Genetic Polymorphisms of IFNG and IFNGR1 with Latent Tuberculosis Infection.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interferon gamma (IFNG) and IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1) may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in different populations. In order to further explore the results in a Chinese Han population, this study was designed to investigate potential associations between the polymorphisms in IFNG and IFNGR1 and susceptibility to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and/or PTB in a Chinese Han population. A total of 209 PTB, 173 LTBI, and 183 healthy control subjects (HCS) were enrolled in our study. Genotyping was conducted using an improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR). We performed a logistic regression including sex and age as covariates to test the effect of alleles/genotypes on LTBI and/or TB. All six markers studied in IFNG and IFNGR1 conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). The IFNG rs1861494 was significantly associated with LTBI in recessive model, and the CC+CT genotype decreased risk of LTBI by 50% (P = 0.046, OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.25-0.99). The IFNGR1 rs2234711 was significantly associated with LTBI, and allele A increased the risk of LTBI by 55% (P = 0.047, OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.00-2.40). In the present study, we found that IFNG and IFNGR1 polymorphisms were associated with LTBI.
Project description:Interferon-gamma (IFNG) and its receptor (IFNGR1) are principal genes that associated with tuberculosis. In the current study we aimed to explore the genetic association of polymorphisms of IFNG and IFNGR1 with the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the Chinese Tibetan population. We selected 467 PTB patients and 503 healthy controls to genotype 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied for assessing the associations, and the risk of PTB were evaluated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The results showed that mutants of rs9376268, rs1327475 and rs1327474 in IFNGR1 played a protective role in the PTB risk under genotype, dominant and additive model (P<0.05). On the contrary, minor allele "A" of rs2069705 in IFNG significantly increased the risk of PTB under genotype, dominant and additive model (P<0.05). However, after Bonferroni's multiple adjustment was applied to our data, which level of significant was set at P<0.0011 (0.05/45). Only variant of rs9376268 was significantly associated decrease the PTB susceptibility under additive model (OR=0.73, 95%CI=0.61-0.88, P<0.001). Furthermore, in the haplotype analysis, we found that the haplotypes "C-G-G-A-C", "C-G-A-G-T" and "T-A-G-G-T" of rs9376267-rs9376268-rs1327475-rs7749390-rs1327474 block were extremely decreased the PTB risk (P<0.01), however, the haplotypes "C-G-G-A-T", "T-G-G-G-T" and "C-G-G-G-T" of the block were extremely increased the PTB risk (P<0.01). These results suggested that variants of IFNGR1 may have a close relation with the PTB risk in Chinese Tibetan population.
Project description:BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis is (TB) responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cytokines play a major role in defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with tuberculosis susceptibility. In this study we examined association of 25 sequence polymorphisms in six candidate cytokine genes namely IFNG, TNFB, IL4, IL1RA, IL1B and IL12 and their related haplotypes with risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among north Indians. METHODS: Pulmonary TB (n=110) patients and 215 healthy controls (HC) from north India were genotyped. Purified multiplex PCR products were subjected to mass spectrometry using Sequenom MassARRAY platform to generate the genotypes in a population-based case-control study. RESULTS: Using multiple corrections, significant overall risk against PTB was observed at seven loci which included variants in IFNG at rs1861493 and rs1861494; IL1RA at rs4252019, IL4 variant rs2070874, IL12 variants rs3212220, rs2853694 and TNFB variant rs1041981. Analysis of gene structure revealed two haplotype blocks formed by IFNG variants rs1861493 and rs1861494. The TA haplotype was significantly over-represented (P=0.011) in the cases showing a two-fold risk in the current population (Odds ratio=1.59 CI=1.101 to 2.297) and TNFB variants at rs2229094 and rs1041981 contributed to two haplotypes which were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with AT haplotype showing a three-fold risk (P=0.0011, Odds ratio=3, CI=0.1939 to 0.7445) of developing PTB in north Indians. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed six novel associations of cytokine gene variants with susceptibility to PTB in north Indians. Variants of IFNG and TNFB emerged as factors imposing a significant risk of developing PTB in north Indians apart from risk indicated by IL1RA, IL4 and IL12.
