Monoclonal Antibody to Marinobufagenin Downregulates TGF? Profibrotic Signaling in Left Ventricle and Kidney and Reduces Tissue Remodeling in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension.
ABSTRACT: Background Elevated levels of an endogenous Na/K-ATPase inhibitor marinobufagenin accompany salt-sensitive hypertension and are implicated in cardiac fibrosis. Immunoneutralization of marinobufagenin reduces blood pressure in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats. The effect of the anti-marinobufagenin monoclonal antibody on blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) and renal remodeling, and gene expression were investigated in hypertensive Dahl-S rats. Methods and Results Dahl-S rats were fed high NaCl (8%, HS; n=14) or low NaCl (0.1%, LS; n=14) diets for 8 weeks. Animals were administered control antibody (LS control antibody, LSC; HS control antibody, HSC; n=7 per group) or anti-marinobufagenin antibody once on week 7 of diet intervention (n=7 per group). Levels of marinobufagenin, LV, and kidney mRNAs and proteins implicated in profibrotic signaling were assessed. Systolic blood pressure was elevated (211±8 versus 133±3 mm Hg, P<0.01), marinobufagenin increased 2-fold in plasma (P<0.05) and 5-fold in urine (P<0.01), LV and kidney weights increased, and levels of LV collagen-1 rose 3.5-fold in HSC versus LSC. Anti-marinobufagenin antibody treatment decreased systolic blood pressure by 24 mm Hg (P<0.01) and reduced organ weights and level of LV collagen-1 (P<0.01) in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats with anti-marinobufagenin antibody versus HSC. The expression of genes related to transforming growth factor-?-dependent signaling was upregulated in the left ventricles and kidneys in HSC versus LSC groups and became downregulated following administration of anti-marinobufagenin antibody to hypertensive Dahl-S rats. Marinobufagenin also activated transforming growth factor-? signaling in cultured ventricular myocytes from Dahl-S rats. Conclusions Immunoneutralization of heightened marinobufagenin levels in hypertensive Dahl-S rats resulted in a downregulation of genes implicated in transforming growth factor-? pathway, which indicates that marinobufagenin is an activator of profibrotic transforming growth factor-?-dependent signaling in salt-sensitive hypertension.
Project description:Elevated levels of an endogenous Na/K‐ATPase inhibitor marinobufagenin accompany salt‐sensitive hypertension and are implicated in cardiac fibrosis. Immunoneutralization of marinobufagenin reduces blood pressure in Dahl salt‐sensitive (Dahl‐S) rats. The effect of the anti‐marinobufagenin monoclonal antibody on blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) and renal remodeling, and LV gene expression were investigated in hypertensive Dahl‐S rats. Overall design: Fifteen-week old Dahl salt‐sensitive (Dahl‐S, SS/JrHsd) male rats were given low or high salt diets (ls and hs, respectively) and treated once with control antibody (lsc and hsc, respectively) or a monoclonal antibody to the endogenous Na/K‐ATPase inhibitor marinobufagenin (lsab abd hsab, respectively), and left ventricular gene expression changes were examined after one week in six animals per group.
