The interactive effects of input and output on managing fluid balance in patients with acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The interactive effect of cumulative input and output on achieving optimal fluid balance has not been well elucidated in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This study evaluated the interrelation of fluid components with mortality in patients with AKI requiring CRRT. METHODS:This is a retrospective observational study conducted with a total of 258 patients who were treated with CRRT due to AKI between 2016 and 2018 in the intensive care unit of Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital. The amounts of fluid input and output were assessed at 24-h and 72-h from the initiation of CRRT. The study endpoints were 7- and 28-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS:The mean patient age was 64.7 ± 15.8 years, and 165 (64.0%) patients were male. During the follow-up, 7- and 28-day mortalities were observed in 120 (46.5%) and 157 (60.9%) cases. The patients were stratified into two groups (28-day survivors vs. non-survivors), and the cumulative fluid balances (CFBs) at 24 h and 72 h were significantly higher in the 28-day non-survivors compared with the survivors. The increase in 24-h and 72-h CFB was significantly associated with an increase in 7- and 28-day mortality risks. To examine the interactive effect of cumulative input or output on the impact of CFB on mortality, we also stratified patients into three groups based on the tertile of 24-h and 72-h cumulative input or output. The increases in 24-h and 72-h CFBs were still significantly related to the increases in 7-day and 28-day mortality, irrespective of the cumulative input. However, we did not find significant associations between increase in 24-h and 72-h CFB and increase in mortality risk in the groups according to cumulative output tertile. CONCLUSIONS:The impact of cumulative fluid balance on mortality might be more dependent on cumulative output. The physicians need to decrease the cumulative fluid balance of CRRT patients as much as possible and consider increasing patient removal.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Positive fluid balance is a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with sepsis; however, the association between cumulated fluid balance (CFB) and sepsis-induced multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to determine whether CFB is correlated with MODS and mortality in cases of septic shock. METHODS:The study retrospectively recruited patients with septic shock from the intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was identified as sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score ? 2 in more than one organ system. The CFB is the sum of all daily intake and output. An independent t-test, single and multivariate logistic regression, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to determine whether a relationship exists between CFB and the development of MODS and mortality. RESULTS:Among the 104 patients enrolled in the study, 58 (55.8%) survived more than 28 days, and 73 (70.2%) developed MODS on day 3. The values of CFB in the first 24 hours and 72 hours after diagnosis of septic shock in patients with MODS were higher than these in patients without MODS (1086.6 ± 176.3 vs. 325.5 ± 205.7 ml, p = 0.013 and 2408 ± 361 vs. 873.1 ± 489 ml, p < 0.0001). In a multivariate logistic regression, the independent factors associated with the development of MODS on day 3 were APACHE II score at ICU admission (27.6 ± 7.6 in patients with MODS vs. 20.5 ± 6.4 in those without; O.R. 1.18; 95% C.1 I. 1.08-1.30; p < 0.001), disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) (n = 28; 38.4% vs. n = 2; 6.5%; O.R. 23.67; 95% C.I. 3.58-156.5; p = 0.001), and CFB in the first 72 hours (72-hr CFB) > median (1767.50ml) (n = 41; 56.2% vs. n = 11; 35.5%; O.R. 3.67; 95% C.I., 1.18-11.40; p = 0.024). Moreover, a multivariate logistic regression also identified neoplasm (n = 25; 54.3% vs. n = 17; 29.3%; O.R. 3.45; 95% C.I. 1.23-10.0; p = 0.019) and 72-hr CFB > median (n = 30; 65.2% vs. n = 21; 36.2%; O.R. 4.13; 95% C.I. 1.34-12.66; p = 0.013) as independent factors associated with 28-day mortality. 