The Acetylation of Lysine-376 of G3BP1 Regulates RNA Binding and Stress Granule Dynamics.
ABSTRACT: Stress granules (SGs) are ribonucleoprotein aggregates that form in response to stress conditions. The regulation of SG dynamics is not fully understood. Permanent pathological SG-like structures were reported in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein G3BP1 is a central regulator of SG dynamics. We found that the lysine 376 residue (K376) of G3BP1, which is in the RRM RNA binding domain, was acetylated. Consequently, G3BP1 RNA binding was impaired by K376 acetylation. In addition, the acetylation-mimicking mutation K376Q impaired the RNA-dependent interaction of G3BP1 with poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1), but its RNA-independent interactions with caprin-1 and USP10 were little affected. The formation of G3BP1 SGs depended on G3BP1 RNA binding; thus, replacement of endogenous G3BP1 with the K376Q mutant or the RNA binding-deficient F380L/F382L mutant interfered with SG formation. Significant G3BP1 K376 acetylation was detected during SG resolution, and K376-acetylated G3BP1 was seen outside SGs. G3BP1 acetylation is regulated by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and CBP/p300. Our data suggest that the acetylation of G3BP1 facilitates the disassembly of SGs, offering a potential avenue to mitigate hyperactive stress responses under pathological conditions.
Project description:Mammalian stress granules (SGs) contain stalled translation preinitiation complexes that are assembled into discrete granules by specific RNA-binding proteins such as G3BP. We now show that cells lacking both G3BP1 and G3BP2 cannot form SGs in response to eukaryotic initiation factor 2? phosphorylation or eIF4A inhibition, but are still SG-competent when challenged with severe heat or osmotic stress. Rescue experiments using G3BP1 mutants show that phosphomimetic G3BP1-S149E fails to rescue SG formation, whereas G3BP1-F33W, a mutant unable to bind G3BP partner proteins Caprin1 or USP10, rescues SG formation. Caprin1/USP10 binding to G3BP is mutually exclusive: Caprin binding promotes, but USP10 binding inhibits, SG formation. G3BP interacts with 40S ribosomal subunits through its RGG motif, which is also required for G3BP-mediated SG formation. We propose that G3BP mediates the condensation of SGs by shifting between two different states that are controlled by the phosphorylation of S149 and by binding to Caprin1 or USP10.
Project description:Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) infection induces phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2? which promotes formation of discrete cytoplasmic inclusions, termed stress granules (SGs). SGs are emerging as a component of the innate immune response to virus infection, and modulation of SG assembly is a common mechanism employed by viruses to counter this antiviral response. We previously showed that MRV infection induces SGs early, then interferes with SG formation as infection proceeds. In this work, we found that SG associated proteins localized to the periphery of virus-encoded cytoplasmic structures, termed virus factories (VFs), where viral transcription, translation, and replication occur. The localization of SG proteins to VFs was dependent on polysome dissociation and occurred via association of SG effector protein, G3BP1, with MRV non-structural protein ?NS, which localizes to VFs via association with VF nucleating protein, ?NS. Deletion analysis of the ?NS RNA binding domain and G3BP1 RNA (RRM) and ribosomal (RGG) binding domains showed that ?NS association and VF localization phenotypes of G3BP1 are not occurring solely through RNA or ribosomal binding, but require both RRM and RGG domains of G3BP1 for maximal VFL localization and ?NS association. Co-expression of ?NS and ?NS resulted in disruption of normal SG puncta, and in cells lacking G3BP1, MRV replication was enhanced in a manner correlating with strain-dependent induction of host translation shutoff. These results suggest that ?NS association with and relocalization of G3BP1 to the VF periphery plays a role in SG disruption to facilitate MRV replication in the host translational shutoff environment.IMPORTANCE SGs and SG effector proteins have emerged as important, yet poorly understood, players in the host's innate immune response to virus infection. MRV infection induces SGs early during infection that are dispersed and/or prevented from forming during late stages of infection despite continued activation of the eIF2? signaling pathway. Cellular and viral components involved in disruption of SGs during late stages of MRV infection remain to be elucidated. This work provides evidence that MRV disruption of SGs may be facilitated by association of MRV non-structural protein ?NS with major SG effector protein G3BP1 and subsequent localization of G3BP1 and other SG associated proteins around the periphery of virus encoded factories, interrupting the normal formation of SGs. Our findings also reveal the importance of G3BP1 as an inhibitor of MRV replication during infection for the first time.
Project description:Under cell stress, global protein synthesis is inhibited to preserve energy. One mechanism is to sequester and silence mRNAs in ribonucleoprotein complexes known as stress granules (SGs), which contain translationally silent mRNAs, preinitiation factors, and RNA-binding proteins. Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) localizes to SGs, but its role in SG biology is unknown. We now report that YB-1 directly binds to and translationally activates the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of G3BP1 mRNAs, thereby controlling the availability of the G3BP1 SG nucleator for SG assembly. YB-1 inactivation in human sarcoma cells dramatically reduces G3BP1 and SG formation in vitro. YB-1 and G3BP1 expression are highly correlated in human sarcomas, and elevated G3BP1 expression correlates with poor survival. Finally, G3BP1 down-regulation in sarcoma xenografts prevents in vivo SG formation and tumor invasion, and completely blocks lung metastasis in mouse models. Together, these findings demonstrate a critical role for YB-1 in SG formation through translational activation of G3BP1, and highlight novel functions for SGs in tumor progression.