Project description:The bioactive steroid, marinobufagenin, is an endogenous Na/K-ATPase bufadienolide inhibitor that is synthesized by adrenocortical and placental cells. Marinobufagenin binding to Na/K-ATPase initiates profibrotic cell signaling, and heightened marinobufagenin levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, preeclampsia, and chronic kidney disease. Steroids are derived from cholesterol through the traditional steroidogenesis pathway initiated by enzyme CYP11A1, and via the acidic bile acid pathway, which is controlled by enzyme CYP27A1. The mechanism of marinobufagenin biosynthesis in mammals, however, remains unknown.Here, we show that post-transcriptional silencing of the CYP27A1 gene in human trophoblast and rat adrenocortical cells reduced the expression of CYP27A1 mRNA by 70%, reduced total bile acids 2-fold, and marinobufagenin levels by 67% when compared with nontreated cells or cells transfected with nontargeting siRNA. In contrast, silencing of the CYP11A1 gene did not affect marinobufagenin production in either cell culture, but suppressed production of progesterone 2-fold in human trophoblast cells and of corticosterone by 90% in rat adrenocortical cells when compared with cells transfected with nontargeting siRNA. In vivo, in a high-salt administration experiment, male and female Dahl salt-sensitive rats became hypertensive after 4 weeks on a high-NaCl diet, their plasma marinobufagenin levels doubled, and adrenocortical CYP27A1 mRNA and protein increased 1.6-fold and 2.0-fold.Therefore, the endogenous steroidal Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, marinobufagenin, is synthesized in mammalian placenta and adrenal cortex from cholesterol through the novel acidic bile acid pathway. These findings will help to understand the role of marinobufagenin in highly prevalent human cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The pathogenesis of HFpEF is unclear, but fibrosis, inflammation and hypertrophy have been put forth as likely contributors. CDCs are heart-derived cell products with anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVES:We questioned whether allogeneic rat CDCs might be able to decrease manifestations of HFpEF in hypertensive rats. METHODS:Starting at 7 weeks of age, Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet for 6-7 weeks and randomized to receive intracoronary CDCs or placebo. Dahl rats fed normal chow served as controls. RESULTS:High-salt rats developed hypertension, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, without impairment of ejection fraction. Four weeks after treatment, diastolic dysfunction resolved in CDC-treated rats but not in placebo. The improved LV relaxation was associated with lower LV end-diastolic pressure, decreased lung congestion and enhanced survival in CDC-treated rats. Histology and echocardiography revealed no decrease in cardiac hypertrophy after CDC treatment, consistent with the finding of sustained, equally-elevated blood pressure in CDC- and placebo-treated rats. Nevertheless, CDC treatment decreased LV fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. Serum inflammatory cytokines were likewise decreased after CDC treatment. Whole-transcriptome analysis revealed major HFpEF-related, CDC-reversed changes in numerous transcripts, including many involved in inflammation and/or fibrosis. CONCLUSION:CDCs normalized LV relaxation and LV diastolic pressure while improving survival in a rat model of HFpEF. The benefits of CDCs occurred despite persistent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. By selectively reversing inflammation and fibrosis, CDCs may be beneficial in the treatment of HFpEF.
Project description:The objective of this study was to profile circular RNAs (circRNAs) in rat genetic models of cardiovascular and renal disease. Renal profiles were obtained from the Dahl Salt-Sensitive rat (S), the Dahl Salt-Resistant rat (R), the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) and the Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY). Overall design: At 57 days of age, kidneys were collected from male Dahl salt-sensitive rats (S), Dahl salt-resistant rats (R), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) (n = 3 rats per group) and snap frozen. RNA isolated was used for microarray studies conducted by ArrayStar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA).
Project description:The beneficial cardiac effects of some Ca(2+) channel blockers have been attributed to blood pressure reduction, but these pleiotropic effects require further investigation. We compared the effects of benidipine, which has beneficial cardiac effects, and nitrendipine, which does not, in an animal model of hypertensive diastolic heart failure (DHF).Male Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet from age 7 weeks to induce hypertension and were either vehicle or orally administered benidipine (3 mg/kg daily) or nitrendipine (10 mg/kg daily) from age 10 to 18 weeks. Control rats were maintained on a low-salt diet. In vehicle-treated rats, left-ventricular (LV) fractional shortening was preserved but LV end-diastolic pressure was increased, indicative of DHF. Benidipine and nitrendipine had similar antihypertensive effects and reduced both LV weight and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Benidipine reduced LV diastolic stiffness and mortality to a greater extent than did nitrendipine. Benidipine, but not nitrendipine, also reduced lung weight. The extent of interstitial fibrosis and the abundance of mRNAs for prohypertrophic, profibrotic, or proinflammatory genes in the left ventricle were reduced by benidipine and nitrendipine. Benidipine, but not nitrendipine, increased capillary density and restored the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the left ventricle.Benidipine reduced LV diastolic stiffness and increased survival, effects likely attributable predominantly to promotion of coronary angiogenesis rather than to attenuation of interstitial fibrosis. Benidipine may thus be more effective than purely L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers in preventing hypertensive DHF.
