Faecal microbiota transplant decreases mortality in severe and fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection in critically ill patients.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Severe and fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection is associated with high mortality rates. While faecal microbiota transplant has been shown to be effective for recurrent C difficile infection, there is little data on the utility of faecal microbiota transplant in severe or fulminant C difficile infection. AIM:To compare the outcomes of antibiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation vs antibiotics alone (standard of care) in critically ill patients with severe or fulminant C difficile infection. METHODS:This was a retrospective, matched cohort study in one urban tertiary academic care centre including 48 patients hospitalised with severe or fulminant C difficile infection who required care in intensive care unit. RESULTS:Patients who received faecal microbiota transplantation (n = 16) had a 77% decrease in odds for mortality (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.97) with a number needed to treat of 3 to prevent one death. CONCLUSIONS:Faecal microbiota transplantation provides mortality benefit over standard of care for severe and fulminant C difficile infection and should be considered in critically ill patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer (FMT) aims at replacing or reinforcing the gut microbiota of a patient with the microbiota from a healthy donor. Not many controlled or randomised studies have been published evaluating the use of FMT for other diseases than Clostridium difficile infection, making it difficult for clinicians to decide on a suitable indication.<h4>Aim</h4>To provide an expert consensus on current clinical indications, applications and methodological aspects of FMT.<h4>Methods</h4>Well-acknowledged experts from various countries in Europe have contributed to this article. After literature review, consensus has been achieved by repetitive circulation of the statements and the full manuscript among all authors with intermittent adaptation to comments (using a modified Delphi process). Levels of evidence and agreement were rated according to the GRADE system. Consensus was defined a priori as agreement by at least 75% of the authors.<h4>Results</h4>Key recommendations include the use of FMT in recurrent C. difficile infection characterised by at least two previous standard treatments without persistent cure, as well as its consideration in severe and severe-complicated C. difficile infection as an alternative to total colectomy in case of early failure of antimicrobial therapy. FMT in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and metabolic syndrome should only be performed in research settings.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Faecal microbiota transplantation or transfer is a promising treatment for a variety of diseases in which the intestinal microbiota is disturbed. For indications other than C. difficile infection, more evidence is needed before more concrete recommendations can be made.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alteration of the gut microbiota by repeated antibiotic treatment increases susceptibility to Clostridioides difficile infection. Faecal microbiota transplantation from donors with a normal microbiota effectively treats C. difficile infection. METHODS:The study involved 10 patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, nine of whom received transplants from individual donors and one who received a donor unit from a stool bank (OpenBiome). RESULTS:All individuals demonstrated enduring post-transplant resolution of C. difficile- associated diarrhoea. Faecal microbiota diversity of recipients significantly increased, and the composition of the microbiota resembled that of the donor. Patients with C. difficile infection exhibited significantly lower faecal levels of secondary/ bile acids and higher levels of primary bile acids. Levels of secondary bile acids were restored in all transplant recipients, but to a lower degree with the OpenBiome transplant. The abundance increased of bacterial genera known from previous studies to confer resistance to growth and germination of C. difficile. These were significantly negatively associated with primary bile acid levels and positively related with secondary bile acid levels. Although reduced levels of the short chain fatty acids, butyrate, propionate and acetate, have been previously reported, here we report elevations in SCFA, pyruvic and lactic fatty acids, saturated, ?-6, monounsaturated, ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in C. difficile infection. This potentially indicates one or a combination of increased dietary FA intake, microbial modification of FAs or epithelial cell damage and inflammatory cell recruitment. No reversion to donor FA profile occurred post-FMT but ?-3 to ?-6 PUFA ratios were altered in the direction of the donor. Archaeal metabolism genes were found in some samples post FMT. CONCLUSION:A consistent metabolic signature was identified in the post-transplant microbiota, with reduced primary bile acids and substantial restoration of secondary bile acid production capacity. Total FA levels were unchanged but the ratio of inflammatory to non-inflammatory FAs decreased.
