Cortical Contributions to Distinct Symptom Dimensions of Catatonia.
ABSTRACT: Catatonia is a central aspect of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and most likely associated with abnormalities in affective, motor, and sensorimotor brain regions. However, contributions of different cortical features to the pathophysiology of catatonia in SSD are poorly understood. Here, T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging data at 3 T were obtained from 56 right-handed patients with SSD. Using FreeSurfer version 6.0, we calculated cortical thickness, area, and local gyrification index (LGI). Catatonic symptoms were examined on the Northoff catatonia rating scale (NCRS). Patients with catatonia (NCRS total score ?3; n = 25) showed reduced surface area in the parietal and medial orbitofrontal gyrus and LGI in the temporal gyrus (P < .05, corrected for cluster-wise probability [CWP]) as well as hypergyrification in rostral cingulate and medial orbitofrontal gyrus when compared with patients without catatonia (n = 22; P < .05, corrected for CWP). Following a dimensional approach, a negative association between NCRS motor and behavior scores and cortical thickness in superior frontal, insular, and precentral cortex was found (34 patients with at least 1 motor and at least 1 other affective or behavioral symptom; P < .05, corrected for CWP). Positive associations were found between NCRS motor and behavior scores and surface area and LGI in superior frontal, posterior cingulate, precentral, and pericalcarine gyrus (P < .05, corrected for CWP). The data support the notion that cortical features of distinct evolutionary and genetic origin differently contribute to catatonia in SSD. Catatonia in SSD may be essentially driven by cortex variations in frontoparietal regions including regions implicated in the coordination and goal-orientation of behavior.
Project description:There is growing interest in understanding the behavioral and neural mechanisms of catatonia. Here, we examine cognition and brain structure in schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) patients with a history of catatonia. A total of 172 subjects were selected from a data repository; these included SSD patients with (n = 43) and without (n = 43) a history of catatonia and healthy control subjects (n = 86). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP) and brain structure was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in the CAT12 toolbox. SSD patients with a history of catatonia showed worse performance on tests of verbal fluency and processing speed compared to SSD patients without such a history, even after controlling for current antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use. No differences were found between patients with and without a history of catatonia in terms of brain structure. Both patient groups combined showed significantly smaller grey matter volumes compared to healthy control subjects in brain regions consistent with prior studies, including the anterior cingulate, insular, temporal, and medial frontal cortices. The results highlight a cognitive-motor impairment in SSD patients with a history of catatonia. Challenges and limitations of examining brain structure in patients with a history of catatonia are discussed.
Project description:Neurological soft signs (NSS) comprise a broad range of subtle neurological deficits and are considered to represent external markers of sensorimotor dysfunction frequently found in mental disorders of presumed neurodevelopmental origin. Although NSS frequently occur in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), specific patterns of co-altered brain structure and function underlying NSS in SSD have not been investigated so far. It is unclear whether gray matter volume (GMV) alterations or aberrant brain activity or a combination of both, are associated with NSS in SSD. Here, 37 right-handed SSD patients and 37 matched healthy controls underwent motor assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T. NSS were examined on the Heidelberg NSS scale. We used a multivariate data fusion technique for multimodal MRI data-multiset canonical correlation and joint independent component analysis (mCCA + jICA)-to investigate co-altered patterns of GMV and intrinsic neural fluctuations (INF) in SSD patients exhibiting NSS. The mCCA?+?jICA model indicated two joint group-discriminating components (temporoparietal/cortical sensorimotor and frontocerebellar/frontoparietal networks) and one modality-specific group-discriminating component (p <?.05, FDR corrected). NSS motor score was associated with joint frontocerebellar/frontoparietal networks in SSD patients. This study highlights complex neural pathomechanisms underlying NSS in SSD suggesting aberrant structure and function, predominantly in cortical and cerebellar systems that critically subserve sensorimotor dynamics and psychomotor organization.
