Small extracellular vesicles convey the stress-induced adaptive responses of melanoma cells.
ABSTRACT: Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), playing a crucial role in the intercellular communication in physiological as well as pathological processes. Here, we aimed to study whether the melanoma-derived sEV-mediated communication could adapt to microenvironmental stresses. We compared B16F1 cell-derived sEVs released under normal and stress conditions, including cytostatic, heat and oxidative stress. The miRNome and proteome showed substantial differences across the sEV groups and bioinformatics analysis of the obtained data by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also revealed significant functional differences. The in silico predicted functional alterations of sEVs were validated by in vitro assays. For instance, melanoma-derived sEVs elicited by oxidative stress increased Ki-67 expression of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); cytostatic stress-resulted sEVs facilitated melanoma cell migration; all sEV groups supported microtissue generation of MSC-B16F1 co-cultures in a 3D tumour matrix model. Based on this study, we concluded that (i) molecular patterns of tumour-derived sEVs, dictated by the microenvironmental conditions, resulted in specific response patterns in the recipient cells; (ii) in silico analyses could be useful tools to predict different stress responses; (iii) alteration of the sEV-mediated communication of tumour cells might be a therapy-induced host response, with a potential influence on treatment efficacy.
Project description:Abstract There are no effective treatments for chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) facilitate intercellular communication and mediate nerve function and tumour progression. We found that the treatment of mice bearing ovarian tumour with sEVs derived from cerebral endothelial cells (CEC?sEVs) in combination with a chemo?drug, oxaliplatin, robustly reduced oxaliplatin?induced CIPN by decreasing oxaliplatin?damaged myelination and nerve fibres of the sciatic nerve and significantly amplified chemotherapy of oxaliplatin by reducing tumour size. The combination therapy substantially increased a set of sEV cargo?enriched miRNAs, but significantly reduced oxaliplatin?increased proteins in the sciatic nerve and tumour tissues. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the altered miRNAs and proteins formed two distinct networks that regulate neuropathy and tumour growth, respectively. Intravenously administered CEC?sEVs were internalized by axons of the sciatic nerve and cancer cells. Reduction of CEC?sEV cargo miRNAs abolished the effects of CEC?sEVs on oxaliplatin?inhibited axonal growth and on amplification of the anti?cancer effect in ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that alterations in the networks of miRNAs and proteins in recipient cells contribute to the therapeutic effect of CEC?sEVs on CIPN. Together, the present study demonstrates that CEC?sEVs suppressed CIPN and enhanced chemotherapy of oxaliplatin in the mouse bearing ovarian tumour.
Project description:Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are important mediators of cell-cell communication with respect to diverse physiological processes. To further understand their physiological roles, understanding blood sEV homoeostasis in a quantitative manner is desired. In this study, we propose novel kinetic approaches to estimate the secretion and clearance of mouse plasma-derived sEVs (MP-sEVs) based on the hypothesis that blood sEV concentrations are determined by a balance between the secretion and clearance of sEVs. Using our specific and sensitive sEV labelling technology, we succeeded in analysing MP-sEV clearance from the blood after intravenous administration into mice. This revealed the rapid disappearance of MP-sEVs with a half-life of approximately 7 min. Moreover, the plasma sEV secretion rate, which is presently impossible to directly evaluate, was calculated as 18 ?g/min in mice based on pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis. Next, macrophage-depleted mice were prepared as a model of disrupted sEV homoeostasis with retarded sEV clearance. MP-sEV concentrations were increased in macrophage-depleted mice, which probably reflected a shift in the balance of secretion and clearance. Moreover, the increased MP-sEV concentration in macrophage-depleted mice was successfully simulated using calculated clearance rate constant, secretion rate constant and volume of distribution, suggesting the validity of our PK approaches. These results demonstrate that blood sEV concentration homoeostasis can be explained by the dynamics of rapid secretion/clearance.
