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Molecular techniques for sex identification of captive birds.


ABSTRACT: Background and Aim:Many avian species are considered sexually monomorphic. In monomorphic bird species, especially in young birds, sex is difficult to identify based on an analysis of their external morphology. Accurate sex identification is essential for avian captive breeding and evolutionary studies. Methods with varying degrees of invasiveness such as vent sexing, laparoscopic surgery, steroid sexing, and chromosome inspection (karyotyping) are used for sex identification in monomorphic birds. This study aimed to assess the utility of a non-invasive molecular marker for gender identification in a variety of captive monomorphic birds, as a strategy for conservation. Materials and Methods:DNA was isolated from feather samples from 52 individuals representing 16 species of 11 families indigenous to both Indonesia and elsewhere. We amplified the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) gene using polymerase chain reaction with MP, NP, and PF primers to amplify introns with lengths that differ between the CHD-W and the CHD-Z genes, allowing sex discrimination because the W chromosome is exclusively present in females. Results:Molecular bird sexing confirmed 33 females and 19 males with 100% accuracy. We used sequencing followed by alignment on one protected bird species (Probosciger aterrimus). Conclusion:Sex identification may be accomplished noninvasively in birds, because males only have Z sex chromosomes, whereas females have both Z and W chromosomes. Consequently, the presence of a W-unique DNA sequence identifies an individual as female. Sexing of birds is vital for scientific research, and to increase the success rate of conservation breeding programs.

SUBMITTER: Purwaningrum M 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6813601 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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