Project description:Local gyrification index (LGI), a metric quantifying cortical folding, was evaluated in 105 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 49 typically developing (TD) boys at 3 and 5 years-of-age. At 3 years-of-age, boys with ASD had reduced gyrification in the fusiform gyrus compared with TD boys. A longitudinal evaluation from 3 to 5 years revealed that while TD boys had stable/decreasing LGI, boys with ASD had increasing LGI in right inferior temporal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, and stable LGI in left lingual gyrus. LGI was also examined in a previously defined neurophenotype of boys with ASD and disproportionate megalencephaly. At 3 years-of-age, this subgroup exhibited increased LGI in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and paracentral cortex, and left cingulate cortex and superior frontal gyrus relative to TD boys and increased LGI in right paracentral lobule and parahippocampal gyrus, and left precentral gyrus compared with boys with ASD and normal brain size. In summary, this study identified alterations in the pattern and development of LGI during early childhood in ASD. Distinct patterns of alterations in subgroups of boys with ASD suggests that multiple neurophenotypes exist and boys with ASD and disproportionate megalencephaly should be evaluated separately.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As the most commonly used illicit substance during early adolescence, long-term or latent effects of early adolescent marijuana use across adolescent developmental processes remain to be determined. METHODS:We examined cortical thickness, gray/white matter border contrast (GWR) and local gyrification index (LGI) in 42 marijuana (MJ) users. Voxelwise regressions assessed early-onset (age <16) vs. late-onset (?16 years-old) differences and relationships to continued use while controlling for current age and alcohol use. RESULTS:Although groups did not differ by onset status, groups diverged in their correlations between cannabis use and cortical architecture. Among early-onset users, continued years of MJ use and current MJ consumption were associated with thicker cortex, increased GWR and decreased LGI. Late-onset users exhibited the opposite pattern. This divergence was observed in all three morphological measures in the anterior dorsolateral frontal cortex (p<.05, FWE-corrected). CONCLUSIONS:Divergent patterns between current MJ use and elements of cortical architecture were associated with early MJ use onset. Considering brain development in early adolescence, findings are consistent with disruptions in pruning. However, divergence with continued use for many years thereafter suggests altered trajectories of brain maturation during late adolescence and beyond.
Project description:Subjects with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) share a risk of approximately 30% to develop a psychotic disorder. Studying these groups helps identify biological markers of pathophysiological processes involved in the development of psychosis. Total cortical surface area (cSA), total cortical grey matter volume (cGMV), cortical thickness (CT), and local gyrification index (LGI) of the cortical structure have a distinct neurodevelopmental origin making them important target markers to study in relation to the development of psychosis.Structural T1-weighted high resolution images were acquired using a 3 Tesla Intera MRI system in 18 UHR subjects, 18 22q11DS subjects, and 24 matched healthy control (HC) subjects. Total cSA, total cGMV, mean CT, and regional vertex-wise differences in CT and LGI were assessed using FreeSurfer software. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to assess psychotic symptom severity in UHR and 22q11DS subjects at time of scanning.22q11DS subjects had lower total cSA and total cGMV compared to UHR and HC subjects. The 22q11DS subjects showed bilateral lower LGI in the i) prefrontal cortex, ii) precuneus, iii) precentral gyrus and iv) cuneus compared to UHR subjects. Additionally, lower LGI was found in the left i) fusiform gyrus and right i) pars opercularis, ii) superior, and iii) inferior temporal gyrus in 22q11DS subjects compared to HC. In comparison to 22q11DS subjects, the UHR subjects had lower CT of the insula. For both risk groups, positive symptom severity was negatively correlated to rostral middle frontal gyrus CT.A shared negative correlation between positive symptom severity and rostral middle frontal gyrus CT in UHR and 22q11DS may be related to their increased vulnerability to develop a psychotic disorder. 22q11DS subjects were characterised by widespread lower degree of cortical gyrification linked to early and postnatal neurodevelopmental pathology. No implications for early neurodevelopmental pathology were found for the UHR subjects, although they did have distinctively lower insula CT which may have arisen from defective pruning processes during adolescence. Implications of these findings in relation to development of psychotic disorders are in need of further investigation in longitudinal studies.
Project description:The phenomenology of the clinical symptoms indicates that disturbance of the sense of self be a core marker of schizophrenia.To compare neural activity related to the self/other-agency judgment in patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES, n = 35) and healthy controls (HC, n = 35).A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using motor task with temporal distortion of the visual feedback was employed. A task-related functional connectivity was analyzed with the use of independent component analysis (ICA).(1) During self-agency experience, FES showed a deficit in cortical activation in medial frontal gyrus (BA 10) and posterior cingulate gyrus, (BA 31; P < .05, Family-Wise Error [FWE] corrected). (2) Pooled-sample task-related ICA revealed that the self/other-agency judgment was dependent upon anti-correlated default mode and central-executive networks (DMN/CEN) dynamic switching. This antagonistic mechanism was substantially impaired in FES during the task.During self-agency experience, FES demonstrate deficit in engagement of cortical midline structures along with substantial attenuation of anti-correlated DMN/CEN activity underlying normal self/other-agency discriminative processes.
Project description:Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal and emotional abnormalities (e.g., lack of empathy and guilt) and antisocial behavior. Psychopathy has been associated with a number of structural brain abnormalities, most notably in orbital frontal and anterior/medial temporal regions, that may underlie psychopathic individuals' problematic behaviors. Past research evaluating cortical structure in psychopathy has considered thickness and volume, but to date no study has investigated differences in cortical gyrification, a measure of cortical complexity thought to reflect early neurodevelopmental cortical connectivity.We measured the local gyrification index (LGI) in a sample of 716 adult male inmates and performed a whole brain analysis assessing the relationship between LGI and total and factor scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R).PCL-R scores were negatively associated with LGI measures within the right hemisphere in the midcingulate cortex (MCC) and adjacent regions of the superior frontal gyrus as well as lateral superior parietal cortex. Additionally, PCL-R Factor 1 scores (interpersonal/affective traits) predicted less LGI within the right MCC and adjacent dorsomedial frontal cortex and greater LGI in bilateral occipital cortex. Scores on PCL-R Factor 2, indicating impulsivity and antisocial behaviors, did not predict LGI in any regions.These findings suggest that psychopathy, particularly the interpersonal and affective traits, are associated with specific structural abnormalities that form during neurodevelopment and these abnormalities may underlie aberrant brain functioning in regions important in emotional processing and cognitive control.