Project description:Exosomes, or small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), serve as intercellular messengers with key roles in normal and pathological processes. Our previous work had demonstrated that Dsg2 expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells enhanced both sEV secretion and loading of pro-mitogenic cargo. In this study, using wild-type Dsg2 and a mutant form that is unable to be palmitoylated (Dsg2cacs), we investigated the mechanism by which Dsg2 modulates SCC tumour development and progression through sEVs. We demonstrate that palmitoylation was required for Dsg2 to regulate sub-cellular localisation of lipid raft and endosomal proteins necessary for sEV biogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of the endosomal pathway abrogated Dsg2-mediated sEV release. In murine xenograft models, Dsg2-expressing cells generated larger xenograft tumours as compared to cells expressing GFP or Dsg2cacs. Co-treatment with sEVs derived from Dsg2-over-expressing cells increased xenograft size. Cytokine profiling revealed, Dsg2 enhanced both soluble and sEV-associated IL-8 and miRNA profiling revealed, Dsg2 down-regulated both cellular and sEV-loaded miR-146a. miR-146a targets IRAK1, a serine-threonine kinase involved in IL-8 signalling. Treatment with a miR-146a inhibitor up-regulated both IRAK1 and IL-8 expression. RNAseq analysis of HNSCC tumours revealed a correlation between Dsg2 and IL-8. Finally, elevated IL-8 plasma levels were detected in a subset of HNSCC patients who did not respond to immune checkpoint therapy, suggesting that these patients may benefit from prior anti-IL-8 treatment. In summary, these results suggest that intercellular communication through cell-cell adhesion, cytokine release and secretion of EVs are coordinated, and critical for tumour growth and development, and may serve as potential prognostic markers to inform treatment options. Abbreviations:Basal cell carcinomas, BCC; Betacellulin, BTC; 2-bromopalmitate, 2-Bromo; Cluster of differentiation, CD; Cytochrome c oxidase IV, COX IV; Desmoglein 2, Dsg2; Early endosome antigen 1, EEA1; Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15, EPS15; Extracellular vesicle, EV; Flotillin 1, Flot1; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPH; Green fluorescent protein, GFP; Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, HNSCC; Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, IRAK1; Interleukin 8, IL-8; Large EV, lEV; MicroRNA, miR; Palmitoylacyltransferase, PAT; Ras-related protein 7 Rab7; Small EV, sEV; Squamous cell carcinoma, SCC; Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP; Tumour microenvironment, TME.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, derived from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated as key factors in the progression and drug resistance of multiple myeloma (MM). EV uptake involves a variety of mechanisms which largely depend on the vesicle origin and recipient cell type. The aim of the present study was to identify the mechanisms involved in the uptake of BMSC-derived small EVs (sEVs) by MM cells, and to evaluate the anti-MM effect of targeting this process. <b>Methods:</b> Human BMSC-derived sEVs were identified by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and western blot. The effects of chemical inhibitors and shRNA-mediated knockdown of endocytosis-associated genes on sEV uptake and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The anti-MM effect of blocking sEV uptake was evaluated <i>in vitro</i> and in a xenograft MM mouse model. <b>Results:</b> sEVs derived from BMSC were taken up by MM cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and subsequently promoted MM cell cycling and reduced their chemosensitivity to bortezomib. Chemical endocytosis inhibitors targeting heparin sulphate proteoglycans, actin, tyrosine kinase, dynamin-2, sodium/proton exchangers, or phosphoinositide 3-kinases significantly reduced MM cell internalization of BMSC-derived sEVs. Moreover, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endocytosis-associated proteins, including caveolin-1, flotillin-1, clathrin heavy chain, and dynamin-2 in MM cells suppressed sEV uptake. Furthermore, an endocytosis inhibitor targeting dynamin-2 preferentially suppressed the uptake of sEV by primary MM cells <i>ex vivo</i> and enhanced the anti-MM effects of bortezomib <i>in vitro</i> and in a mouse model. <b>Conclusion:</b> Clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis are the predominant routes of sEV-mediated communication between BMSCs and MM cells, and inhibiting endocytosis attenuates sEV-induced reduction of chemosensitivity to bortezomib, and thus enhances its anti-MM properties.
Project description:Communication between maternal uterus and blastocyst occurs in the early stages of pregnancy, and the interaction influences the success of embryo implantation. Whereas small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) play an essential role in mediating intercellular communication in numerous biological processes, their role in embryo implantation during the window of implantation (WOI) remains poorly defined. Here, we report that endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) secrete sEVs during early pregnancy, which affects the trophoblast behaviors (migration, invasion, and proliferation), thus influencing embryo implantation. We show that microRNA (miR)-100-5p, sEVs containing microRNA (miRNA), activates both focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as contributes to trophoblast migration and invasion. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the sEV miR-100-5p promotes angiogenesis during the implantation process. In conclusion, this study reveals a novel mechanism by which EEC-derived sEV miR-100-5p crosstalks with trophoblasts, leading to an enhanced ability for implantation.
Project description:The ability of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) to reprogram cancer cells is well established. However, the specific sEV components able to mediate aberrant effects in cancer cells have not been characterized. Integrins are major players in mediating sEV functions. We have previously reported that the ?V?3 integrin is detected in sEVs of prostate cancer (PrCa) cells and transferred into recipient cells. Here, we investigate whether sEVs from ?V?3-expressing cells affect tumour growth differently than sEVs from control cells that do not express ?V?3. We compared the ability of sEVs to stimulate tumour growth, using sEVs isolated from PrCa C4-2B cells by iodixanol density gradient and characterized with immunoblotting, nanoparticle tracking analysis, immunocapturing and single vesicle analysis. We incubated PrCa cells with sEVs and injected them subcutaneously into nude mice to measure in vivo tumour growth or analysed in vitro their anchorage-independent growth. Our results demonstrate that a single treatment with sEVs shed from C4-2B cells that express ?V?3, but not from control cells, stimulates tumour growth and induces differentiation of PrCa cells towards a neuroendocrine phenotype, as quantified by increased levels of neuroendocrine markers. In conclusion, the expression of ?V?3 integrin generates sEVs capable of reprogramming cells towards an aggressive phenotype.
