'Fat's chances': Loci for phenotypic dispersion in plasma leptin in mouse models of diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Leptin, a critical mediator of feeding, metabolism and diabetes, is expressed on an incidental basis according to satiety. The genetic regulation of leptin should similarly be episodic. METHODOLOGY:Data from three mouse cohorts hosted by the Jackson Laboratory- 402 (174F, 228M) F2 Dilute Brown non-Agouti (DBA/2)×DU6i intercrosses, 142 Non Obese Diabetic (NOD/ShiLtJ×(NOD/ShiLtJ×129S1/SvImJ.H2g7) N2 backcross females, and 204 male Nonobese Nondiabetic (NON)×New Zealand Obese (NZO/HlLtJ) reciprocal backcrosses-were used to test for loci associated with absolute residuals in plasma leptin and arcsin-transformed percent fat ('phenotypic dispersion'; PDpLep and PDAFP). Individual data from 1,780 mice from 43 inbred strains was also used to estimate genetic variances and covariances for dispersion in each trait. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Several loci for PDpLep were detected, including possibly syntenic Chr 17 loci, but there was only a single position on Chr 6 for PDAFP. Coding SNP in genes linked to the consensus Chr 17 PDpLep locus occurred in immunological and cancer genes, genes linked to diabetes and energy regulation, post-transcriptional processors and vomeronasal variants. There was evidence of intersexual differences in the genetic architecture of PDpLep. PDpLep had moderate heritability [Formula: see text] and PDAFP low heritability [Formula: see text]; dispersion in these traits was highly genetically correlated r = 0.8). CONCLUSIONS:Greater genetic variance for dispersion in plasma leptin, a physiological trait, may reflect its more ephemeral nature compared to body fat, an accrued progressive character. Genetic effects on incidental phenotypes such as leptin might be effectively characterized with randomization-detection methodologies in addition to classical approaches, helping identify incipient or borderline cases or providing new therapeutic targets.
Project description:Reduced frequency of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells has been indicated as a contributing factor to type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in NOD mice. To further understand the genetic basis of the defect, we generated (NOD × ICR)F2 mice to map genes that control iNKT-cell development. We determined frequencies of thymic and splenic iNKT cells, as well as the ratio of CD4-positive and -negative subsets in the spleens of 209 F2 males. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis revealed five loci that exceed the significant threshold for the frequency of thymic and/or splenic iNKT cells on Chromosomes (Chr) 1, 5, 6, 12 and 17. Three significant loci on Chr 1, 4 and 5 were found for the ratio of CD4-positive and -negative splenic iNKT cells. Comparisons with previously known mouse T1D susceptibility (Idd) loci revealed two significant QTL peak locations, respectively, mapped to Idd regions on Chr 4 and 6. The peak marker location of the significant Chr 12 iNKT QTL maps to within 0.5?Mb of a syntenic human T1D locus. Collectively, our results reveal several novel loci controlling iNKT-cell development and provide additional information for future T1D genetic studies.
Project description:ALR/Lt, a NOD-related mouse strain, was selected for resistance to alloxan free radical-mediated diabetes (ALD). Despite extensive genomic identity with NOD (>70%), ALR mice display strong resistance to autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) due to both an unusual elevation in systemic antioxidant defenses and a reduction in cellular ROS production that extends to the beta cell level. Reciprocal backcross to NOD previously linked the ALR-derived T1D resistance to Chr. 3, 8, and 17 as well as to the ALR mt-Nd2(a) allele encoded by the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). To determine whether any of the ALR-derived loci protecting against T1D also protected against ALD, 296 six-week-old F2 mice from reciprocal outcrosses were alloxan-treated and assessed for diabetes onset, and a genome-wide scan (GWS) was conducted. GWS linked mt-Nd2 as well as three nuclear loci with alloxan-induced diabetes. A dominant ALR-derived ALD resistance locus on Chr. 8 colocalized with the ALR-derived T1D resistance locus identified in the previous backcross analysis. In contrast, whereas ALR contributed a novel T1D resistance locus on Chr. 3 marked by Susp, a more proximal ALR-derived region marked by Il-2 contributed ALD susceptibility, not resistance. In addition, a locus was mapped on Chr. 2, where heterozygosity provided heightened susceptibility. Tests for alloxan sensitivity in ALR conplastic mice encoding the NOD mt-Nd2(c) allele and NOD mice congenic for the protective Chr. 8 locus supported our mapping results. Alloxan sensitivity was increased in ALR.mt(NOD) mice, whereas it was decreased by congenic introduction of ALR genome on Chr. 8 into NOD. These data demonstrate both similarities and differences in the genetic control of T1D versus ROS-induced diabetes.