Project description:Aim. The present study was undertaken to find out the possible association between interferon-gamma (IFN-?) receptor 1 (IFNGR1) gene polymorphisms and risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a sample of Iranian population. Methods. Polymorphisms of IFNGR1 rs1327474 (-611 A/G), rs11914 (+189 T/G), rs7749390 (+95 C/T), and rs137854905 (27-bp ins/del) were determined in 173 PTB patients and 164 healthy subjects. Results. Our findings showed that rs11914 TG genotypes decreased the risk of PTB in comparison with TT (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.21-0.62, and p = 0.0002). The rs11914 G allele decreased the risk of PTB compared with T allele (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.68, and p = 0.0006). IFNGR1 rs7749390 CT genotype decreased the risk of PTB in comparison with CC genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.95, and p = 0.038). No significant association was found between IFNGR1 rs1327474 A/G polymorphism and risk/protective of PTB. The rs137854905 (27-bp I/D) variant was not polymorphic in our population. Conclusion. Our findings showed that IFNGR1 rs11914 and rs7749390 variants decreased the risk of PTB susceptibility in our population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Association studies have been employed to investigate the relationships between host single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). However, such candidate genetic markers have not been widely studied in Chinese population, especially with respect to the disease development from latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI). METHODS:In this case-control study, 44 candidate SNPs were examined in a total of 600 participants (PTB patients, LTBI controls and healthy controls without M. tuberculosis infection) from Zhengzhou, China. The two groups of controls were frequency matched on gender and age with PTB patients. Genotyping was carried out by the Illumina Golden Gate assay. RESULTS:When comparing PTB patients with LTBI controls but not healthy controls without M. tuberculosis infection, significant associations with disease development were observed for TLR9 1174 A/G, TLR9 1635 A/G and IFNG 2109G/A. The two loci in TLR9 were in LD in our study population (r(2)=0.96, D'=1.00). A combined effect of the genotypes associated with increased risk of PTB (i.e. TLR9 1174G/G and IFNG 2109 A/A) was found when comparing PTB patients with LTBI controls (p=0.004) but not with healthy controls without infection (p=0.433). CONCLUSIONS:Potential associations between TLR9 and IFN-? genetic polymorphisms and PTB were observed in a Chinese population which supports further study of the roles played by TLR9/IFN-? pathway during the development of PTB.
Project description:Little is known about the parasite/host factors that lead to Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) in some visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients after drug-cure. Studies in Sudan provide evidence for association between polymorphisms in the gene (IFNGR1) encoding the alpha chain of interferon-? receptor type I and risk of PKDL. This study aimed to identify putative functional polymorphisms in the IFNGR1 gene, and to determine whether differences in expression of interferon-? (IFNG) and IFNGR1 at the RNA level are associated with pathogenesis of VL and/or PKDL in Sudan.Sanger sequencing was used to re-sequence 841 bp of upstream, exon1 and intron1 of the IFNGR1 gene in DNA from 30 PKDL patients. LAGAN and SYNPLOT bioinformatics tools were used to compare human, chimpanzee and dog sequences to identify conserved noncoding sequences carrying putative regulatory elements. The relative expression of IFNG and IFNGR1 in paired pre- and post-treatment RNA samples from the lymph nodes of 24 VL patients, and in RNA samples from skin biopsies of 19 PKDL patients, was measured using real time PCR. Pre- versus post-treatment expression was evaluated statistically using the nonparametric Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank test.Ten variants were identified in the 841 bp of sequence, four of which are novel polymorphisms at -77A/G, +10 C/T, +18C/T and +91G/T relative to the IFNGR1 initiation site. A cluster of conserved non-coding sequences with putative regulatory variants was identified in the distal promoter of IFNGR1. Variable expression of IFNG was detected in lymph node aspirates of VL patients before treatment, with a marked reduction (P?=?0.006) in expression following treatment. IFNGR1 expression was also variable in lymph node aspirates from VL patients, with no significant reduction in expression with treatment. IFNG expression was undetectable in the skin biopsies of PKDL cases, while IFNGR1 expression was also uniformly low.Uniformly low expression of IFN and IFNGR1 in PKDL skin biopsies could explain parasite persistence and is consistent with prior demonstration of genetic association with IFNGR1 polymorphisms. Identification of novel potentially functional rare variants at IFNGR1 makes an important general contribution to knowledge of rare variants of potential relevance in this Sudanese population.
Project description:Interferon gamma (IFNG) plays a key role during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, and several polymorphisms located in its gene are associated with risk of tuberculosis in diverse populations. Nevertheless, the genetic resistance/susceptibility to tuberculosis in Argentina is unknown. The IFNG rs1861494 polymorphism (G?A) was reported to alter the binding of transcription factors to this region, influencing IFNG production. Using a case-control study, we found an association between the AA and AG genotypes and tuberculosis resistance (AA vs. GG: odds ratio (OR) = 0.235, p-value = 0.012; AG vs. GG: OR = 0.303, p-value = 0.044; AA vs. AG: OR = 0.776, p-value = 0.427; AA + AG vs. GG: OR = 0.270, p-value = 0.022). Moreover, Mtb-antigen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors and AA carriers secreted the highest amounts of IFNG in culture supernatants (p-value = 0.034) and presented the greatest percentage of CD4?IFNG? lymphocytes (p-value = 0.035), in comparison with GG carriers. No association between the polymorphism and clinical parameters of tuberculosis severity was detected. However, our findings indicate that the rs1861494 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) could be considered as a biomarker of tuberculosis resistance in the Argentinean population.
