Polyomaviruses shedding in stool of patients with hematological disorders: detection analysis and study of the non-coding control region's genetic variability.
ABSTRACT: Fragmented data are available on the human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) prevalence in the gastrointestinal tract. Rearrangements in the non-coding control region (NCCR) of JCPyV and BKPyV have been extensively studied and correlated to clinical outcome; instead, little information is available for KIPyV, WUPyV and MCPyV NCCRs. To get insights into the role of HPyVs in the gastrointestinal tract, we investigated JCPyV, BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV and MCPyV distribution among hematological patients in concomitance with gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition, NCCRs and VP1 sequences were examined to characterize the strains circulating among the enrolled patients. DNA was extracted from 62 stool samples and qPCR was carried out to detect and quantify JCPyV, BKPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV and MCPyV genomes. Positive samples were subsequently amplified and sequenced for NCCR and VP1 regions. A phylogenetic tree was constructed aligning the obtained VP1 sequences to a set of reference sequences. qPCR revealed low viral loads for all HPyVs searched. Mono and co-infections were detected. A significant correlation was found between gastrointestinal complications and KIPyV infection. Archetype-like NCCRs were found for JCPyV and BKPyV, and a high degree of NCCRs stability was observed for KIPyV, WUPyV and MCPyV. Analysis of the VP1 sequences revealed a 99% identity with the VP1 reference sequences. The study adds important information on HPyVs prevalence and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal signs were correlated with the presence of KIPyV, although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. HPyVs NCCRs showed a high degree of sequence stability, suggesting that sequence rearrangements are rare in this anatomical site.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Central nervous system (CNS) infections by human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), with the exception of JC (JCPyV), have been poorly studied. METHODS:In total, 234 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from patients affected with neurological disorders. DNA was isolated and subjected to quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) for the detection of six HPyVs: JCPyV, BKPyV, Merkel cell PyV (MCPyV), HPyV6, HPyV7, and HPyV9. Where possible, the molecular characterization of the viral strains was carried out by nested PCR and automated sequencing. RESULTS:JCPyV was detected in 3/234 (1.3%), BKPyV in 15/234 (6.4%), MCPyV in 22/234 (9.4%), and HPyV6 in 1/234 (0.4%) CSF samples. JCPyV was detected at the highest (p < 0.05) mean load (3.7 × 107 copies/mL), followed by BKPyV (1.9 × 106 copies/mL), MCPyV (1.9 × 105 copies/mL), and HPyV6 (3.3 × 104 copies/mL). The noncoding control regions (NCCRs) of the sequenced viral strains were rearranged. CONCLUSIONS:HPyVs other than JCPyV were found in the CSF of patients affected with different neurological diseases, probably as bystanders, rather than etiological agents of the disease. However, the fact that they can be latent in the CNS should be considered, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
Project description:In the past few years, eleven new human viruses have joined the two previously known members JCPyV and BKPyV of the Polyomaviridae family, by virtue of molecular methods. Serology data suggest that infections with human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) occur since childhood and the viruses are widespread in the general population. However, the viral persistence sites and transmission routes are by and large unknown. Our previous studies demonstrated that the four new HPyVs - KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV and TSPyV - were present in the tonsils, and suggested lymphoid tissue as a persistent site of these emerging human viruses. We developed a Luminex-based multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of all 13 HPyVs known, and explored their occurrence in tonsillar tissues of children and adults mostly with tonsillitis or tonsillar hypertrophy.We set up and validated a new Luminex-based multiplex assay by using primer pairs and probes targeting the respective HPyV viral protein 1 (VP1) genes. With this assay we tested 78 tonsillar tissues for DNAs of 13 HPyVs.The multiplex assay allowed for simultaneous detection of 13 HPyVs with high analytical sensitivity and specificity, with detection limits of 100-102 copies per microliter, and identified correctly all 13 target sequences with no cross reactions. HPyV DNA altogether was found in 14 (17.9%) of 78 tonsils. The most prevalent HPyVs were HPyV6 (7.7%), TSPyV (3.8%) and WUPyV (3.8%). Mixed infection of two HPyVs occurred in one sample.The Luminex-based HPyV multiplex assay appears highly suitable for clinical diagnostic purposes and large-scale epidemiological studies. Additional evidence was acquired that the lymphoid system plays a role in HPyV infection and persistence. Thereby, shedding from this site during reactivation might take part in transmission of the newly found HPyVs.
