Characteristics of Gut Microbiota in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in Shanghai, China.
ABSTRACT: Little is known regarding differences in the gut microbiomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy cohorts in China. This study aimed to identify differences in the fecal microbiomes of 66 Chinese patients with RA and 60 healthy Chinese controls. The V3-V4 variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced with the Illumina system to define the bacterial composition. The alpha-diversity index of the microbiome of the RA patients was significantly lower than that of the control group. The bacterial genera Bacteroides (p = 0.02202) and Escherichia-Shigella (p = 0.03137) were more abundant in RA patients. In contrast, Lactobacillus (p = 0.000014), Alloprevotella (p = 0.0000008615), Enterobacter (p = 0.000005759), and Odoribacter (p = 0.0000166) were less abundant in the RA group than in the control group. Spearman correlation analysis of blood physiological measures of RA showed that bacterial genera such as Dorea and Ruminococcus were positively correlated with RF-IgA and anti-CCP antibodies. Furthermore, Alloprevotella and Parabacteroides were positively correlated with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and Prevotella-2 and Alloprevotella were positively correlated with C-reactive protein, both biomarkers of inflammation. These findings suggest that the gut microbiota may contribute to RA development via interactions with the host immune system.
Project description:Pigs, as one of the most common livestock species worldwide, are expected to have a fast growth rate and lower subcutaneous fatness but higher intramuscular fat ("marbling meat"). Nowadays, it is believed that not only host genetics but also its gut microbiomes can modulate farm animal phenotypes, however, many of the mechanisms remain elusive. We measured the body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), and intramuscular fatness (IMF) of 91 Enshi pigs at 260 days of age, then genotyped each one individually using a 50K single nucleotide polymorphism array and performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing on 455 microbial samples from the jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum. The microbial diversity showed notable spatial variation across the entire intestinal tract, with the cecum and colon having the highest ?-diversity. The cecal and colonic microbiotas made greater contributions to BW and ADG and accounted for 22-37% of the phenotypic variance. The jejunal and cecal microbiotas contributed more (13-31%) to the BFT and IMF than the other segments. Finally, from cecum, colon, and jejunum, we identified eight microbial taxa that were significantly correlated with the target traits. The genera Alloprevotella and Ruminococcaceae UCG-005 were highly positively correlated with BW and ADG. The genera Prevotellaceae UCG-001 and Alistipes in the cecum and Clostridium sensu stricto 1 in the jejunum were highly positively correlated with BFT and IMF. The genera Stenotrophomonas, Sphaerochaeta, and Desulfovibrio were negatively associated with the mentioned traits. These findings could aid in developing strategies for manipulating the gut microbiota to alter production performance in pigs.
Project description:A connection between airway and gut microbiota related to allergen exposure in childhood allergies was not well addressed. We aimed to identify the microbiota alterations in the airway and gut related to mite-specific IgE responses in young children with airway allergies. This study enrolled 60 children, including 38 mite-sensitized children (20 rhinitis and 18 asthma), and 22 non-mite-sensitized healthy controls. Microbiome composition analysis of the throat swab and stool samples was performed using bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing. An integrative analysis of the airway and stool microbial profiling associated with IgE reactions in childhood allergic rhinitis and asthma was examined. The Chao1 and Shannon indices in the airway were significantly lower than those in the stool. Additionally, an inverse association of the airway microbial diversity with house dust mite (HDM) sensitization and allergic airway diseases was noted. Fecal IgE levels were positively correlated with the serum Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus- and Dermatophagoides farinae-specific IgE levels. Airway Leptotrichia spp. related to asthma were strongly correlated with fecal Dorea and Ruminococcus spp., which were inversely associated with fecal IgE levels and risk of allergic rhinitis. Moreover, four airway genera, Campylobacter, Selenomonas, Tannerella, and Atopobium, were negatively correlated with both serum mite-specific and fecal IgE levels. Among them, the airway Selenomonas and Atopobium spp. were positively correlated with stool Blautia and Dorea spp. related to asthma and allergic rhinitis, respectively. In conclusion, airway microbial dysbiosis in response to HDM and its cross-talk with the gut microbial community is related to allergic airway diseases in early childhood.