72-hr CFB values were strongly correlated with the SOFA score (r = 0.445, p < 0.0001). The area under the ROC curve revealed that 72-hr CFB has good discriminative power in associating the development of MODS (0.644, p = 0.002) and predicting subsequent 28-day mortality (0.704, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:72-hr CFB appears to be correlated with the likelihood of developing MODS and mortality in patients with septic shock. Thus, it appears that 72-hr CFB could perhaps be used as an indicator for MODS and a predictor for mortality in those patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fluid overload is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT). We aimed to explore whether fluid overload at initiation of RRT was independently associated with mortality and whether changes in cumulative fluid balance during RRT were associated with outcome. METHODS:We retrospectively analysed the data of patients who were admitted to the multidisciplinary adult intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary care centre in the UK between 2012 and 2015 and received continuous RRT (CRRT) for acute kidney injury for at least 24?h. We collected baseline demographics, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, severity of illness, laboratory parameters at CRRT initiation, daily cumulative fluid balance (FB), daily prescribed FB target, fluid bolus and diuretic administration and outcomes. The day of the lowest cumulative FB during CRRT was identified as nadir FB. RESULTS:Eight hundred twenty patients were analysed (median age 65?years; 49% female). At CRRT initiation, the median cumulative FB was +?1772?ml; 89 patients (10.9%) had a cumulative FB?>?10% body weight (BW). Hospital survivors had a significantly lower cumulative FB at CRRT initiation compared to patients who died (1495 versus 2184?ml; p <?0.001). In the 7?days after CRRT initiation, hospital survivors had a significant decline in cumulative FB (mean decrease 473?ml per day, p <?0.001) whilst there was no significant change in cumulative FB in non-survivors (mean decrease 112?ml per day, p =?0.188). Higher severity of illness at CRRT initiation, shorter duration of CRRT, the number of days without a prescribed FB target and need for higher doses of noradrenaline were independent risk factors for not reaching a FB nadir during CRRT. Multivariable analysis showed that older age, lower BMI, higher severity of illness, need for higher doses of noradrenaline and smaller reductions in cumulative FB during CRRT were independent risk factors for ICU and hospital mortality. Cumulative FB at CRRT initiation was not independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION:In adult patients receiving CRRT, a decrease in cumulative FB was independently associated with lower mortality. Fluid overload and need for vasopressor support at CRRT initiation were not independently associated with mortality after correction for severity of illness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a cardiorespiratory support technique for patients with circulatory or pulmonary failure. Frequently, large-volume fluid resuscitation is needed to ensure sufficient extracorporeal blood flow in patients initiating ECMO. However, excessive overhydration is known to increase mortality in critically ill patients. Therefore, in order to define a tolerant volume range in patients undergoing ECMO treatment, the association between cumulative fluid balance (CFB) and outcome was evaluated in patients undergoing ECMO. METHODS:This retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted with 723 patients who underwent ECMO in three tertiary care hospitals between 2005 and 2016. CFB was calculated as total fluid input minus total fluid output during the first 3 days from ECMO initiation. The patients were divided into groups that initiated ECMO owing to cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related or non-cardiovascular disease (non-CVD)-related causes. The primary endpoint was mortality within 90 days after ECMO commencement. RESULTS:Totals of 406 and 317 patients were included in the CVD and non-CVD groups, respectively. In the CVD group, the mean age was 58.4?±?17.7 years, and 68.2% were male. The mean age was 55.7?±?15.7 years, and 65.3% were male in the non-CVD group. The median CFB values were 64.7 and 53.5 ml/kg in the CVD and non-CVD groups, respectively. Multivariable analysis using Cox proportional hazards models revealed a significantly increased risk of 90-day mortality in patients with higher CFB values in both the CVD and non-CVD groups. However, the risks were elevated only in the two CFB quartile groups with the largest CFB amounts. Cubic spline models showed that mortality risk began to increase significantly when CFB was 82.3 ml/kg in the CVD group. In patients with respiratory diseases, the mortality risk increase was significant for those with CFB levels above 189.6 ml/kg. CONCLUSIONS:Mortality risk did not increase until a certain level of fluid overload was reached in patients undergoing ECMO. Adequate fluid resuscitation