Project description:Hypertensive cerebropathy is a pathological condition associated with cerebral edema and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. However, the molecular pathways leading to this condition remains obscure. We hypothesize that MMP-9 inhibition can help reducing blood pressure and endothelial disruption associated with hypertensive cerebropathy. Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl/SS) and Lewis rats were fed with high-salt diet for 6 weeks and then treated without and with GM6001 (MMP inhibitor). Treatment of GM6001 (1.2 mg/kg body weight) was administered through intraperitoneal injections on alternate days for 4 weeks. GM6001 non-administered groups were given vehicle (0.9% NaCl in water) treatment as control. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method. The brain tissues were analyzed for oxidative/nitrosative stress, vascular MMP-9 expression, and tight junction proteins (TJPs). GM6001 treatment significantly reduced mean blood pressure in Dahl/SS rats which was significantly higher in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats. MMP-9 expression and activity was also considerably reduced in GM6001-treated Dahl/SS rats, which was otherwise notably increased in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats. Similarly MMP-9 expression in cerebral vessels of GM6001-treated Dahl/SS rats was also alleviated, as devised by immunohistochemistry analysis. Oxidative/nitrosative stress was significantly higher in vehicle-treated Dahl/SS rats as determined by biochemical estimations of malondialdehyde, nitrite, reactive oxygen species, and glutathione levels. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis further confirmed considerable alterations of TJPs in hypertensive rats. Interestingly, GM6001 treatment significantly ameliorated oxidative/nitrosative stress and TJPs, which suggest restoration of vascular integrity in Dahl/SS rats. These findings determined that pharmacological inhibition of MMP-9 in hypertensive Dahl-SS rats attenuate high blood pressure and hypertension-associated cerebrovascular pathology.
Project description:In Dahl salt-sensitive rats (Dahl SS), glomerular capillary pressure increases in response to high salt intake and this is accompanied by significant glomerular injury compared with spontaneously hypertensive rats with similar blood pressure. Glomerular capillary pressure is controlled mainly by afferent arteriolar resistance, which is regulated by the vasoconstrictor tubule glomerular feedback (TGF) and the vasodilator connecting TGF (CTGF). We hypothesized that Dahl SS have a decreased TGF response and enhanced TGF resetting compared with spontaneously hypertensive rats, and that these differences are attributable in part to an increase in CTGF. In vivo, using micropuncture we measured stop-flow pressure (a surrogate of glomerular capillary pressure). TGF was calculated as the maximal decrease in stop-flow pressure caused by increasing nephron perfusion, TGF resetting as the attenuation in TGF induced by high salt diet, and CTGF as the difference in TGF response before and during CTGF inhibition with benzamil. Compared with spontaneously hypertensive rats, Dahl SS had (1) lower TGF responses in normal (6.6±0.1 versus 11.0±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.001) and high-salt diets (3.3±0.1 versus 10.1±0.3 mm Hg; P<0.001), (2) greater TGF resetting (3.3±0.1 versus 1.0±0.3 mm Hg; P<0.001), and (3) greater CTGF (3.4±0.4 versus 1.2±0.1 mm Hg; P<0.001). We conclude that Dahl SS have lower TGF and greater CTGF than spontaneously hypertensive rats, and that CTGF antagonizes TGF. Furthermore, CTGF is enhanced by a high-salt diet and contributes significantly to TGF resetting. Our findings may explain in part the increase in vasodilatation, glomerular capillary pressure, and glomerular damage in SS hypertension during high salt intake.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Progression of heart failure in hypertensive Dahl rats is associated with cardiac remodeling and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This study was conducted to study whether treatment with a novel inotropic vasodilator compound, levosimendan, could prevent hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: 6-week-old salt-sensitive Dahl/Rapp rats received levosimendan (0.3 mg kg(-1) and 3 mg kg(-1) via drinking fluid) and high salt diet (NaCl 7%) for 7 weeks, Dahl/Rapp rats on low-salt diet served as controls. Blood pressure, cardiac functions by echocardiography, cardiomyocyte apoptosis by TUNEL technique, tissue morphology, myocardial expression of calcium cycling proteins, and markers of neurohumoral activation were determined. KEY RESULTS: Untreated Dahl/Rapp rats on high salt diet developed severe hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and moderate systolic dysfunction. 