Project description:Human Polyomavirus (HPyV) infections are common, ranging from 60% to 100%. In kidney transplant (KTx) recipients, HPyVs have been associated with allograft nephropathy, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and skin cancer. Whether such complications are caused by viral reactivation or primary infection transmitted by the donor remains debated. This study aimed to investigate the replication pattern and genomic characterization of BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV), JC Polyomavirus (JCPyV), and Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) infections in KTx. Urine samples from 57 KTx donor/recipient pairs were collected immediately before organ retrieval/transplant and periodically up to post-operative day 540. Specimens were tested for the presence of BKPyV, JCPyV, and MCPyV genome by virus-specific Real-Time PCR and molecularly characterized. HPyVs genome was detected in 49.1% of donors and 77.2% of recipients. Sequences analysis revealed the archetypal strain for JCPyV, TU and Dunlop strains for BKPyV, and IIa-2 strain for MCPyV. VP1 genotyping showed a high frequency for JCPyV genotype 1 and BKPyV genotype I. Our experience demonstrates that after KTx, HPyVs genome remains stable over time with no emergence of quasi-species. HPyVs strains isolated in donor/recipient pairs are mostly identical, suggesting that viruses detected in the recipient may be transmitted by the allograft.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), like herpesviruses, cause persistent infection in a large part of the population. In immunocompromised and elderly patients, PyVs cause severe diseases such as nephropathy (BK polyomavirus [BKPyV]), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (JC polyomavirus [JCPyV]), and skin cancer (Merkel cell polyomavirus [MCPyV]). Like cytomegalovirus, donor-derived PyV can cause disease in kidney transplant recipients. Possibly blood components transmit PyVs as well. To study this possibility, as a first step we determined the presence of PyV DNA in Dutch blood donations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:Blood donor serum samples (n = 1016) were analyzed for the presence of DNA of 14 HPyVs using HPyV species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures. PCR-positive samples were subjected to confirmation by sequencing. Individual PCR findings were compared with the previously reported PyV serostatus. RESULTS:MC polyomavirus DNA was detected in 39 donors (3.8%), JCPyV and TS polyomavirus (TSPyV) DNA in five donors (both 0.5%), and HPyV9 DNA in four donors (0.4%). BKPyV, WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), HPyV6, MW polyomavirus (MWPyV), and LI polyomavirus (LIPyV) DNA was detected in one or two donors. Amplicon sequencing confirmed the expected product for BKPyV, JCPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV, HPyV6, TSPyV, MWPyV, HPyV9, and LIPyV. For JCPyV a significant association was observed between detection of viral DNA and the level of specific IgG antibodies. CONCLUSION:In 5.4% of Dutch blood donors PyV DNA was detected, including DNA from pathogenic PyVs such as JCPyV. As a next step, the infectivity of PyV in donor blood and transmission via blood components to immunocompromised recipients should be investigated.