is critical to improving outcomes in these patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Innovative treatment modalities have not yet shown a clinical benefit in patients with septic shock. To reduce severe cytokinaemia, CytoSorb as an add-on to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) showed promising results in case reports. However, there are no clinical trials investigating outcomes. METHODS:In this investigator-initiated retrospective study, patients with septic shock were treated with CRRT + CytoSorb (n = 67) or CRRT alone (n = 49). The primary outcome was the 28-day all-cause mortality rate. Patients were weighted by stabilized inverse probability of treatment weights (sIPTW) to overcome differences in baseline characteristics. RESULTS:At the start of therapy, CytoSorb-treated patients had higher lactate levels (p < 0.001), lower mean arterial pressure (p = 0.007) and higher levels of noradrenaline (p < 0.001) compared to the CRRT group. For CytoSorb, the mean predicted mortality rate based on a SOFA of 13.8 (n = 67) was 75% (95%CI 71-79%), while the actual 28-day mortality rate was 48% (mean difference - 27%, 95%CI - 38 to - 15%, p < 0.001). For CRRT, based on a SOFA of 12.8 (n = 49), the mean predicted versus observed mortality was 68% versus 51% (mean difference - 16.9% [95%CI - 32.6 to - 1.2%, p = 0.035]). By sIPTW analysis, patients treated with CytoSorb had a significantly lower 28-day mortality rate compared to CRRT alone (53% vs. 72%, respectively, p = 0.038). Independent predictors of 28-day mortality in the CytoSorb group were the presence of pneumosepsis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.47, p = 0.029), higher levels of lactate at the start of CytoSorb (aOR 1.15, p = 0.031) and older age (aOR per 10 years 1.67, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS:CytoSorb was associated with a decreased observed versus expected 28-day all-cause mortality. By IPTW analysis, intervention with CytoSorb may be associated with a decreased all-cause mortality at 28 days compared to CRRT alone.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite recent technical advances in the management of acute kidney injury (AKI), such as continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), intensive care unit mortality is still high, at approximately 40 to 50%. Although several factors have been reported to predict mortality in AKI patients, fluid overload (FO) during CRRT is a well-known predictor of patient survival. However, FO has been mostly quantified as an arithmetical calculation and determined on the basis of the physicians' perception. Even though such quantification and assessment provides an easy evaluation of a patient's fluid status and is a simple method, it is not applicable unless a detailed record of fluid monitoring is available. Furthermore, the method cannot differentiate excess water in individual water compartments but can only reflect excess total body water. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has been used to measure the nutritional component of body composition and is a promising tool for the measurement of volume status. However, there has been no prospective interventional study for fluid balance among CRRT-treated AKI patients using BIA. Therefore, we will investigate the usefulness of fluid management using the InBody S10 (InBody®, Seoul, Korea), a BIA tool, compared with that of generally used quantification methods. METHODS/DESIGN:This will be a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial. A total of 244 patients undergoing CRRT treatment will be enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either to InBody S10-guided management or to fluid management based only on clinical information for 7?days. The primary outcome is to compare the rate of euvolemic status 7?days after the initiation of CRRT, with a secondary outcome being to compare the 28-, 60-, and 90-day mortality rates between the two groups. DISCUSSION:This will be the first clinical trial to investigate the effect of using BIA-guided fluid management to achieve euvolemia in CRRT-treated AKI patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03330626 . Registered on 6 November 2017.