Project description:Post-kala-azar dermal leishmanaisis (PKDL) in Sudan is associated with elevated interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). To study interferon-gamma pathways in PKDL, we genotyped 80 trios from the Masalit ethnic group for polymorphisms at -470 ins/delTT, -270T/C, -56T/C and +95T/C in IFNGR1 and at -179G/A and +874T/A in IFNG. No associations occurred at IFNG. Global association with haplotypes comprising all four markers at IFNGR1 (chi(2)(10df)=21.97, P=0.015) was observed, associated with a significant (chi(2)(1df)=4.54, P=0.033) bias in transmission of the haplotype insTT T T T and less (chi(2)(1df)=5.59, P=0.018) than expected transmission of insTT C C C. When compared with data on malaria associations from Gambia, the results suggest a complex pattern of haplotypic variation at the IFNGR1 promoter locus associated with different infectious disease in African populations that reflect the complex roles of IFN-gamma in parasite killing versus inflammation and pathogenesis.
Project description:Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a challenging public health problem in China and worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission is one of the main transmission routes of HBV in highly endemic regions. However, the mechanisms of HBV perinatal transmission in children have not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFN-? signaling pathway and HBV infection or breakthrough infection in children. Two hundred and seventy-four HBV-infected children defined as test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 353 controls defined as negative for HBsAg in China were recruited from October 2013 to May 2015. SNPs in IFN-? signaling pathway including IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, and IL12B were genotyped. Rs2234711 in IFNGR1 was significantly associated with HBV infection in children (OR?=?0.641, 95% CI: 0.450-0.913). In addition, rs2234711 was also significantly associated with HBV breakthrough infection in children born to HBsAg-positive mothers (OR?=?0.452, 95% CI: 0.205-0.998). Our study confirmed that genetic variants in IFN-? signaling pathway have significant associations with HBV infection, especially with HBV breakthrough in children. This study provides insight into HBV infection in children and could be used to help design effective strategies for reducing immunoprophylaxis failure.
Project description:Background:The factors that predispose to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that cytokine gene polymorphisms were associated with PTB. Objectives:In this study, we have investigated the relationship between ILB, IL6, and TNF? polymorphisms and a predisposition to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and PTB. Methods:A total of 209 cases of PTB, 201 subjects with latent TB infection (LTBI), and 204 healthy controls (HCS) were included in this study. Logistic regression analyses under allelic, homozygous, and heterozygous models were used to calculate P values, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for assessing the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease risk, adjusting for sex and age. Genotyping was conducted using the improved multiplex ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) method. Results:When comparing PTB patients with LTBI subjects, significant associations with disease development were observed for SNPs of IL6 and TNF?. When comparing LTBI subjects with HCS, IL1B polymorphisms were significantly associated with LIBI. Haplotype analyses suggested that the CGG haplotype of IL1B was associated with an increased risk of PTB (P = 0.039, OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.76), while the TTGCG haplotype of TNF? was a protective factor against PTB (P = 0.039, OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Conclusion:Our study demonstrated that IL1B variants were related to LTBI and IL6 and TNF? variants were associated with PTB.
Project description:A subset of atopic dermatitis is associated with increased susceptibility to eczema herpeticum (ADEH+). We previously reported that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IFN-? (IFNG) and IFN-? receptor 1 (IFNGR1) genes were associated with the ADEH+ phenotype.We sought to interrogate the role of rare variants in interferon pathway genes for the risk of ADEH+.We performed targeted sequencing of interferon pathway genes (IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNAR1, and IL12RB1) in 228 European American patients with AD selected according to their eczema herpeticum status, and severity was measured by using the Eczema Area and Severity Index. Replication genotyping was performed in independent samples of 219 European American and 333 African American subjects. Functional investigation of loss-of-function variants was conducted by using site-directed mutagenesis.We identified 494 single nucleotide variants encompassing 105 kb of sequence, including 145 common, 349 (70.6%) rare (minor allele frequency <5%), and 86 (17.4%) novel variants, of which 2.8% were coding synonymous, 93.3% were noncoding (64.6% intronic), and 3.8% were missense. We identified 6 rare IFNGR1 missense variants, including 3 damaging variants (Val14Met [V14M], Val61Ile, and Tyr397Cys [Y397C]) conferring a higher risk for ADEH+ (P = .031). Variants V14M and Y397C were confirmed to be deleterious, leading to partial IFNGR1 deficiency. Seven common IFNGR1 SNPs, along with common protective haplotypes (2-7 SNPs), conferred a reduced risk of ADEH+ (P = .015-.002 and P = .0015-.0004, respectively), and both SNP and haplotype associations were replicated in an independent African American sample (P = .004-.0001 and P = .001-.0001, respectively).Our results provide evidence that both genetic variants in the gene encoding IFNGR1 are implicated in susceptibility to the ADEH+ phenotype.