Project description:Recipients of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) remain at markedly increased risk of re-infection with C. difficile with new antibiotic provocations. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common indications for antibiotics in these patients, often resulting in C. difficile re-infection.We present a case series of 19 patients treated with parenteral aminoglycosides for UTI following FMT for RCDI. A 3?day outpatient regimen of once-daily intramuscular administration of gentamicin was used to treat 18 consecutive FMT recipients with uncomplicated UTI. One other patient was treated for a complicated UTI with intravenous amikacin. Profiling of 16S rRNA genes was used to track changes in faecal microbial community structure during this regimen in three patients.The protocol was highly effective in treating UTI symptoms. None of the patients suffered a re-infection with C. difficile The faecal microbial communities remained undisturbed by treatment with intramuscular administration of gentamicin.Despite falling out of favour in recent years, aminoglycoside antibiotics given parenterally have the advantage of minimal penetration into the gut lumen. A brief (3?day) course of parenteral gentamicin was safe and effective in curing UTI in patients at high risk of C. difficile infection without perturbing their gut microbiota.
Project description:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major source of morbidity and mortality for the U.S. health care system and frequently complicates the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients with IBD are more likely to be colonized with C. difficile and develop active infection than the general population. They are also more likely to have severe CDI and develop subsequent complications such as IBD flare, colectomy, or death. Even after successful initial treatment and recovery, recurrent CDI is common. Management of CDI in IBD is fraught with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges because the clinical presentations of CDI and IBD flare have considerable overlap. Fecal microbiota transplantation can be successful in curing recurrent CDI when other treatments have failed, but may also trigger IBD flare and this warrants caution. New experimental treatments including vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and nontoxigenic strains of C. difficile offer promise but are not yet available for clinicians. A better understanding of the complex relationship between the gut microbiota, CDI, and IBD is needed.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. It is hypothesized that FMT aids in recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, it is not fully understood how this occurs. Here we investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile using a predictive metagenomic tool. Increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria were observed following FMT. The fecal microbiota of recipients following transplantation was more diverse and more similar to the donor profile than the microbiota prior to transplantation. Additionally, we observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were overrepresented in samples collected prior to transplantation. These results suggest that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific community members and functions that promote colonization resistance may aid in the development of improved treatment methods for C. difficile infection. IMPORTANCE:Within the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection has surpassed other bacterial infections to become the leading cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic use, which disrupts the gut microbiota and its capability in providing colonization resistance against C. difficile, is a known risk factor in C. difficile infection. In particular, recurrent C. difficile remains difficult to treat with standard antibiotic therapy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has provided a successful treatment method for some patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, but its mechanism and long-term effects remain unknown. Our results provide insight into the structural and potential metabolic changes that occur following FMT, which may aid in the development of new treatment methods for C. difficile infection.
Project description:Increasing evidence suggests that altered intestinal microbial composition and function result in an increased risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD); however, the specific changes of intestinal microbiota in children suffering from CDAD and their associations with C. difficile strain toxigenicity are poorly understood. High-throughput pyrosequencing showed that reduced faecal bacterial diversity and dramatic shifts of microbial composition were found in children with CDAD. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was increased significantly in patients with CDAD, which indicated that dysbiosis of faecal microbiota was closely associated with CDAD. C. difficile infection resulted in an increase in lactate-producing phylotypes, with a corresponding decrease in butyrate-producing bacteria. The decrease in butyrate and lactate buildup impaired intestinal colonisation resistance, which increased the susceptibility to C. difficile colonisation. Strains of C. difficile which were positive for both toxin A and toxin B reduced faecal bacterial diversity to a greater degree than strains that were only toxin B-positive, and were associated with unusually abundant Enterococcus, which implies that the C. difficile toxins have different impacts on the faecal microbiota of children. Greater understanding of the relationships between disruption of the normal faecal microbiota and colonisation with C. difficile that produces different toxins might lead to improved treatment.
