Genome sequence of a pathogenic Corynebacterium ulcerans strain isolated from a wild boar with necrotizing lymphadenitis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Corynebacterium ulcerans can colonize a wide variety of animals and also humans are infected, typically by zoonotic transmission. Symptoms range from skin ulcers or systemic infections to diphtheria-like illness. In contrast, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is widely distributed among herds of sheep, goats and other farm animals, where it causes high economic losses due to caseous lymphadenitis. Here we describe the genome sequence of an atypical C. ulcerans strain isolated from a wild boar with necrotizing lymphadenitis. This strain has similarities to C. pseudotuberculosis. DATA DESCRIPTION:Genome sequence data of C. ulcerans isolate W25 were generated, analyzed and taxonomical relationship to other Corynebacterium species as well as growth properties of the isolate were characterized. The genome of C. ulcerans W25 comprises 2,550,924 bp with a G+C content of 54.41% and a total of 2376 genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microbiological examination of lesions found in slaughtered animals during meat inspection is an important part of public health protection as such lesions may be due to zoonotic agents that can be transmitted by meat. Examination of inflamed lymph nodes also plays a particular important role, as lymphadenitis may reflect a more widespread infection. Such lesions in sheep are mainly caused by pyogenic bacteria but also mycobacteria are occasionally found. Meat inspection data from 2017 to 2018 from southern Poland, especially from the Ma?opolska region, indicate that purulent or caseous lymphadenitis involving the mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (MTLNs) is a common finding. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the aetiology of these lesions. Furthermore, it was investigated how presence of lesions was correlated with age and grazing strategy of affected sheep. RESULTS:Post-mortem examination revealed purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of 49 out of 284 animals (17.3%). Subsequent microbiological examination revealed the presence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (34.7%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (34.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (2.0%), Trueperella pyogenes (2.0%), and ?-haemolytic strains of Escherichia coli (2.0%). Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi were not detected. In older sheep, the probability of the presence of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis was higher than in younger, and the risk was increasing by 1.5% with each month of life. Sheep grazing locally had 4.5-times greater risk of having purulent or caseous lymphadenitis than individuals summer grazing in the mountains. CONCLUSION:The most common aetiological agents of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of sheep in the Ma?opolska region were C. pseudotuberculosis and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Particular attention during post-mortem examination should be paid to the carcasses of older sheep and sheep grazing on permanent pastures, as they seem more prone to develop purulent or caseous lymphadenitis.
Project description:Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an infectious disease that affects small ruminants and is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This disease is responsible for high economic losses due to condemnation and trim of infected carcasses, decreased leather and wool yield, loss of sales of breeding stock and deaths from internal involvement. Treatment is costly and ineffective; the most cost-effective strategy is timely immunisation. Various vaccine strategies have been tested, and recombinant vaccines are a promising alternative. Thus, in this study, different vaccine formulations using a recombinant protein (rCP40) and the CP09 live recombinant strain were evaluated. Five groups of 10 mice each were immunised with saline (G1), rCP40 (G2), CP09 (G3), a combination of CP09 and rCP40 (G4) and a heterologous prime-boost strategy (G5). Mice received two immunisations within 15 days. On day 30 after primary immunisation, all groups were challenged with a C. pseudotuberculosis virulent strain. Mice were monitored and mortality was recorded for 30 days after challenge.The G2, G4 and G5 groups showed high levels of IgG1 and IgG2a; G2 presented significant IgG2a production after virulent challenge in the absence of IgG1 and IgG3 induction. Thirty days after challenge, the mice survival rates were 20 (G1), 90 (G2), 50 (G3), 70 (G4) and 60% (G5).rCP40 is a promising target in the development of vaccines against caseous lymphadenitis.
Project description:Corynebacterium ulcerans may cause diphtheria in humans and caseous lymphadenitis in animals. We isolated nontoxigenic tox-bearing C. ulcerans from 13 game animals in Germany. Our results indicate a role for game animals as reservoirs for zoonotic C. ulcerans.
Project description:Thirteen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biotype ovis strains isolated from clinical cases of caseous lymphadenitis in Hungary were characterised using multilocus sequencing and their phylogenetic comparison was carried out on the basis of four housekeeping genes (groEL1, infB, dnaK, and leuA). The in silico analysis of the 16 frequently studied housekeeping genes showed that C. pseudotuberculosis strains could be readily distinguished from C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans strains; however, sequences of the same genes in the two biotypes of the C. pseudotuberculosis were highly similar; the heterogeneity values were low. Genes dnaK, infB, groEL1, and leuA showed marked genetic variation within C. pseudotuberculosis, and strains of the two biotypes of C. pseudotuberculosis could be differentiated. Analysis of the individual genes showed a fairly conservative nature of C. pseudotuberculosis biotype ovis strains. The greatest genetic differentiation was seen in the dnaK and infB genes and concatenations of these two genes were very useful in the genetic separation of the studied strains.