Project description:Eleven new human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) have been identified in the last decade. Serological studies show that these novel HPyVs sub-clinically infect humans at an early age. The routes of infection, entry pathways, and cell tropism of new HPyVs remain unknown. VP1 proteins of polyomaviruses can assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs). As cell culturing systems for HPyV are currently not available, VP1-derived VLPs may be useful tools in basic research and biotechnological applications.Recombinant VP1-derived VLPs from 11 newly identified HPyVs were efficiently expressed in yeast. VP1 proteins derived from Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV), and New Jersey polyomavirus (NJPyV) self-assembled into homogeneous similarly-sized VLPs. Karolinska Institutet polyomavirus (KIPyV), HPyV7, HPyV9, HPyV10, and St. Louis polyomavirus (STLPyV) VP1 proteins formed VLPs that varied in size with diameters ranging from 20 to 60 nm. Smaller-sized VLPs (25-35 nm in diameter) predominated in preparations from Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) and HPyV6. Attempts to express recombinant HPyV12 VP1-derived VLPs in yeast indicate that translation of VP1 might start at the second of two potential translation initiation sites in the VP1-encoding open reading frame (ORF). This translation resulted in a 364-amino acid-long VP1 protein, which efficiently self-assembled into typical PyV VLPs. MCPyV-, KIPyV-, TSPyV-, HPyV9-, HPyV10-, and HPyV12-derived VLPs showed hemagglutination (HA) assay activity in guinea pig erythrocytes, whereas WUPyV-, HPyV6-, HPyV7-, STLPyV- and NJPyV-derived VP1 VLPs did not.The yeast expression system was successfully utilized for high-throughput production of recombinant VP1-derived VLPs from 11 newly identified HPyVs. HPyV12 VP1-derived VLPs were generated from the second of two potential translation initiation sites in the VP1-encoding ORF. Recombinant VLPs produced in yeast originated from different HPyVs demonstrated distinct HA activities and may be useful in virus diagnostics, capsid structure studies, or investigation of entry pathways and cell tropism of HPyVs until cell culture systems for new HPyVs are developed.
Project description:Human polyomavirus (HPyV) DNA genomes contain three regions denoted the early viral gene region (EVGR), encoding the regulatory T-antigens and one microRNA, the late viral gene region (LVGR), encoding the structural Vp capsid proteins, and the noncoding control region (NCCR). The NCCR harbors the origin of viral genome replication and bidirectional promoter/enhancer functions governing EVGR and LVGR expression on opposite DNA strands. Despite principal similarities, HPyV NCCRs differ in length, sequence, and architecture. To functionally compare HPyV NCCRs, sequences from human isolates were inserted into a bidirectional reporter vector using dsRed2 for EVGR expression and green fluorescent protein (GFP) for LVGR expression. Transfecting HPyV NCCR reporter vectors into human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and flow cytometry normalized to archetype BKPyV NCCR revealed a hierarchy of EVGR expression levels with MCPyV, HPyV12, and STLPyV NCCRs conferring stronger levels and HPyV6, HPyV9, and HPyV10 NCCRs weaker levels, while LVGR expression was less variable and showed comparable activity levels. Transfection of HEK293T cells expressing simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LTag) increased EVGR expression for most HPyV NCCRs, which correlated with the number of LTag-binding sites (Spearman's r, 0.625; P < 0.05) and decreased following SV40 LTag small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown. LTag-dependent activation was specifically confirmed for two different MCPyV NCCRs in 293MCT cells expressing the cognate MCPyV LTag. HPyV NCCR expression in different cell lines derived from skin (A375), cervix (HeLaNT), lung (A549), brain (Hs683), and colon (SW480) demonstrated that host cell properties significantly modulate the baseline HPyV NCCR activity, which partly synergized with SV40 LTag expression. Clinically occurring NCCR sequence rearrangements of HPyV7 PITT-1 and -2 and HPyV9 UF1 were found to increase EVGR expression compared to the respective HPyV archetype, but this was partly host cell type specific.IMPORTANCE HPyV NCCRs integrate essential viral functions with respect to host cell specificity, persistence, viral replication, and disease. Here, we show that HPyV NCCRs not only differ in sequence length, number, and position of LTag- and common transcription factor-binding sites but also confer differences in bidirectional viral gene expression. Importantly, EVGR reporter expression was significantly modulated by LTag expression and by host cell properties. Clinical sequence variants of HPyV7 and HPyV9 NCCRs containing deletions and insertions were associated with increased EVGR expression, similar to BKPyV and JCPyV rearrangements, emphasizing that HPyV NCCR sequences are major determinants not only of host cell tropism but also of pathogenicity. These results will help to define secondary HPyV cell tropism beyond HPyV surface receptors, to identify key viral and host factors shaping the viral life cycle, and to develop preclinical models of HPyV persistence and replication and suitable antiviral targets.