Project description:Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a fatal and common clinical disorder in critically ill patients. Recent studies have shown that the relationship between BMI and the outcome of patients with AKI undergoing CRRT is conflicting. Methods: A retrospective cohort study based on data reuse. Univariate analysis, multi-factor regression analysis and subgroup analyses were used to explore the association of the BMI with the 28-days mortality risk in patients with AKI undergoing CRRT. Results: From January 2009 to September 2016, a total of 1120 cases met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in this study. The univariate analysis showed that BMI was associated with 28-days mortality of patients with AKI undergoing CRRT, its HR value was 0.98 (0.96, 0.99). The multi-factor regression analysis showed that BMI was not associated with 28-days mortality of patients with AKI undergoing CRRT in the four models, the adjusted HR value of four models were 1.00 (0.96, 1.04), 1.01 (0.97, 1.04), 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) and 1.00 (0.96, 1.04), respectively. The subgroups analyses showed that the BMI was a risk factor of the 28-days mortality in patients with AKI undergoing CRRT when GFR ?30?mL/min, its HR value was 1.04 (1.01, 1.09). Conclusion: Higher BMI was not a protective risk of 28-day mortality in patients with AKI undergoing CRRT. Especially, when GFR ?30?mL/min, higher BMI increased the risk of the 28-day mortality rate in patients with AKI undergoing CRRT.
Project description:To report circuit characteristics and survival analysis in children weighing ≤10 kg enrolled in the Prospective Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (ppCRRT) Registry.We conducted prospective cohort analysis of the ppCRRT Registry to: (1) evaluate survival differences in children ≤10 kg compared with other children; (2) determine demographic and clinical differences between surviving and non-surviving children ≤10 kg; and (3) describe continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) circuit characteristics differences in children ≤5 kg versus 5-10 kg.The ppCRRT enrolled 84 children ≤10 kg between January 2001 and August 2005 from 13 US tertiary centers. Children ≤10 kg had lower survival rates than children >10 kg (36/84 [43%] versus 166/260 [64%]; P < .001). In children ≤10 kg, survivors were more likely to have fewer days in intensive care unit prior to CRRT, lower Pediatric Risk of Mortality 2 scores at intensive care unit admission and lower mean airway pressure (P(aw)), higher urine output, and lower percent fluid overload (FO) at CRRT initiation. Adjusted regression analysis revealed that Pediatric Risk of Mortality 2 scores, FO, and decreased urine output were associated with mortality. Compared with circuits from children 5-10 kg at CRRT initiation, circuits from children ≤5 kg more commonly used blood priming for initiation, heparin anticoagulation, and higher blood flows/effluent flows for body weight.Mortality is more common in children who are ≤10 kg at the time of CRRT initiation. Like other CRRT populations, urine output and FO at CRRT initiation are independently associated with mortality. CRRT prescription differs in small children.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by acute, diffuse, inflammatory lung injury leading to increased pulmonary vascular permeability, pulmonary oedema and loss of aerated tissue. Previous literature showed that restrictive fluid therapy in ARDS shortens time on mechanical ventilation and length of ICU-stay. However, the effect of intravenous fluid use on mortality remains uncertain. We investigated the relationship between cumulative fluid balance (FB), time on mechanical ventilation and mortality in ARDS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective observational study. Patients were divided in four cohorts based on cumulative FB on day 7 of ICU-admission: ?0 L (Group I); 0-3.5 L (Group II); 3.5-8 L (Group III) and ?8 L (Group IV). In addition, we used cumulative FB on day 7 as continuum as a predictor of mortality. Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality and ventilator-free days. Secondary outcomes were 90-day mortality and ICU length of stay. RESULTS:Six hundred ARDS patients were included, of whom 156 (26%) died within 28 days. Patients with a higher cumulative FB on day 7 had a longer length of ICU-stay and fewer ventilator-free days on day 28. Furthermore, after adjusting for severity of illness, a higher cumulative FB was associated with 28-day mortality (Group II, adjusted OR (aOR) 2.1 [1.0-4.6], p = 0.045; Group III, aOR 3.3 [1.7-7.2], p = 0.001; Group IV, aOR 7.9 [4.0-16.8], p<0.001). Using restricted cubic splines, a non-linear dose-response relationship between cumulative FB and probability of death at day 28 was found; where a more positive FB predicted mortality and a negative FB showed a trend towards survival. CONCLUSIONS:A higher cumulative fluid balance is independently associated with increased risk of death, longer time on mechanical ventilation and longer length of ICU-stay in patients with ARDS. This underlines the importance of implementing restrictive fluid therapy in ARDS patients.
