Alterations of the Gut Microbiota in Multiple System Atrophy Patients.
ABSTRACT: Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, and the pathogenesis is still quite challenging. Emerging evidence has shown that the brain-gut-microbiota axis served a pivotal role in neurological diseases; however, researches utilizing metagenomic sequencing to analyze the alteration in gut microbiota of MSA patients were quite rare. Here, we carried out metagenomic sequencing in feces of 15 MSA patients and 15 healthy controls, to characterize the alterations in gut microbial composition and function of MSA patients in mainland China. The results showed that gut microbial community of MSA patients was significantly different from healthy controls, characterized by increased genus Akkermansia and species Roseburia hominis, Akkermansia muciniphila, Alistipes onderdonkii, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Staphylococcus xylosus, while decreased genera Megamonas, Bifidobacterium, Blautia, and Aggregatibacter and species Bacteroides coprocola, Megamonas funiformis, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Clostridium nexile, Bacteroides plebeius, and Granulicatella adiacens. Further, functional analysis based on the KEGG database revealed aberrant functional pathways in fecal microbiome of MSA patients. In conclusion, our findings provided evidence for dysbiosis in gut microbiota of Chinese MSA cohorts and helped develop new testable hypotheses on pathophysiology of MSA.
Project description:Gut microbial gene richness and specific bacterial species are associated with metabolic risk markers in humans, but the impact of host physiology and dietary habits on the link between the gut microbiota and metabolic markers remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify gut metagenomic markers associated with estimates of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and inflammation in obesity, and to explore whether the associations between metagenomic and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for body fat, age and habitual dietary intake.Faecal DNA from 53 women with obesity was analysed through quantitative metagenomic sequencing and analysis, and a systematic search was performed for bacterial genes associated with estimates of insulin resistance, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Subsequently, the correlations between metagenomic species and metabolic markers were tested by linear regression models, with and without covariate adjustment.One hundred and fourteen metagenomic species correlated with metabolic markers (P<0.001) including Akkermansia muciniphila, Bilophila wadsworthia, Bifidobacterium longum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, but also species not previously associated with metabolic markers including Bacteroides faecis and Dorea longicatena. The majority of the identified correlations between bacterial species and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for differences in body fat, age and dietary macronutrient composition; however, the negative correlation with insulin resistance observed for B. longum and F. prausnitzii appeared to be modified by the intake of dietary fibre and fat, respectively.This study shows that several gut bacterial species are linked to metabolic risk markers in obesity, also after adjustment for potential confounders, such as long-term diet composition. The study supports the use of gut metagenomic markers for metabolic disease prediction and warrants further investigation of causality.
Project description:The human gut microbiota develops soon after birth and can acquire inter-individual variation upon exposure to intrinsic and environmental cues. However, inter-individual variation has not been comprehensively assessed in a multi-ethnic study. We studied a longitudinal birth cohort of 106 infants of three Asian ethnicities (Chinese, Malay, and Indian) that resided in the same geographical location (Singapore). Specific and temporal influences of ethnicity, mode of delivery, breastfeeding status, gestational age, birthweight, gender, and maternal education on the development of the gut microbiota in the first 2 years of life were studied. Mode of delivery, breastfeeding status, and ethnicity were identified as the main factors influencing the compositional development of the gut microbiota. Effects of delivery mode and breastfeeding status lasted until 6M and 3M, respectively, with the primary impact on the diversity and temporal colonization of the genera Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium. The effect of ethnicity was apparent at 3M post-birth, even before the introduction of weaning (complementary) foods, and remained significant after adjusting for delivery mode and breastfeeding status. Ethnic influences remained significant until 12M in the Indian and Chinese infants. The microbiota of Indian infants was characterized by higher abundances of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, while Chinese infants had higher abundances of Bacteroides and Akkermansia. These findings provide a detailed insight into the specific and temporal influences of early life factors and ethnicity in the development of the human gut microbiota. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov registration no. NCT01174875.
Project description:The intestinal microbiota of patients with constipated-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS) displays chronic dysbiosis. Our aim was to determine whether this microbial imbalance instigates perturbation of the host intestinal mucosal immune response, using a model of human microbiota-associated rats (HMAR) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. The analysis of the microbiota composition revealed a decrease of the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Roseburia-Eubacterium rectale and Bifidobacterium and an increase of Enterobacteriaceae, Desulfovibrio sp., and mainly Akkermansia muciniphila in C-IBS patients compared to healthy individuals. The bacterial diversity of the gut microbiota of healthy individuals or C-IBS patients was maintained in corresponding HMAR. Animals harboring a C-IBS microbiota had reduced DSS colitis with a decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines from innate, Th1, and Th17 responses. The pre-treatment of conventional C57BL/6 mice or HMAR with A. muciniphila, but not with Escherichia coli, prior exposure to DSS also resulted in a reduction of colitis severity, highlighting that the anti-inflammatory effect of the gut microbiota of C-IBS patients is mediated, in part, by A. muciniphila. This work highlights a novel aspect of the crosstalk between the gut microbiota of C-IBS patients and host intestinal homeostasis.