38% of Dahl/Rapp rats (9/24) survived the 7-week-follow-up period. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was increased by 6-fold during high salt diet. Levosimendan improved survival (survival rates in low- and high-dose levosimendan groups 12/12 and 9/12, p<0.001 and p=0.05, respectively), increased cardiac function, and ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy. Levosimendan dose-dependently prevented cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Levosimendan normalized salt-induced increased expression of natriuretic peptide, and decreased urinary noradrenaline excretion. Levosimendan also corrected salt-induced decreases in myocardial SERCA2a protein expression and myocardial SERCA2a/NCX-ratio. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Improved survival by the novel inotropic vasodilator levosimendan in hypertensive Dahl/Rapp rats is mediated, at least in part, by amelioration of hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
Project description:Salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with severe organ damage. Generating oxygen radicals is an integral component of salt-induced kidney damage, and activated leukocytes are important in oxygen radical biosynthesis. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet causes the upregulation of immune-related mechanisms, thereby contributing to the susceptibility of Dahl salt-sensitive rats to hypertensive kidney damage. For verifying the hypothesis, we investigated leukocytes adhering to retinal vessels when Dahl salt-sensitive rats were challenged with a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet using acridine orange fluoroscopy and a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The high-salt diet increased leukocyte adhesion after 3 days and was associated with a significant increase in mRNA biosynthesis of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) -related molecules in the kidney. Losartan treatment did not affect increased leukocyte adhesion during the early, pre-hypertensive phase of high salt loading; however, losartan attenuated the adhesion of leukocytes during the hypertensive stage. Moreover, the inhibition of leukocyte adhesion in the pre-hypertensive stage by anti-CD18 antibodies decreased tethering of leukocytes and was associated with the attenuation of functional and morphological kidney damage without affecting blood pressure elevation. In conclusion, a high-salt challenge rapidly increased leukocyte adhesion through the over-expression of ICAM-1. Increased leukocyte adhesion in the pre-hypertensive stage is responsible for subsequent kidney damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Immune system involvement may be a key component that initiates kidney damage in a genetic model of salt-induced hypertension.
Project description:Prolonged hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure. Failing hearts show reduced peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor (PPAR) activity and enhanced nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity, which together modify cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. In vitro studies suggest that phytochemicals alter PPAR and NF-kappaB activity, but the capabilities of a phytochemical-rich diet are less understood. Grapes contain an array of commonly consumed dietary phytochemicals. In Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, we showed previously that dietary provision of whole table grape powder (3% weight:weight) for 18 weeks reduced blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, and diastolic dysfunction. The hypothesis tested here is that, in this model, phytochemical provision from whole grape powder impacts cardiac PPAR and NF-kappaB activity and their related gene transcripts. Grape-fed rats had enhanced PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma DNA binding activity but reduced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity. RT-PCR revealed that grape-fed rats showed upregulated mRNA for PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma coactivator-1alpha, PPAR-gamma, and the cytosolic NF-kappaB inhibitor, inhibitor-kappaBalpha. By contrast, grape-fed rats showed downregulated mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1. Finally, grape-fed rats showed significantly reduced cardiac tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta protein expression, increased inhibitor-kappaBalpha expression, and reduced cardiac fibrosis. In the Dahl salt-sensitive rat, chronic intake of grapes altered cardiac transcripts related to PPAR and NF-kappaB that may be significant to the observed diet-associated cardioprotection.