Project description:Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytosolic aggregates containing messenger ribonucleoproteins and target poly-adenylated (A)-mRNA. A key component of SGs is Ras-GAP SH3 domain binding protein-1 (G3BP1), which in part mediates protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. SGs are modulated during infection by several viruses, however, the function and significance of this process remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the interplay between SGs and Coxsackievirus type B3 (CVB3), a member of the Picornaviridae family. Our studies demonstrated that SGs were formed early during CVB3 infection; however, G3BP1-positive SGs were actively disassembled at 5 hrs post-infection, while poly(A)-positive RNA granules persisted. Furthermore, we confirmed G3BP1 cleavage by 3C(pro) at Q325. We also demonstrated that overexpression of G3BP1-SGs negatively impacted viral replication at the RNA, protein, and viral progeny levels. Using electron microscopy techniques, we showed that G3BP1-positive SGs localized near mitochondrial surfaces. Finally, we provided evidence that the C-terminal cleavage product of G3BP1 inhibited SG formation and promoted CVB3 replication. Taken together, we conclude that CVB3 infection selectively targets G3BP1-SGs by cleaving G3BP1 to produce a dominant-negative fragment that further inhibits G3BP1-SG formation and facilitates viral replication.
Project description:During cellular stress, protein synthesis is severely reduced and bulk mRNA is recruited to stress granules (SGs). Previously, we showed that the SG-recruited IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) interferes with target mRNA degradation during cellular stress. Whether this requires the formation of SGs remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the sustained inhibition of visible SGs requires the concomitant knockdown of TIA1, TIAR and G3BP1. FRAP and photo-conversion studies, however, indicate that these proteins only transiently associate with SGs. This suggests that instead of forming a rigid scaffold for mRNP recruitment, TIA proteins and G3BP1 promote SG-formation by constantly replenishing mRNPs. In contrast, RNA-binding proteins like IGF2BP1 or HUR, which are dispensable for SG-assembly, are stably associated with SGs and the IGF2BP1/HUR-G3BP1 association is increased during stress. The depletion of IGF2BP1 enhances the degradation of target mRNAs irrespective of inhibiting SG-formation, whereas the turnover of bulk mRNA remains unaffected when SG-formation is impaired. Together these findings indicate that the stabilization of mRNAs during cellular stress is facilitated by the formation of stable mRNPs, which are recruited to SGs by TIA proteins and/or G3BP1. Importantly, however, the aggregation of mRNPs to visible SGs is dispensable for preventing mRNA degradation.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has recently emerged as an important human pathogen with increasing economic and health impact worldwide. Because of its teratogenic nature and association with the serious neurological condition Guillain-Barré syndrome, a tremendous amount of effort has focused on understanding ZIKV pathogenesis. To gain further insights into ZIKV interaction with host cells, we investigated how this pathogen affects stress response pathways. While ZIKV infection induces stress signaling that leads to phosphorylation of eIF2? and cellular translational arrest, stress granule (SG) formation was inhibited. Further analysis revealed that the viral proteins NS3 and NS4A are linked to translational repression, whereas expression of the capsid protein, NS3/NS2B-3, and NS4A interfered with SG formation. Some, but not all, flavivirus capsid proteins also blocked SG assembly, indicating differential interactions between flaviviruses and SG biogenesis pathways. Depletion of the SG components G3BP1, TIAR, and Caprin-1, but not TIA-1, reduced ZIKV replication. Both G3BP1 and Caprin-1 formed complexes with capsid, whereas viral genomic RNA stably interacted with G3BP1 during ZIKV infection. Taken together, these results are consistent with a scenario in which ZIKV uses multiple viral components to hijack key SG proteins to benefit viral replication.IMPORTANCE There is a pressing need to understand ZIKV pathogenesis in order to advance the development of vaccines and therapeutics. The cellular stress response constitutes one of the first lines of defense against viral infection; therefore, understanding how ZIKV evades this antiviral system will provide key insights into ZIKV biology and potentially pathogenesis. Here, we show that ZIKV induces the stress response through activation of the UPR (unfolded protein response) and PKR (protein kinase R), leading to host translational arrest, a process likely mediated by the viral proteins NS3 and NS4A. Despite the activation of translational shutoff, formation of SG is strongly inhibited by the virus. Specifically, ZIKV hijacks the core SG proteins G3BP1, TIAR, and Caprin-1 to facilitate viral replication, resulting in impaired SG assembly. This process is potentially facilitated by the interactions of the viral RNA with G3BP1 as well as the viral capsid protein with G3BP1 and Caprin-1. Interestingly, expression of capsid proteins from several other flaviviruses also inhibited SG formation. Taken together, the present study provides novel insights into how ZIKV modulates cellular stress response pathways during replication.
