Protective effects of Oxya chinensis sinuosa Mishchenko against ultraviolet B-induced photodamage in hairless mice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Edible insects, including Oxya chinensis sinuosa Mishchenko (Oc), which is consumed as food in Asia, are considered as a human food shortage alternative, and also as a preventive measure against environmental destruction. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which causes skin photodamage, is considered as an extrinsic skin aging factor. It reduces skin hydration, and increases wrinkle formation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the anti-aging effects of an ethanol extract of Oc (Oc.Ex). METHODS:A UVB-irradiated hairless mouse model was used to examine relevant changes in skin hydration, wrinkle formation, and skin epidermal thickness. Also, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed, and Oc. Ex skin protective effects against UVB irradiation-induced photoaging were examined by determining the levels of skin hydration factors. RESULTS:Oc.Ex improved epidermal barrier dysfunctions such as increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and capacitance reduction in UVB-irradiated mice. It upregulated skin hydration-related markers, including hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and pro-collagen, in UVB-irradiated mice, compared with the vehicle control group. It also reduced UVB-induced wrinkle formation, collagen degradation, and epidermal thickness. Additionally, it remarkably suppressed the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and restored the activity of SOD and CAT in UVB-irradiated mice, compared with the vehicle control group. Furthermore, Oc. Ex treatment downregulated the production of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway activated by UVB irradiation. CONCLUSION:This study revealed that Oc. Ex reduced skin thickness and the degradation of collagen fibers by increasing hydration markers and collagen-regulating factors in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice. It also inhibited UVB-induced antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammatory cytokine expression via MAPK signaling downregulation, suggesting that it prevents UVB-induced skin damage and photoaging, and has potential for clinical development in skin disease treatment.
Project description:We investigated whether cilostazol, an activator of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent intracellular signaling, could inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photoaging in HR-1 hairless mice. Cilostazol decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness in UVB-irradiated mice, as well as increased staining of collagen fibers and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the skin. Moreover, the proteolytic activities of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and collagenase MMP-3 were significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated mice treated with cilostazol. Western blotting showed that UVB-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-?B was significantly inhibited by cilostazol, whereas the activation of Akt was significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Confirmation of localized protein expression in the skin revealed marked p38 MAPK and NF-?B activation that was mainly detected in the dermis. Marked Akt activation was mainly detected in the epidermis. Our results suggest that cilostazol may have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of ROS and related p38 MAPK and NF-?B signaling, and subsequent down-regulation of MMPs. Therefore, cilostazol may protect against photoaging-induced wrinkle formation.
Project description:Photoaging occurs by chronic skin exposure to the sun and ultraviolet irradiation and leads to skin aging accompanied by a lack of skin hydration. We previously demonstrated the photoprotective effect of fermented Cyclopia intermedia (honeybush) extract on the skin. In this study, we evaluated the skin hydration effects of scaled-up fermented honeybush extract (HU-018) against ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in HaCaT immortalized human keratinocytes and hairless mice. Pretreating HaCaT cells with HU-018 attenuated the decreased hyaluronic acid (HA) levels and mRNA expression of genes encoding involucrin, filaggrin, and loricrin by UVB irradiation. HU-018 treatment also ameliorated the decreased stratum corneum (SC) hydration and the increased levels of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema index (EI) in hairless mice after UVB exposure. Microarray analysis revealed changes in gene expression patterns of hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-?3), and elastin induced by HU-018 in UVB-irradiated mice. Consistently, the mRNA expression of Has2, TGF-?3, and elastin was increased by HU-018 treatment. Moreover, HU-018 restored the increased epidermal thickness and collagen disorganization in skin tissue of UVB-irradiated mice. HU-018 treatment also decreased matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression and increased procollagen type-1, elastin, and TGF-?1 expression. In conclusion, we found that HU-018 promoted skin hydration processes in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes and hairless mice by modulating involucrin, filaggrin, loricrin, and HA expression and ameliorating visible signs of photoaging. Thus, HU-018 may be a good skin hydration agent for skin care.
