits negligible uptake by macrophages.
Project description:An important question about color vision is how does the brain represent the color of an object? The recent discovery of "color patches" in macaque inferotemporal (IT) cortex, the part of the brain responsible for object recognition, makes this problem experimentally tractable. Here we recorded neurons in three color patches, middle color patch CLC (central lateral color patch), and two anterior color patches ALC (anterior lateral color patch) and AMC (anterior medial color patch), while presenting images of objects systematically varied in hue. We found that all three patches contain high concentrations of hue-selective cells, and that the three patches use distinct computational strategies to represent colored objects: while all three patches multiplex hue and shape information, shape-invariant hue information is much stronger in anterior color patches ALC/AMC than CLC. Furthermore, hue and object shape specifically for primate faces/bodies are over-represented in AMC, but not in the other two patches.
Project description:Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches-essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures-of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution.
Project description:Neurons of the geniculate ganglion innervate taste buds located in two spatially distinct targets, the tongue and palate. About 50% of these neurons die in Bdnf(-/-) mice and Ntf4/5(-/-) mice. Bdnf(-/-)/Ntf4/5(-/-) double mutants lose 90-95% of geniculate ganglion neurons. To determine whether different subpopulations are differentially influenced by neurotrophins, we quantified neurons from two ganglion subpopulations separately and remaining taste buds at birth within each target field in wild-type, Bdnf(-/-), Ntf4/5(-/-), and Bdnf(-/-)/Ntf4/5(-/-) mice. In wild-type mice the same number of neurons innervated the anterior tongue and soft palate and each target contained the same number of taste buds. Compared to wild-type mice, Bdnf(-/-) mice showed a 50% reduction in geniculate neurons innervating the tongue and a 28% loss in neurons innervating the soft palate. Ntf4/5(-/-) mice lost 58% of the neurons innervating the tongue and 41% of the neurons innervating the soft palate. Taste bud loss was not as profound in the NT-4 null mice compared to BDNF-null mice. Tongues of Bdnf(-/-)/Ntf4/5(-/-) mice were innervated by 0 to 4 gustatory neurons and contained 3 to 16 taste buds at birth, indicating that some taste buds remain even when all innervation is lost. Thus, gustatory neurons are equally dependent on BDNF and NT-4 expression for survival, regardless of what peripheral target they innervate. However, taste buds are more sensitive to BDNF than NT-4 removal.
Project description:It is unclear whether the establishment of apical-basal cell polarity during the generation of epithelial lumens requires molecules acting at the plasma membrane/actin interface. Here, we show that the I-BAR-containing IRSp53 protein controls lumen formation and the positioning of the polarity determinants aPKC and podocalyxin. Molecularly, IRSp53 acts by regulating the localization and activity of the small GTPase RAB35, and by interacting with the actin capping protein EPS8. Using correlative light and electron microscopy, we further show that IRSp53 ensures the shape and continuity of the opposing plasma membrane of two daughter cells, leading to the formation of a single apical lumen. Genetic removal of IRSp53 results in abnormal renal tubulogenesis, with altered tubular polarity and architectural organization. Thus, IRSp53 acts as a membrane curvature-sensing platform for the assembly of multi-protein complexes that control the trafficking of apical determinants and the integrity of the luminal plasma membrane.
Project description:I-BAR proteins are well-known actin-cytoskeleton adaptors and have been observed to be involved in the formation of plasma membrane protrusions (filopodia). I-BAR proteins contain an all-helical, crescent-shaped IRSp53-MIM domain (IMD) dimer that is believed to be able to couple with a membrane shape. This coupling could involve the sensing and even the generation of negative plasma membrane curvature. Indeed, the in vitro studies have shown that IMDs can induce inward tubulation of liposomes. While N-BAR domains, which generate positive membrane curvature, have received a considerable amount of attention from both theory and experiments, the mechanisms of curvature coupling through IMDs are comparatively less studied and understood. Here we used a membrane-shape stability assay developed recently in our lab to quantitatively characterize IMD-induced membrane-shape transitions. We determined a membrane-shape stability diagram for IMDs that reveals how membrane tension and protein density can comodulate the generation of IMD-induced membrane protrusions. From comparison to analytical theory, we determine three key parameters that characterize the curvature coupling of IMD. We find that the curvature generation capacity of IMDs is significantly stronger compared to that of endophilin, an N-BAR protein known to be involved in plasma membrane shape transitions. Contrary to N-BAR domains, where amphipathic helix insertion is known to promote its membrane curvature generation, for IMDs we find that amphipathic helices inhibit membrane shape transitions, consistent with the inverse curvature that IMDs generate. Importantly, in both of these types of BAR domains, electrostatic interactions affect membrane-binding capacity, but do not appear to affect the curvature generation capacity of the protein. These two types of BAR domain proteins show qualitatively similar membrane shape stability diagrams, suggesting an underlying ubiquitous mechanism by which peripheral proteins regulate membrane curvature.