Project description:Introduction of genes targeted in 129/Sv embryonic stem (ES) cells into NOD mice brings about linked genes that may modulate type 1 diabetes. Our objective was to identify 129S1/SvJ non-MHC regions contributing type 1 diabetes resistance or susceptibility in backcross to NOD/LtJ.After congenic transfer of the NOD H2(g7) haplotype onto 129S1/Sv, 310 females were produced by NOD x (NOD x 129.H2(g7))F1 backcross (N2). A genome scan for quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting clinical diabetes, age of diabetes onset, and insulitis severity was performed using subphenotype characteristics to improve power and resolution for detection of diabetes susceptibility loci.Thirty-six of 310 (11.6%) N2 females developed type 1 diabetes between 14 and 40 weeks. Significant evidence of linkage for only a single previously reported Idd complex locus (Idd10/17/18, chromosome [Chr] 3) was indicated for clinical diabetes. The quantitative traits of insulitis either alone or combined with age at type 1 diabetes onset were significantly linked to known Idd regions on Chr 1 (Idd5 region), Chr 4 (Idd9 region), Chr 8 (Idd22), Chr 11 (Idd4.3), and proximal Chr 17 (Idd16 region). Significant 129S1/Sv resistance contributions were identified on Chr 1, 15 (two loci), and 19, with suggestive evidence for additional novel 129/Sv resistance QTL on Chr 5 and 17 and susceptibility on Chr 2.The 129S1/SvJ genome harbors collections of both known and potentially novel non-MHC Idd loci. Investigators targeting 129/Sv genes mapping within chromosomal regions reported herein or elsewhere in the genome need to exclude potential contributions from linked Idd loci by generating a NOD.129 control strain expressing the nontargeted allele.
Project description:Despite high estimates of the heritability of aggressiveness, the genetic basis for individual differences in aggression remains unclear. Previously, we showed that the wild-derived mouse strain MSM/Ms (MSM) exhibits highly aggressive behaviors, and identified chromosome 15 (Chr 15) as the location of one of the genetic factors behind this escalated aggression by using a panel of consomic strains of MSM in a C57BL/6J (B6) background. To understand the genetic effect of Chr 15 derived from MSM in detail, this study examined the aggressive behavior of a Chr 15 consomic strain towards different types of opponent. Our results showed that both resident and intruder animals had to have the same MSM Chr 15 genotype in order for attack bites to increase and attack latency to be reduced, whereas there was an intruder effect of MSM Chr 15 on tail rattle behavior. To narrow down the region that contains the genetic loci involved in the aggression-eliciting effects on Chr 15, we established a panel of subconsomic strains of MSM Chr 15. Analysis of these strains suggested the existence of multiple genes that enhance and suppress aggressive behavior on Chr 15, and these loci interact in a complex way. Regression analysis successfully identified four genetic loci on Chr 15 that influence attack latency, and one genetic locus that partially elicits aggressive behaviors was narrowed down to a 4.1-Mbp region (from 68.40 Mb to 72.50 Mb) on Chr 15.
Project description:The genetics underlying variation in health-related musculoskeletal phenotypes can be investigated in a mouse model. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting musculoskeletal traits in the LG/J and SM/J strain lineage remain to be refined and corroborated. The aim of this study was to map muscle and bone traits in males (n = 506) of the 50th filial generation of advanced intercross lines (LG/SM AIL) derived from the two strains. Genetic contribution to variation in all musculoskeletal traits was confirmed; the SNP heritability of muscle mass ranged between 0.46 and 0.56; and the SNP heritability of tibia length was 0.40. We used two analytical software, GEMMA and QTLRel, to map the underlying QTLs. GEMMA required substantially less computation and recovered all the QTLs identified by QTLRel. Seven significant QTLs were identified for muscle weight (Chr 1, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15, and 16), and two for tibia length, (Chr 1 and 13). Each QTL explained 4-5% of phenotypic variation. One muscle and both bone loci replicated previous findings; the remaining six were novel. Positional candidates for the replicated QTLs were prioritized based on in silico analyses and gene expression in muscle tissue. In summary, we replicated existing QTLs and identified novel QTLs affecting muscle weight, and replicated bone length QTLs in LG/SM AIL males. Heritability estimates substantially exceed the cumulative effect of the QTLs, hence a richer genetic architecture contributing to muscle and bone variability could be uncovered with a larger sample size.
Project description:Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its aspirin-triggered epimeric form (AT-RvD1) are endogenous lipid mediators (derived from docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) that control the duration and magnitude of inflammation in models of complex diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated that RvD1-mediated signaling pathways are expressed and active in salivary glands from rodents and humans. Furthermore, treatment of salivary cells with RvD1 blocked TNF-?-mediated inflammatory signals and improved epithelial integrity. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of treatment with AT-RvD1 versus dexamethasone (DEX) on inflammation (i.e., lymphocytic infiltration, cytokine expression and apoptosis) observed in submandibular glands (SMG) from the NOD/ShiLtJ Sjögren's syndrome (SS) mouse model before experimenting with a larger population. NOD/ShiLtJ mice were treated intravenously with NaCl (0.9%, negative control), AT-RvD1 (0.01-0.1 mg/kg) or DEX (4.125-8.25 mg/kg) twice a week for 14 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age. At 18 weeks of age, SMG were collected for pathological analysis and detection of SS-associated inflammatory genes. The AT-RvD1 treatment alone did not affect lymphocytic infiltration seen in NOD/ShiLtJ mice while DEX partially prevented lymphocytic infiltration. Interestingly, both AT-RvD1 and DEX caused downregulation of SS-associated inflammatory genes and reduction of apoptosis. Results from this pilot study suggest that a systemic treatment with AT-RvD1 and DEX alone attenuated inflammatory responses observed in the NOD/ShiLtJ mice; therefore, they may be considered as potential therapeutic tools in treating SS patients when used alone or in combination.