Project description:Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, where efficacy correlates with changes in microbiota diversity and composition. The effects of FMT on recipient microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) remain unclear. We assessed the effects of FMT on microbiota composition and function, mucosal immune response, and clinical outcome in patients with chronic pouchitis. Eight patients with chronic pouchitis (current PDAI ?7) were treated with FMT via nasogastric administration. Clinical activity was assessed before and four weeks following FMT. Faecal coliform antibiotic sensitivities were analysed, and changes in pouch faecal and mucosal microbiota assessed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Lamina propria dendritic cell phenotype and cytokine profiles were assessed by flow cytometric analysis and multiplex assay. Following FMT, there were variable shifts in faecal and mucosal microbiota composition and, in some patients, changes in proportional abundance of species suggestive of a "healthier" pouch microbiota. However, there were no significant FMT-induced metabolic or immunological changes, or beneficial clinical response. Given the lack of clinical response following FMT via a single nasogastric administration our results suggest that FMT/bacteriotherapy for pouchitis patients requires further optimisation.
Project description:The human gut contains many species of microorganisms many of which have a role in maintaining good health The gut microbiota can be affected by diet diseases and drugs especially antibiotics: Faecal microbiota transplantation involves transplanting faecal material from a healthy person to a patient with the aim of treating disease It is a recommended treatment option for patients with recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile as it has a cure rate over 90%: There is evidence that faecal microbiota transplantation can induce remission in ulcerative colitis however maintenance of remission data are lacking For other diseases it currently should not be used outside a clinical trial: Stool donors have to be healthy and are screened for a range of diseases As faecal material is usually transplanted during colonoscopy the recipient must have bowel preparation before the procedure: Adverse effects are mainly gastrointestinal and usually resolve in the week following transplantation There are limited data on long-term safety:
Project description:Infection of the colon with the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile is potentially life threatening, especially in elderly people and in patients who have dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following antimicrobial drug exposure. C. difficile is the leading cause of health-care-associated infective diarrhoea. The life cycle of C. difficile is influenced by antimicrobial agents, the host immune system, and the host microbiota and its associated metabolites. The primary mediators of inflammation in C. difficile infection (CDI) are large clostridial toxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), and, in some bacterial strains, the binary toxin CDT. The toxins trigger a complex cascade of host cellular responses to cause diarrhoea, inflammation and tissue necrosis - the major symptoms of CDI. The factors responsible for the epidemic of some C. difficile strains are poorly understood. Recurrent infections are common and can be debilitating. Toxin detection for diagnosis is important for accurate epidemiological study, and for optimal management and prevention strategies. Infections are commonly treated with specific antimicrobial agents, but faecal microbiota transplants have shown promise for recurrent infections. Future biotherapies for C. difficile infections are likely to involve defined combinations of key gut microbiota.
Project description:Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can be effectively treated by infusion of a healthy donor faeces suspension. However, it is unclear what factors determine treatment efficacy. By using a phylogenetic microarray platform, we assessed composition, diversity and dynamics of faecal microbiota before, after and during follow-up of the transplantation from a healthy donor to different patients, to elucidate the mechanism of action of faecal infusion. Global composition and network analysis of the microbiota was performed in faecal samples from nine patients with recurrent CDI. Analyses were performed before and after duodenal donor faeces infusion, and during a follow-up of 10 weeks. The microbiota data were compared with that of the healthy donors. All patients successfully recovered. Their intestinal microbiota changed from a low-diversity diseased state, dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacilli, to a more diverse ecosystem resembling that of healthy donors, dominated by Bacteroidetes and Clostridium groups, including butyrate-producing bacteria. We identified specific multi-species networks and signature microbial groups that were either depleted or restored as a result of the treatment. The changes persisted over time. Comprehensive and deep analyses of the microbiota of patients before and after treatment exposed a therapeutic reset from a diseased state towards a healthy profile. The identification of microbial groups that constitute a niche for C. difficile overgrowth, as well as those driving the reinstallation of a healthy intestinal microbiota, could contribute to the development of biomarkers predicting recurrence and treatment outcome, identifying an optimal microbiota composition that could lead to targeted treatment strategies.