Project description:This study tested the hypothesis that diffusion tensor imaging can detect alteration in microscopic integrity of white matter and basal ganglia regions known to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology. It was also hypothesized that there is an association between diffusion abnormality and PD severity and subtype. Diffusion tensor imaging at 4 Tesla was obtained in 12 PD and 20 control subjects, and measures of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were evaluated using both region-of-interest and voxel-based methods. Movement deficits and subtypes in PD subjects were assessed using the Motor Subscale (Part III) of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Reduced fractional anisotropy (P < .05, corrected) was found in PD subjects in regions related to the precentral gyrus, substantia nigra, putamen, posterior striatum, frontal lobe, and the supplementary motor areas. Reduced fractional anisotropy in the substantia nigra correlated (P < .05, corrected) with the increased rating scale motor scores. Significant spatial correlations between fractional anisotropy alterations in the putamen and other PD-affected regions were also found in the context of PD subtypes index analysis. Our data suggest that microstructural alterations detected with diffusion tensor might serve as a potential biomarker for PD.
Project description:Background and purpose: Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have suggested that cortical atrophy is regionally distributed in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH) lesions. However, few studies have assessed cortical thickness in middle-aged WMH subjects. In this study, we examined cortical thickness as well as cortical morphometry associated with the presence of WMH lesion load in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Thirty-six middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group) and without clinical cognitive impairment, and 34 demographically matched healthy control subjects (HCS group) participated in the study. Cortical thickness was estimated using an automated Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12) as the distance between the gray-white matter border and the pial surface. Individual WMH lesions were manually segmented, and WMH loads were measured. Statistical cortical maps were created to estimate differences in cortical thickness between groups based on this cortex-wide analysis. The relationship between WMH lesion loads and cerebral cortical thickness was also analyzed in CAT12. Results: Cortical thickness was significantly lower in the WMH group than in the controls in multimodal integration regions, including the right and left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), right and left frontal operculum (fO), right and left operculum parietale (OP), right and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and left superior temporal gyrus (STG; P < 0.01, family-wise error (FWE)-corrected). Additionally, cortical thickness was also lower in the recognition regions that contained the right temporal pole (TP), the right and left fusiform gyrus, and the left rolandic operculum (RO; P < 0.01, FWE-corrected). The results revealed that in the left superior parietal lobule (SPL), cortical thickness was higher in the WMH group than in the HCS group (P < 0.01, FWE-corrected). A voxel-wise negative correlation was found between cortical thickness and WMH lesion loads in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and right subcallosal cortex (P < 0.01, FWE-corrected). Conclusion: The main findings of this study suggest that middle-aged WMH subjects are more likely to exhibit cortical thinning, especially in multimodal integration and recognition- and motor-related regions. The current morphometry data provide further evidence for WMH-associated structural plasticity.
Project description:Motor abnormalities are frequently observed in schizophrenia and structural alterations of the motor system have been reported. The association of aberrant motor network function, however, has not been tested. We hypothesized that abnormal functional connectivity would be related to the degree of motor abnormalities in schizophrenia. In 90 subjects (46 patients) we obtained resting stated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for 8 minutes 40 seconds at 3T. Participants further completed a motor battery on the scanning day. Regions of interest (ROI) were cortical motor areas, basal ganglia, thalamus and motor cerebellum. We computed ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity. Principal component analyses of motor behavioral data produced 4 factors (primary motor, catatonia and dyskinesia, coordination, and spontaneous motor activity). Motor factors were correlated with connectivity values. Schizophrenia was characterized by hyperconnectivity in 3 main areas: motor cortices to thalamus, motor cortices to cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex to the subthalamic nucleus. In patients, thalamocortical hyperconnectivity was linked to catatonia and dyskinesia, whereas aberrant connectivity between rostral anterior cingulate and caudate was linked to the primary motor factor. Likewise, connectivity between motor cortex and cerebellum correlated with spontaneous motor activity. Therefore, altered functional connectivity suggests a specific intrinsic and tonic neural abnormality in the motor system in schizophrenia. Furthermore, altered neural activity at rest was linked to motor abnormalities on the behavioral level. Thus, aberrant resting state connectivity may indicate a system out of balance, which produces characteristic behavioral alterations.