Project description:Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a global epidemic disease that results from hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and may progress to severe liver failure, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Previous evidence has indicated that the dysbiosis of gut microbiota occurs after liver virus infection and is associated with severe liver disease. The aim of this study is to elucidate the compositional and functional characteristics of the gut microbiota in early-stage CHB and to understand their influence on disease progression. We investigated the gut microbial composition of stool samples from 85 CHB patients with low Child-Pugh scores and 22 healthy controls using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform. Furthermore, the serum metabolome of 40 subjects was measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Compared with the controls, significant alteration in the gut microbiota was observed in the CHB patients; 5 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Actinomyces, Clostridium sensu stricto, unclassified Lachnospiraceae and Megamonas were increased, and 27 belonging to Alistipes, Asaccharobacter, Bacteroides, Butyricimonas, Clostridium IV, Escherichia/Shigella, Parabacteroides, Ruminococcus, unclassified Bacteria, unclassified Clostridiales, Unclassified Coriobacteriaceae, unclassified Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae and unclassified Ruminococcaceae were decreased. The inferred metagenomic information of gut microbiota in CHB showed 21 enriched and 17 depleted KEGG level-2 pathways. Four OTUs, OTU38 (Streptococcus), OTU124 (Veillonella), OTU224 (Streptococcus), and OTU55 (Haemophilus), had high correlations with hosts' hepatic function indices and 10 serum metabolites, including phenylalanine and tyrosine, which are aromatic amino acids that play pathogenic roles in liver disease. In particular, these 4 OTUs were significantly higher in patients with higher Child-Pugh scores, who also showed diminished phenylalanine and tryptophan metabolisms in the inferred gut metagenomic functions. These compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiota in early-stage CHB patients suggest the potential contributions of gut microbiota to the progression of CHB, and thus provide new insight into gut microbiota-targeted interventions to improve the prognosis of this disease.
Project description:Background: As growing evidence links gut microbiota with the therapeutic efficacy and side effects of anti-hyperglycemic drugs, this article aims to provide a systematic review of the reciprocal interactions between anti-hyperglycemic drugs and gut microbiota taxa, which underlie the effect of the gut microbiome on diabetic control via bug-host interactions. Method: We followed the PRISMA requirements to perform a systematic review on human vs. animal gut microbiota data in PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE databases, and used Cochrane, ROBIN-I, and SYRCLE tools to assess potential bias risks. The outcomes of assessment were trends on gut microbiota taxa, diversity, and associations with metabolic control (e.g., glucose, lipid) following anti-hyperglycemic treatment. Results: Of 2,804 citations, 64 studies (17/humans; 47/mice) were included. In human studies, seven were randomized trials using metformin or acarbose in obese, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. Treatment of pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed T2D patients with metformin or acarbose was associated with decreases in genus of Bacteroides, accompanied by increases in both Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. Additionally, T2D patients receiving metformin showed increases in various taxa of the order Enterobacteriales and the species Akkermansia muciniphila. Of seven studies with significant differences in beta-diversity, the incremental specific taxa were associated with the improvement of glucose and lipid profiles. In mice, the effects of metformin on A. muciniphila were similar, but an inverse association with Bacteroides was reported. Animal studies on other anti-hyperglycemic drugs, however, showed substantial variations in results. Conclusions: The changes in specific taxa and ?-diversity of gut microbiota were associated with metformin and acarbose in humans while pertinent information for other anti-hyperglycemic drugs could only be obtained in rodent studies. Further human studies on anti-hyperglycemic drugs other than metformin and acarbose are needed to explore gut microbiota's role in their therapeutic efficacies and side effects.
Project description:The maternal milk glycobiome is crucial for shaping the gut microbiota of infants. Although high core fucosylation catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 8 (Fut8) is a general feature of human milk glycoproteins, its role in the formation of a healthy microbiota has not been evaluated. In this study, we found that the core-fucosylated N-glycans in milk of Chinese mothers selectively promoted the colonization of specific gut microbial groups, such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in their breast-fed infants during lactation. Compared with Fut8+/+ (WT) mouse-fed neonates, the offspring fed by Fut8 +/- maternal mice had a distinct gut microbial profile, which was featured by a significant reduction of Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. and increased abundance of members of the Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group and Akkermansia spp. Moreover, these offspring mice showed a lower proportion of splenic CD19+ CD69+ B lymphocytes and attenuated humoral immune responses upon ovalbumin (OVA) immunization. In vitro studies demonstrated that the chemically synthesized core-fucosylated oligosaccharides possessed the ability to promote the growth of tested Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains in minimal medium. The resulting L-fucose metabolites, lactate and 1,2-propanediol, could promote the activation of B cells via the B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling pathway.IMPORTANCE This study provides novel evidence for the critical role of maternal milk protein glycosylation in shaping early-life gut microbiota and promoting B cell activation of neonates. The special core-fucosylated oligosaccharides might be promising prebiotics for the personalized nutrition of infants.