Project description:Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who receive renal replacement therapy (RRT) have very high mortality rate. During RRT, there are markedly loss of macro- and micronutrients which may cause malnutrition and result in impaired renal recovery and patient survival. We aimed to examine the predictive role of macro- and micronutrients on survival and renal outcomes in critically ill patients undergoing continuous RRT (CRRT). This prospective observational study enrolled critically ill patients requiring CRRT at Intensive Care Unit of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from November 2012 until November 2013. The serum, urine, and effluent fluid were serially collected on the first three days to calculate protein metabolism including dietary protein intake (DPI), nitrogen balance, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR). Serum zinc, selenium, and copper were measured for micronutrients analysis on the first three days of CRRT. Survivor was defined as being alive on day 28 after initiation of CRRT.Dialysis status on day 28 was also determined. Of the 70 critically ill patients requiring CRRT, 27 patients (37.5%) survived on day 28. The DPI and serum albumin of survivors were significantly higher than non-survivors (0.8± 0.2 vs 0.5 ±0.3g/kg/day, p = 0.001, and 3.2±0.5 vs 2.9±0.5 g/dL, p = 0.03, respectively) while other markers were comparable. The DPI alone predicted patient survival with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.69. A combined clinical model predicted survival with AUC of 0.78. When adjusted for differences in albumin level, clinical severity score (APACHEII and SOFA score), and serum creatinine at initiation of CRRT, DPI still independently predicted survival (odds ratio 4.62, p = 0.009). The serum levels of micronutrients in both groups were comparable and unaltered following CRRT. Regarding renal outcome, patients in the dialysis independent group had higher serum albumin levels than the dialysis dependent group, p = 0.01. In conclusion, in critically ill patients requiring CRRT, DPI is a good predictor of patient survival while serum albumin is a good prognosticator of renal outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fluid overload (FO) is associated with unfavorable outcomes in critically ill children. Clinicians are encouraged to avoid FO; however, strategies to avoid FO are not well-described in pediatrics. Our aim was to implement a bundle strategy to prevent FO in children with sepsis and pARDS and to compare the outcomes with a historical cohort. METHODS:A quality improvement initiative, known as preemptive fluid strategy (PFS) was implemented to prevent early FO, in a 12-bed general PICU. Infants on mechanical ventilation (MV) fulfilling pARDS and sepsis criteria were prospectively recruited. For comparison, data from a historical cohort from 2015, with the same inclusion and exclusion criteria, was retrospectively reviewed. The PFS bundle consisted of 1. maintenance of intravenous fluids (MIVF) at 50% of requirements; 2. drug volume reduction; 3. dynamic monitoring of preload markers to determine the need for fluid bolus administration; 4. early use of diuretics; and 5. early initiation of enteral feeds. The historical cohort treatment, the standard fluid strategy (SFS), were based on physician preferences. Peak fluid overload (PFO) was the primary outcome. PFO was defined as the highest FO during the first 72 h. FO was calculated as (cumulative fluid input - cumulative output)/kg*100. Fluid input/output were registered every 12 h for 72 h. RESULTS:Thirty-seven patients were included in the PFS group (54% male, 6 mo (IQR 2,11)) and 39 with SFS (64%male, 3 mo (IQR1,7)). PFO was lower in PFS (6.31% [IQR4.4-10]) compared to SFS (12% [IQR8.4-15.8]). FO was lower in PFS compared to CFS as early as 12 h after admission [2.4(1.4,3.7) v/s 4.3(1.5,5.5), p?<?0.01] and maintained during the study. These differences were due to less fluid input (MIVF and fluid boluses). There were no differences in the renal function test. PRBC requirements were lower during the first 24 h in the PFS (5%) compared to SFS (28%, p?<?0.05). MV duration was 81 h (58,98) in PFS and 118 h (85154) in SFS(p?<?0.05). PICU LOS in PFS was 5 (4, 7) and in SFS was 8 (6, 10) days. CONCLUSION:Implementation of a bundle to prevent FO in children on MV with pARDS and sepsis resulted in less PFO. We observed a decrease in MV duration and PICU LOS. Future studies are needed to address if PFS might have a positive impact on health outcomes.