Project description:Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic condensates of stalled messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs) that form when eukaryotic cells encounter environmental stress. RNA-binding proteins are enriched for arginine methylation and facilitate SG assembly through interactions involving regions of low amino acid complexity. How methylation of specific RNA-binding proteins regulates RNA granule assembly has not been characterized. Here, we examined the potent SG-nucleating protein Ras-GAP SH3-binding protein 1 (G3BP1), and found that G3BP1 is differentially methylated on specific arginine residues by protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) 1 and PRMT5 in its RGG domain. Several genetic and biochemical interventions that increased methylation repressed SG assembly, whereas interventions that decreased methylation promoted SG assembly. Arsenite stress quickly and reversibly decreased asymmetric arginine methylation on G3BP1. These data indicate that arginine methylation in the RGG domain prevents large SG assembly and rapid demethylation is a novel signal that regulates SG formation.
Project description:In response to stress, cells induce ribonucleoprotein aggregates, termed stress granules (SGs). SGs are transient loci containing translation-stalled mRNA, which is eventually degraded or recycled for translation. Infection of some viruses, including influenza A virus with a deletion of nonstructural protein 1 (IAV?NS1), induces SG-like protein aggregates. Previously, we showed that IAV?NS1-induced SGs are required for efficient induction of type I interferon (IFN). Here, we investigated SG formation by different viruses using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Ras-Gap SH3 domain binding protein 1 (GFP-G3BP1) as an SG probe. HeLa cells stably expressing GFP-G3BP1 were infected with different viruses, and GFP fluorescence was monitored live with time-lapse microscopy. SG formations by different viruses was classified into 4 different patterns: no SG formation, stable SG formation, transient SG formation, and alternate SG formation. We focused on encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection, which exhibited transient SG formation. We found that EMCV disrupts SGs by cleavage of G3BP1 at late stages of infection (>8 h) through a mechanism similar to that used by poliovirus. Expression of a G3BP1 mutant that is resistant to the cleavage conferred persistent formation of SGs as well as an enhanced induction of IFN and other cytokines at late stages of infection. Additionally, knockdown of endogenous G3BP1 blocked SG formation with an attenuated induction of IFN and potentiated viral replication. Taken together, our findings suggest a critical role of SGs as an antiviral platform and shed light on one of the mechanisms by which a virus interferes with host stress and subsequent antiviral responses.
Project description:While biomolecular condensates have emerged as an important biological phenomenon, mechanisms regulating their composition and the ways that viruses hijack these mechanisms remain unclear. The mosquito-borne alphaviruses cause a range of diseases from rashes and arthritis to encephalitis, and no licensed drugs are available for treatment or vaccines for prevention. The alphavirus virulence factor nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) suppresses the formation of stress granules (SGs)-a class of cytoplasmic condensates enriched with translation initiation factors and formed during the early stage of infection. nsP3 has a conserved N-terminal macrodomain that hydrolyzes ADP-ribose from ADP-ribosylated proteins and a C-terminal hypervariable domain that binds the essential SG component G3BP1. Here, we show that macrodomain hydrolase activity reduces the ADP-ribosylation of G3BP1, disassembles virus-induced SGs, and suppresses SG formation. Expression of nsP3 results in the formation of a distinct class of condensates that lack translation initiation factors but contain G3BP1 and other SG-associated RNA-binding proteins. Expression of ADP-ribosylhydrolase-deficient nsP3 results in condensates that retain translation initiation factors as well as RNA-binding proteins, similar to SGs. Therefore, our data reveal that ADP-ribosylation controls the composition of biomolecular condensates, specifically the localization of translation initiation factors, during alphavirus infection.
Project description:We report a new mechanism of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA regulation and cytoprotection in response to AR pathway inhibition (ARPI) stress in prostate cancer (PCA). AR mRNA translation is coordinately regulated by RNA binding proteins, YTHDF3 and G3BP1. Under ambient conditions m6A-modified AR mRNA is bound by YTHDF3 and translationally stimulated, while m6A-unmodified AR mRNA is bound by G3BP1 and translationally repressed. When AR-regulated PCA cell lines are subjected to ARPI stress, m6A-modified AR mRNA is recruited from actively translating polysomes (PSs) to RNA-protein stress granules (SGs), leading to reduced AR mRNA translation. After ARPI stress, m6A-modified AR mRNA liquid-liquid phase separated with YTHDF3, while m6A-unmodified AR mRNA phase separated with G3BP1. Accordingly, these AR mRNA messages form two distinct YTHDF3-enriched or G3BP1-enriched clusters in SGs. ARPI-induced SG formation is cell-protective, which when blocked by YTHDF3 or G3BP1 silencing increases PCA cell death in response to ARPI stress. Interestingly, AR mRNA silencing also delays ARPI stress-induced SG formation, highlighting its supportive role in triggering this stress response. Our results define a new mechanism for stress adaptive cell survival after ARPI stress involving SG-regulated translation of AR mRNA, mediated by m6A RNA modification and their respective regulatory proteins.