Project description:Background: Imbalances in gut microbiota composition are linked to hypertension, host metabolic abnormalities, systemic inflammation, and other conditions. In the present study, we examined the changes of gut microbiota in women with early-onset preeclampsia (PE) and in normotensive, uncomplicated pregnant women during late pregnancy and at 1 and 6 weeks postpartum. Methods: Gut microbiota profiles of women with PE and healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and at 1 and 6 weeks postpartum were assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), zonulin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were measured in the third trimesters. Results: At the genus level, 8 bacterial genera were significantly enriched in the antepartum samples of PE patients compared to healthy controls, of which Blautia, Ruminococcus2, Bilophila, and Fusobacterium represented the major variances in PE microbiomes. Conversely, 5 genera, including Faecalibacterium, Gemmiger, Akkermansia, Dialister, and Methanobrevibacter, were significantly depleted in antepartum PE samples. Maternal blood pressure and liver enzyme levels were positively correlated to the PE-enriched genera such as Anaerococcus, Ruminococcus2, Oribacterium, and Bilophila, while the fetal features (e.g., Apgar score and newborn birth weight) were positively correlated with PE-depleted genera and negatively correlated with PE-enriched genera. Moreover, maternal blood IL-6 level was positively associated with gut Bilophila and Oribacterium, whereas LPS level was negatively associated with Akkermansia. In terms of postpartum women, both the gut microbial composition and the PE-associated microbial alterations were highly consistent with those of the antepartum women. Conclusion: PE diagnosed in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with a disrupted gut microbiota composition compared with uncomplicated pregnant women, which are associated with maternal clinical features (blood pressure level and liver dysfunction) and newborn birth weight. Moreover, these antepartum alterations in gut microbiota persisted 6 weeks postpartum.
Project description:Gut microbiota has been suggested to affect lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to characterize the faecal microbiota signature and both short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bile acids (BA) profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects. Microbiota composition, SCFAs, BA and blood lipid profile from male volunteers with hypercholesterolemia (HC) and normocholesterolemia (NC) were determined by 16S rDNA sequencing, HPLC, GC and NMR, respectively. HC subjects were characterized by having lower relative abundance of Anaeroplasma (0.002% vs 0.219%, p-value?=?0.026) and Haemophilus (0.041% vs 0.078%, p-value?=?0.049), and higher of Odoribacter (0.51% vs 0.16%; p-value?=?0.044). Correlation analysis revealed that Anaeroplasma and Haemophilus were associated to an unfavourable lipid profile: they correlated negatively to cholesterol and triglycerides related biomarkers and the ratio total to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and positively to HDL size. Odoribacter displayed an opposite behaviour. Faecal SCFAs profile revealed higher abundance of isobutyric (2.76% vs 0.82%, p-value?=?0.049) and isovaleric acid (1.32% vs 0.06%, p-value?=?0.016) in HC. Isobutyric acid correlated positively with Odoribacter and lipid parameters indicative of an unfavourable profile. BA profile did not show differences between groups. It was concluded that HC subjects showed a particular faecal bacterial signature and SCFAs profile associated with their lipid profile.
Project description:Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism associated with high blood levels of phenylalanine (Phe). A Phe-restricted diet supplemented with L-amino acids is the main treatment strategy for this disease; if started early, most neurological abnormalities can be prevented. The healthy human gut contains trillions of commensal bacteria, often referred to as the gut microbiota. The composition of the gut microbiota is known to be modulated by environmental factors, including diet. In this study, we compared the gut microbiota of 8 PKU patients on Phe-restricted dietary treatment with that of 10 healthy individuals. The microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing using the Ion Torrent™ platform. The most dominant phyla detected in both groups were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. PKU patients showed reduced abundance of the Clostridiaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Lachnospiraceae families, Clostridiales class, Coprococcus, Dorea, Lachnospira, Odoribacter, Ruminococcus and Veillonella genera, and enrichment of Prevotella, Akkermansia, and Peptostreptococcaceae. Microbial function prediction suggested significant differences in starch/glucose and amino acid metabolism between PKU patients and controls. Together, our results suggest the presence of distinct taxonomic groups within the gut microbiome of PKU patients, which may be modulated by their plasma Phe concentration. Whether our findings represent an effect of the disease itself, or a consequence of the modified diet is unclear.