Project description:Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation causes adverse effects on the skin. Corn silk contains flavonoids and other bioactive compounds and antioxidants, which may prevent skin photoaging through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to investigate the potential photoprotective effects of dietary corn silk on UVB-induced skin damage in mice and the mechanisms behind these effects on human skin cells. Oral administration of corn silk water extract (CS) (2 or 4 g/kg/day) for 19 weeks decreased epidermal thickness, wrinkle formation, and positive staining for PCNA, Ki67, and 8-OHdG, and increased collagen staining in UVB-irradiated SKH-1 hairless mice compared with controls. The pro-inflammatory NF-κB target genes (IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2) and MMP-9 expressions were lower in the CS groups, and TGF-β/Smad signaling increased. Low skin lipid peroxidation and blood DNA oxidation levels and high blood glutathione were detected. Antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2-related catalase and SOD1 proteins and glutaredoxin mRNA levels increased. The results of CS extract treatment and UVB irradiation in HaCaT cells showed the same results in Nrf2 and NF-κB target genes. An LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the CS extract contained potential antioxidants, which might have contributed to its anti-photoaging effects in tissues and cells. CS extract may reduce UVB-induced skin damage through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Project description:Accumulating evidence indicates that botanical extracts affect skin biophysical parameters, such as hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), melanin index, erythema index, and wrinkle development. Vaccinium uliginosum extract contains a high level of anthocyanins as antioxidant and is ideal for use in dietary skin care products. Here, we assessed the photoprotective effects of dietary V. uliginosum extract in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated hairless mice. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanin composition in the ethanol-extracted V. uliginosum sample was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Skin parameter analysis and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were conducted on skin samples from UVB-irradiated hairless mice to evaluate the effects of V. uliginosum extract on skin conditions. In addition, skin mRNA and protein expression were assessed to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the anthocyanin-enriched extract on skin appearance and condition. Administration of the ethanol-extracted V. uliginosum sample caused significant changes in skin water-holding capacity, TEWL, wrinkle-related parameters, and epidermal thickness in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. In addition, oral administration of V. uliginosum attenuated the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and increased levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) and antioxidant-related genes. Further, V. uliginosum administration downregulated inflammatory cytokine levels and UVB-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signaling regulated kinase (ERK), as well as Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 protein levels. Oral administration of anthocyanin-enriched V. uliginosum extract can improve the appearance and condition of the skin following UV irradiation.
Project description:Skin photoaging is mainly caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, which increases expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and destroys collagen fibers, consequently inducing wrinkle formation. Nutritional factors have received scientific attention for use as agents for normal skin functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hot water extracts from the leaves of Hydrangea serrata (Thunb.) Ser. (WHS) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin photoaging and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms in human foreskin fibroblasts (Hs68) and HR-1 hairless mice. WHS recovered UVB-reduced cell viability and ameliorated oxidative stress by inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Hs68 cells. WHS rescued UVB-induced collagen degradation by suppressing MMP expression, and reduced the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines. These anti-photoaging activities of WHS were associated with inhibition of the activator protein 1 (AP-1), signal transduction and activation of transcription 1 (STAT1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Oral administration of WHS effectively alleviated dorsal skin from wrinkle formation, epidermal thickening, collagen degradation, and skin dehydration in HR-1 hairless mice exposed to UVB. Notably, WHS suppressed UVB activation of the AP-1 and MAPK signaling pathways in dorsal mouse skin tissues. Taken together, our data indicate that WHS prevents UVB-induced skin damage due to collagen degradation and MMP activation via inactivation of MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway.
Project description:Positive physiological benefits of several plant oils on the UV-induced photoaging have been reported in some cell lines and model mice, but perilla oil collected from the seeds of Perilla frutescens L. has not been investigated in this context. To study the therapeutic effects of cold-pressed perilla oil (CPO) on UV-induced photoaging in vitro and in vivo, UV-induced cellular damage and cutaneous photoaging were assessed in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) and HR-1 hairless mice. CPO contained five major fatty acids including linolenic acid (64.11%), oleic acid (16.34%), linoleic acid (11.87%), palmitic acid (5.06%), and stearic acid (2.48%). UV-induced reductions in NHDF cell viability, ROS production, SOD activity, and G2/M cell cycle arrest were remarkably improved in UV + CPO treated NHDF cells as compared with UV + Vehicle treated controls. Also, UV-induced increases in MMP-1 protein and galactosidase levels were remarkably suppressed by CPO. In UV-radiated hairless mice, topical application of CPO inhibited an increase in wrinkle formation, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema value, hydration and melanin index on dorsal skin of UVB-irradiated hairless mice. CPO was observed to similarly suppress UV-induced increases in epidermal thickness, mast cell numbers, and galactosidase and MMP-3 mRNA levels. These results suggest CPO has therapeutic potential in terms of protecting against skin photoaging by regulating skin morphology, histopathology and oxidative status.