Project description:Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis disease. In this work, we present the first complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA01, isolated in northern Brazil from an infected sheep. The genome length is 2,337,920 bp, and 2,003 coding sequences (CDS), 12 rRNAs, and 49 tRNAs were predicted.
Project description:Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiological agent of a caseous lymphadenitis disease. Herein, we present the first complete genome sequencing of C. pseudotuberculosis strain 226, isolated from an abscess of the sub-iliac lymph node of a goat from California (USA). The genome contains 2,138 coding sequences (CDSs), 12 rRNAs, 49 tRNAs, and 72 pseudogenes.
Project description:Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a small ruminant disease characterized by the development of granulomatous lesions in superficial and internal lymph nodes, as well as in some organs, and causes significant economic losses worldwide. The aetiological agent of CLA is the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis; however, the commercially available diagnostic tools present problems with regard to specificity, which can lead to false-negative results. This study aimed to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of specific immunoglobulins in goats and sheep using recombinant C. pseudotuberculosis PLD, CP40, PknG, DtxR and Grx proteins. For validation of the ELISAs, 130 goat serum samples and 160 sheep serum samples were used. The best ELISA for goats was developed using a combination of PLD and CP40 as antigens at a 1:1 ratio, which presented 96.9% sensitivity and 98.4% specificity. The most effective ELISA for sheep presented 91% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity when recombinant PLD alone was used as the antigen. These ELISAs can be used as highly accurate tools in epidemiological surveys and for the serodiagnosis of C. pseudotuberculosis infection in goats and sheep.
Project description:Corynebacterium silvaticum is a newly described animal pathogen, closely related to the emerging human pathogen Corynebacterium ulcerans and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, a major pathogen of small ruminants. In this study, proteins of a whole cell and a shaving fraction and the exoproteome of C. silvaticum strain W25 were analyzed as a first proteome study of this species. In total, 1305 proteins were identified out of 2013 proteins encoded by the W25 genome sequence and number of putative virulence factors were detected already under standard growth conditions including phospholipase D and sialidase. An up to now uncharacterized trypsin-like protease is by far the most secreted protein in this species, indicating a putative role in pathogenicity. Furthermore, the proteome analyses carried out in this study support the recently published taxonomical delineation of C. silvaticum from the closely related zoonotic Corynebacterium species.
Project description:As antibiotics are ineffective when used to treat caseous lymphadenitis, the surgical excision of lesions is often required. Iodine solution (10%) is currently the choice for the post-surgical treatment; however, it may cause histotoxicity. Propolis are resinous substances composed by a mixture of different plants parts and molecules secreted by bees. As green propolis has already proven to possess anti-bacterial and wound healing properties, this study aimed to evaluate the use of a green propolis-based ointment as a therapeutic agent for the post-surgical treatment of caseous lymphadenitis. The caseous lesions of 28 sheep were surgically excised before dividing animals into two groups: (1) iodine-treated animals and (2) sheep treated with an ointment made with a previously characterized green propolis extract. Clinical data of animals, size of the scar area, the presence of moisture and secretion in the surgical wound, the humoral immune response against the bacterium and the susceptibility of C. pseudotuberculosis clinical isolates to the green propolis extract were analyzed. The green propolis-treated group presented complete healing of the surgical wound 1 week before the iodine-treated group. Additionally, animals treated with the green propolis ointment had fewer cases of wound secretion, but it was not statistically different from the iodine-treated group. No clinical signs indicating green propolis toxicity or other side effects were found, associated with a faster and more organized hair recovery by propolis use. The green propolis extract was able to inhibit the growth of 23 from the 27 C. pseudotuberculosis clinical isolates, with minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericide concentrations ranging from 01 to 08 mg/mL, and did not interfere with the humoral immune response against the bacterium. In addition, green propolis was able to inhibit biofilm formation by four of the C. pseudotuberculosis clinical isolates. We concluded that green propolis is a promising therapeutic agent to be used in the post-surgical treatment of caseous lymphadenitis in small ruminants due to its effects on surgical wound healing, hair recovery, inhibition of wound contamination and bacterial growth.
Project description:In this work we report the genome of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain 267, isolated from a llama. This pathogen is of great veterinary and economic importance, as it is the cause of caseous lymphadenitis in several livestock species around the world and causes significant losses due to the high cost of treatment.