Project description:Oral administration of resveratrol is able to ameliorate the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Recent evidence suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the metabolism therapeutics. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the anti-DN effects of resveratrol are mediated through modulation of the gut microbiota using the genetic db/db mouse model of DN. We demonstrate that resveratrol treatment of db/db mice relieves a series of clinical indicators of DN. We then show that resveratrol improves intestinal barrier function and ameliorates intestinal permeability and inflammation. The composition of the gut microbiome was significantly altered in db/db mice compared to control db/m mice. Dysbiosis in db/db mice characterized by low abundance levels of Bacteroides, Alistipes, Rikenella, Odoribacter, Parabacteroides, and Alloprevotella genera were reversed by resveratrol treatment, suggesting a potential role for the microbiome in DN progression. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation, derived from healthy resveratrol-treated db/m mice, was sufficient to antagonize the renal dysfunction, rebalance the gut microbiome and improve intestinal permeability and inflammation in recipient db/db mice. These results indicate that resveratrol-mediated changes in the gut microbiome may play an important role in the mechanism of action of resveratrol, which provides supporting evidence for the gut-kidney axis in DN.
Project description:Human gut bacteria contribute significantly to human health and several studies have evaluated the effects of dietary fibers on human gut bacterial ecology. However, the relationship between different degrees of fiber polymerization and human gut bacteria is unknown. Here, we analyzed three fiber substrates with different degrees of polymerization, namely carboxymethylcellulose, ?-glucans, and galactooligosaccharides. To probe the in vitro influence of the degree of polymerization of the fiber on human gut bacteria, we measured the pH, air pressure, and short-chain fatty acid content of fecal fermentation supplemented with these fiber substrates, and sequenced the 16S ribosomal RNA genes of the microbial community in the fiber-treated fermentations. The butyric acid concentration was shown to decline with decreasing degree of polymerization of the fiber. Illumina Miseq sequencing indicated that the degree of polymerization might have an influence on human gut microbial diversity and abundance. Principal coordinate analysis unveiled a relationship between the degree of fiber polymerization and the gut bacterial community. Specific microbiota operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the genera Escherichia-Shigella, Fusobacterium, and Dorea were proportional to the degree of fiber significantly, whereas OTUs within the genera Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus were inversely correlated with the degree of polymerization. Correlation analysis between the fiber degree of polymerization and gut bacteria may demonstrate the effect of fibers on gut microbiota, and subsequently, on human health.
Project description:Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is a sight threatening complication of cardiovascular disease and commonly occurs due to underlying atherosclerosis. As cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis in particular has been associated with compositional alterations in the gut microbiome, we investigated this association in patients with clinically confirmed non-arteritic RAO compared to age- and sex-matched controls. On the phylum level, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was decreased in patients with RAO compared to controls, whereas the opposite applied for the phylum of Proteobacteria. Several genera and species such as Actinobacter, Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides stercoris, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were relatively enriched in patients with RAO, whereas others such as Odoribacter, Parasutterella or Lachnospiraceae were significantly lower. Patient's gut microbiomes were enriched in genes of the cholesterol metabolism pathway. The gut derived, pro-atherogenic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was significantly higher in patients with RAO compared to controls (p?=?0.023) and a negative correlation between relative abundances of genera Parasutterella and Lachnospiraceae and TMAO levels and a positive correlation between relative abundance of genus Akkermansia and TMAO levels was found in study subjects. Our findings proposes that RAO is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome and with elevated TMAO levels, suggesting that RAO could be targeted by microbiome-altering interventions.
Project description:Previous studies suggested a close relationship between ruminant gut microbes and the mammary gland. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to reveal the differences in the intestinal microbiome potentially related to milk components in Murrah buffaloes and Chinese Holstein cattle. A PCoA based on the weighted Unifrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern in the structure of intestinal microbiota between buffalo and cattle. We could attribute the structural difference to the genera of Sutterella, Coprococcus and Dorea. A further analysis of microbial functional features revealed that the biosynthesis of amino acids (including lysine, valine, leucine and isoleucine), lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and cofactor/vitamin biosynthesis were enriched in the buffalo. In contrast, dairy cattle had higher levels of pyruvate metabolism and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. A further correlation analysis based on different milk components and the typical microbiome uncovered a significant positive correlation between milk protein and the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids, which was also positively correlated in the genera of Parabacteroides, Dorea and Sutterella. This study will expand our understanding of the intestinal microbiome of buffalo and cattle as representative ruminants, as well as provide new views about how to improve the production and nutritional qualities of animal milk.
Project description:Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia) significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of two genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium) significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida) significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.