Project description:Cerebral palsy (CP) and epilepsy are two interactive neurological diseases, and their clinical treatment can cause severe side-effects in children's development, especially when it involves long-term administration of antiepileptic drugs. Accumulating studies on the gut-brain axis indicated that the gut microbiota (GM), which participates in various neurological diseases, would provide a harmless therapeutic target for the treatment of CP and epilepsy. To explore the GM characteristics in children with both CP and epilepsy (CPE), we collected fecal samples from 25 CPE patients (CPE group) and 21 healthy children (Healthy group) for 16S rDNA sequencing. In this study, we discovered significantly higher microbial diversity in the CPE group compared to healthy group (P < 0.001). After selecting the top 15 most abundant genera in each group, we found significantly enriched Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, Akkermansia, Enterococcus, Prevotella, Veillonella, Rothia, and Clostridium IV in the CPE group, and noticeably reduced Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Anaerostipes, and Parasutterella. A GM co-occurrence network was also constructed, and negative correlations were discovered between Bacteroides and Lactobacillus (r = -0.768, P < 0.001, FDR < 0.001), as well as Intestinibacter and Bifidobacterium (r = -0.726, P < 0.001, FDR < 0.001). After KEGG annotation and functional enrichment, 24 functional categories exhibited different enrichment levels between the CPE and Healthy groups. The functions, associated with xenobiotics metabolism, immune system diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases, were enriched in the CPE group. Conversely, the functional categories related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were reduced. Furthermore, the neurodegenerative diseases were mainly attributed to Streptococcus, while an increased risk of immune system diseases was associated with enriched Akkermansia in the CPE patients. Generally, this study characterized the GM in CPE patients, illustrated the microbial co-occurrence relationships, and detected the functional distributions of the bacteria.
Project description:A variety of autoimmune and allergy events are becoming increasingly common, especially in Western countries. Some pieces of research link such conditions with the composition of microbiota during infancy. In this period, the predominant form of nutrition for gut microbiota is oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO). A number of gut-colonizing strains, such as Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides, are able to utilize HMO, but only some Bifidobacterium strains have evolved to digest the specific composition of human oligosaccharides. Differences in the proportions of the two genera that are able to utilize HMO have already been associated with the frequency of allergies and autoimmune diseases in the Finnish and the Russian populations. Our results show that differences in terms of the taxonomic annotation do not explain the reason for the differences in the Bifidobacterium/Bacteroides ratio between the Finnish and the Russian populations. In this paper, we present the results of function-level analysis. Unlike the typical workflow for gene abundance analysis, BiomeScout technology explains the differences in the Bifidobacterium/Bacteroides ratio. Our research shows the differences in the abundances of the two enzymes that are crucial for the utilization of short type 1 oligosaccharides.IMPORTANCE Knowing the limitations of taxonomy-based research, there is an emerging need for the development of higher-resolution techniques. The significance of this research is demonstrated by the novel method used for the analysis of function-level metagenomes. BiomeScout-the presented technology-utilizes proprietary algorithms for the detection of differences between functionalities present in metagenomic samples.
Project description:A substantial body of literature has provided evidence for the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes. However, reports vary regarding the association of particular taxonomic groups with disease. In this systematic review, we focused on the potential role of different bacterial taxa affecting diabetes. We have summarized evidence from 42 human studies reporting microbial associations with disease, and have identified supporting preclinical studies or clinical trials using treatments with probiotics. Among the commonly reported findings, the genera of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Akkermansia and Roseburia were negatively associated with T2D, while the genera of Ruminococcus, Fusobacterium, and Blautia were positively associated with T2D. We also discussed potential molecular mechanisms of microbiota effects in the onset and progression of T2D.
Project description:Over the past decade, there has been increasing evidence highlighting the implication of the gut microbiota in a variety of brain disorders such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Studies have shown that depression affects the stability of gut microbiota, but the impact of antidepressant treatments on microbiota structure and metabolism remains underexplored. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of antidepressants from different therapeutic classes against representative strains of human gut microbiota. Six different antidepressants: phenelzine, venlafaxine, desipramine, bupropion, aripiprazole and (S)-citalopram have been tested for their antimicrobial activity against 12 commensal bacterial strains using agar well diffusion, microbroth dilution method, and colony counting. The data revealed an important antimicrobial activity (bacteriostatic or bactericidal) of different antidepressants against the tested strains, with desipramine and aripiprazole being the most inhibitory. Strains affiliating to most dominant phyla of human microbiota such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium animalis and Bacteroides fragilis were significantly altered, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 75 to 800 ?g/mL. A significant reduction in bacterial viability was observed, reaching 5 logs cycle reductions with tested MICs ranged from 400 to 600 ?g/mL. Our findings demonstrate that gut microbiota could be altered in response to antidepressant drugs.