Project description:Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans and NOD mice results from interactions between multiple susceptibility genes (termed Idd) located within and outside the MHC. Despite sharing ?88% of their genome with NOD mice, including the H2(g7) MHC haplotype and other important Idd genes, the closely related nonobese resistant (NOR) strain fails to develop T1D because of resistance alleles in residual genomic regions derived from C57BLKS mice mapping to chromosomes (Chr.) 1, 2, and 4. We previously produced a NOD background strain with a greatly decreased incidence of T1D as the result of a NOR-derived 44.31-Mb congenic region on distal Chr. 4 containing disease-resistance alleles that decrease the pathogenic activity of autoreactive B and CD4 T cells. In this study, a series of subcongenic strains for the NOR-derived Chr. 4 region was used to significantly refine genetic loci regulating diabetogenic B and CD4 T cell activity. Analyses of these subcongenic strains revealed the presence of at least two NOR-origin T1D resistance genes within this region. A 6.22-Mb region between rs13477999 and D4Mit32, not previously known to contain a locus affecting T1D susceptibility and now designated Idd25, was found to contain the main NOR gene(s) dampening diabetogenic B cell activity, with Ephb2 and/or Padi2 being strong candidates as the causal variants. Penetrance of this Idd25 effect was influenced by genes in surrounding regions controlling B cell responsiveness and anergy induction. Conversely, the gene(s) controlling pathogenic CD4 T cell activity was mapped to a more proximal 24.26-Mb region between the rs3674285 and D4Mit203 markers.
Project description:Genetic variation constitutes an important variable impacting the susceptibility to inhalable toxic substances and air pollutants, as reflected by epidemiological studies in humans and differences among animal strains. While multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are capable of causing lung fibrosis in rodents, it is unclear to what extent the genetic variation in different mouse strains influence the outcome. Four inbred mouse strains, including C57Bl/6, Balb/c, NOD/ShiLtJ, and A/J, to test the pro-fibrogenic effects of a library of MWCNTs in vitro and in vivo are chosen. Ex vivo analysis of IL-1? production in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) as molecular initiating event (MIE) is performed. The order of cytokine production (Balb/c > A/J > C57Bl/6 > NOD/ShiLtJ) in BMDMs is also duplicated during assessment of IL-1? production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the same mouse strains 40 h after oropharyngeal instillation of a representative MWCNT. Animal test after 21 d also confirms a similar hierarchy in TGF-?1 production and collagen deposition in the lung. Statistical analysis confirms a correlation between IL-1? production in BMDM and the lung fibrosis. All considered, these data demonstrate that genetic background indeed plays a major role in determining the pro-fibrogenic response to MWCNTs in the lung.
Project description:The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a polygenic model for type 1 diabetes that is characterized by insulitis, a leukocytic infiltration of the pancreatic islets. During ~35 years since the original inbred strain was developed in Japan, NOD substrains have been established at different laboratories around the world. Although environmental differences among NOD colonies capable of impacting diabetes incidence have been recognized, differences arising from genetic divergence have not been analyzed previously. We use both mouse diversity array and whole-exome capture sequencing platforms to identify genetic differences distinguishing five NOD substrains. We describe 64 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and two short indels that differ in coding regions of the five NOD substrains. A 100-kb deletion on Chromosome 3 distinguishes NOD/ShiLtJ and NOD/ShiLtDvs from three other substrains, whereas a 111-kb deletion in the Icam2 gene on Chromosome 11 is unique to the NOD/ShiLtDvs genome. The extent of genetic divergence for NOD substrains is compared with similar studies for C57BL6 and BALB/c substrains. As mutations are fixed to homozygosity by continued inbreeding, significant differences in substrain phenotypes are to be expected. These results emphasize the importance of using embryo freezing methods to minimize genetic drift within substrains and of applying appropriate genetic nomenclature to permit substrain recognition when one is used.
Project description:Decreased salivary flow is one of the most common symptoms in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). The present study was designed to identify a salivary protein biomarker related to saliva secretion disorder in NOD/ShiLtJ mice, a pSS primary murine model. The stimulated saliva was collected from NOD/ShiLtJ and BALB/c mice as controls for differential proteomic analysis.