Project description:Paracrine signaling between tumor and surrounding stromal cells is critical for the maintenance of tumor microenvironment during ovarian cancer progression. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs; exosomes in particular) are nano-sized vesicles secreted actively by many cells including tumor cells and are found to have fundamental roles in intercellular communication through shuttling functional RNAs. Although microRNAs (also called miRNAs or miRs), small non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression, are selectively accumulated in tumor sEVs and can mediate intercellular communication, the exact biological mechanisms underlying the functions of exosomal miRNAs in ovarian tumor angiogenesis remain unclear. In this study, sEVs were isolated from conditioned medium of the human ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV-3 using ExoQuick Exosome Precipitation Solution, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and immunoblotting. To elucidate the possible paracrine effects on ovarian tumor cell-derived sEVs (TD-sEVs), we investigated the angiogenesis-related signaling events triggered by TD-sEVs in endothelial cells. Due to the possible role in ovarian tumor pathogenesis, we focused on miR-141-3p which was detected to be enriched in TD-sEVs compared with their corresponding donor cells. We identified that sEV transfer of miR-141-3p considerably reduced the expression levels of cytokine-inducible suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-5 leading to up-regulated JAK-STAT3 pathway in endothelial cells. We also observed that sEV-shuttled miR-141-3p may up-regulate the expression of VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells which leads to promoting endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. The putative role of miR-141-3p shuttled by TD-sEVs in regulating VEGFR-2 expression was demonstrated by the ability of anti-miR-141-3p to rescue the promoting effects of TD-sEVs on the expression of VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells. Our results also revealed that TD-sEVs trigger the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent activation of NF-?B signaling in endothelial cells. Taken together, our findings propose a novel model in which sEV transfer of epithelial ovarian cancer-secreted miR-141-3p plays as a significant mediator of intercellular communication, promoting endothelial cell angiogenesis.
Project description:Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) mediate cell-to-cell communication. We recently reported that circulating sEVs regulate systolic blood pressure in an animal model of human systemic hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. As the first step for detailed analyses, we sought to increase the yield and purity of sEVs isolated from rat plasma. We compared the concentration and size distribution of sEVs as well as protein expression of the sEV marker and contaminants among plasma sEVs isolated by the ultracentrifugation (UC) method, the precipitation with polyethylene-glycol and ultracentrifugation (PEG-UC) method, or the precipitation with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) method. Effects of anticoagulants were also examined. The total concentration of plasma sEVs isolated by the PEG or PEG-UC method was much higher than that of the UC method. In the plasma sEVs isolated by the PEG-UC method, contaminating proteins were lower, while the protein expression of certain sEV markers was higher than that of the PEG method. There was no significant difference in total concentration or protein expression of sEV markers in sEVs isolated from rat plasma treated with three different anticoagulants (heparin, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, or acid citrate dextrose buffer) by the PEG-UC method. We, for the first time, determined that the PEG-UC method was optimal for sEV isolation from rat plasma.
Project description:Cancer-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) induce stromal cells to become permissive for tumor growth. However, it is unclear whether this induction solely occurs through transfer of vesicular cargo into recipient cells. Here we show that cancer-derived sEVs can stimulate endothelial cell migration and tube formation independently of uptake. These responses were mediated by the 189 amino acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the surface of sEVs. Unlike other common VEGF isoforms, VEGF189 preferentially localized to sEVs through its high affinity for heparin. Interaction of VEGF189 with the surface of sEVs profoundly increased ligand half-life and reduced its recognition by the therapeutic VEGF antibody bevacizumab. sEV-associated VEGF (sEV-VEGF) stimulated tumor xenograft growth but was not neutralized by bevacizumab. Furthermore, high levels of sEV-VEGF were associated with disease progression in bevacizumab-treated cancer patients, raising the possibility that resistance to bevacizumab might stem in part from elevated levels of sEV-VEGF.
Project description:Intercellular communication is critical for organismal homeostasis, and defects can contribute to human disease states. Polarized epithelial cells execute distinct signaling agendas via apical and basolateral surfaces to communicate with different cell types. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), including exosomes and small microvesicles, represent an understudied form of intercellular communication in polarized cells. Human cholangiocytes, epithelial cells lining bile ducts, were cultured as polarized epithelia in a Transwell system as a model with which to study polarized sEV communication. Characterization of isolated apically and basolaterally released EVs revealed enrichment in sEVs. However, differences in apical and basolateral sEV composition and numbers were observed. Genetic or pharmacological perturbation of cellular machinery involved in the biogenesis of intralumenal vesicles at endosomes (the source of exosomes) revealed general and domain-specific effects on sEV biogenesis/release. Additionally, analyses of signaling revealed distinct profiles of activation depending on sEV population, target cell, and the function of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-associated factor ALG-2-interacting protein X (ALIX) within the donor cells. These results support the conclusion that polarized cholangiocytes release distinct sEV pools to mediate communication via their apical and basolateral domains and suggest that defective ESCRT function may contribute to disease states through altered sEV signaling.