Project description:Conflicting prevalence of newly identified KI (KIPyV), WU (WUPyV) and Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCPyV) polyomaviruses have been reported in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) patient samples, ranging from 0 to 14.3%. We analyzed the prevalence of these polyomaviruses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and bone marrow samples from PML patients, immunosuppressed individuals with or without HIV, and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Distinct PCR tests for KIPyV, WUPyV and MCPyV DNA performed in two independent laboratories detected low levels of MCPyV DNA only in 1/269 samples. The infrequent detections of these viruses in multiple samples from immunosuppressed individuals including those with PML suggest that their reactivation mechanisms may be different from that of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) and that they do not play a role in the pathogenesis of PML.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Differences in genomic sequences are crucial for the classification of viruses into different species. In this work, viral DNA sequences belonging to the human polyomaviruses BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, and MCPyV are analyzed using a logic data mining method in order to identify the nucleotides which are able to distinguish the five different human polyomaviruses. RESULTS: The approach presented in this work is successful as it discovers several logic rules that effectively characterize the different five studied polyomaviruses. The individuated logic rules are able to separate precisely one viral type from the other and to assign an unknown DNA sequence to one of the five analyzed polyomaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: The data mining analysis is performed by considering the complete sequences of the viruses and the sequences of the different gene regions separately, obtaining in both cases extremely high correct recognition rates.
Project description:WU and KI polyomaviruses (PyV) were discovered in 2007 in respiratory tract samples in adults and children. Other polyomaviruses (BKPyV and JCPyV) have been associated with illness in immunocompromised patients, and some studies suggest a higher prevalence of WUPyV and KIPyV in this population.To determine whether a higher prevalence or viral load for WUPyV and KIPyV exists in immunocompromised children compared with immunocompetent children.We measured the prevalence and viral load of WU and KI PyV by quantitative real-time PCR of viral DNA in respiratory tract specimens from pediatric hematology/oncology patients and immunocompetent controls with acute respiratory illnesses.The prevalence of WUPyV in the immunocompromised population was 5/161 (3%) versus 14/295 (5%) in the control population (P=0.5), and 9/161 (5.6%) versus 7/295 (2.3%) respectively for KIPyV (P=0.13). The mean viral load (in copies per cell or mL of sample) for KIPyV, was higher in the immunocompromised group compared to the control group (P=0.019), but was not statistically different for WUPyV. A higher prevalence was seen in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients compared with other immunocompromised patients (6/26 versus 3/43, P=0.054). Viral persistence was demonstrated only in 1/25 (4%) of sequential samples for KIPyV, and no persistence was seen for WUPyV.A higher prevalence of WUPyV or KIPyV in the immunocompromised population compared with the immunocompetent group was not demonstrated. Higher viral loads for KIPyV in the immunocompromised group may suggest an increased pathogenic potential in this population.
Project description:The polyomavirus family currently includes thirteen human polyomavirus (HPyV) species. In immunocompromised and elderly persons HPyVs are known to cause disease, such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (JCPyV), haemorrhagic cystitis and nephropathy (BKPyV), Merkel cell carcinoma (MCPyV), and trichodysplasia spinulosa (TSPyV). Some recently discovered polyomaviruses are of still unknown prevalence and pathogenic potential. Because HPyVs infections persist and might be transferred by blood components to immunocompromised patients, we studied the seroprevalence of fourteen polyomaviruses in adult Dutch blood donors. For most polyomaviruses the observed seroprevalence was high (60-100%), sometimes slightly increasing or decreasing with age. Seroreactivity increased with age for JCPyV, HPyV6 and HPyV7 and decreased for BKPyV and TSPyV. The most recently identified polyomaviruses HPyV12, NJPyV and LIPyV showed low overall seroprevalence (~5%) and low seroreactivity, questioning their human tropism. Altogether, HPyV infections are common in Dutch blood donors, with an average of nine polyomaviruses per subject.