Project description:Ultraviolet (UV) B exposure induces DNA damage and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes skin photoaging through signaling pathways of inflammation and modulation of extracellular matrix remodeling proteins, collagens, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). As low molecular-weight fucoidan (LMF) has potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, we examined the protective effects of LMF against UVB-induced photoaging. A UVB-irradiated mouse model was topically treated with myricetin or LMF at 2.0, 1.0 and 0.2 mg/cm² (LMF2.0, LMF1.0 and LMF0.2, respectively) once a day for 15 weeks. Wrinkle formation, inflammation, oxidative stress, MMP expression, and apoptosis in the treated regions were compared with those in a distilled water-treated photoaging model (UVB control). LMF treatments, particularly LMF2.0 and LMF1.0, significantly inhibited the wrinkle formation, skin edema, and neutrophil recruitment into the photo-damaged lesions, compared with those in the UVB control. While LMF decreased interleukin (IL)-1? release, it increased IL-10. The LMF treatment inhibited the oxidative stresses (malondialdehyde and superoxide anion) and enhanced endogenous antioxidants (glutathione). Additionally, LMF reduced the mRNA expression of MMP-1, 9, and 13. The histopathological analyses revealed the anti-photoaging effects of LMF exerted via its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and MMP-9-inhibiting effects. These suggest that LMF can be used as a skin-protective remedy for photoaging.
Project description:The present study investigated the anti-aging effects of pomegranate juice concentrated powder (PCP) in hairless mice following 15 weeks of UVB irradiation (three times a week; 0.18 J/cm2). Skin moisturizing effects were evaluated through skin water, collagen type I and hyaluronan contents, as well as collagen type I and hyaluronan synthesis-related transcript levels. Wrinkle formation and edema scores (skin weights) were also assessed, along with skin matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-9 and MMP-13 transcript levels. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of PCP, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 contents were observed. Caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were used as an apoptotic index in epidermal keratinocytes. To determine the anti-oxidative effects of PCP, nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal immunoreactive cells were detected and glutathione (GSH) content, malondialdehyde levels, superoxide anion production, Nox2, and GSH reductase mRNA expression were all measured. The results indicated that skin wrinkles induced by photoaging were significantly reduced by PCP, whereas skin water contents, collagen type I and hyaluronan contents all increased. Furthermore, IL-1β levels in the PCP-treated groups were lower than those in the UVB-exposed control group. UVB-induced GSH depletion was also inhibited by PCP. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that PCP has favorable protective effects against UVB-induced photoaging through anti-apoptotic effects, MMP activity inhibition and ECM (COL1 and hyaluronan) synthesis-related moisturizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.
Project description:Chronic exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin photoaging. Many studies have shown that naturally occurring phytochemicals have anti-photoaging effects, but their direct target molecule(s) and mechanism(s) remain unclear. We found that myricetin, a major flavonoid in berries and red wine, inhibited wrinkle formation in mouse skin induced by chronic UVB irradiation (0.18J/cm(2), 3 days/week for 15 weeks). Myricetin treatment reduced UVB-induced epidermal thickening of mouse skin and also suppressed UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression and enzyme activity. Myricetin appeared to exert its anti-aging effects by suppressing UVB-induced Raf kinase activity and subsequent attenuation of UVB-induced phosphorylation of MEK and ERK in mouse skin. In vitro and in vivo pull-down assays revealed that myricetin bound with Raf in an ATP-noncompetitive manner. Overall, these results indicate that myricetin exerts potent anti-photoaging activity by regulating MMP-9 expression through the suppression of Raf kinase activity.
Project description:Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation causes imbalance between dermal matrix synthesis and degradation through aberrant upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which leads to overall skin photoaging. We investigated the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (HASCs) on photo-damaged human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). EVs were isolated from conditioned media of HASCs with tangential flow filtration and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), western blotting, micro RNA (miRNA) arrays, cytokine arrays and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effects of EVs on the UVB-irradiated HDFs were evaluated using scratch assay, ELISA and real-time PCR. Microarrays exhibited that EVs are rich in various miRNAs and proteins, and that these EV contents are linked to a broad range of biological functions, including fibroblast proliferation, UV protection, collagen biosynthesis, DNA repair and cell ageing. A scratch assay showed that HASC-EVs enhanced the migration ability of UVB-irradiated HDFs. Real-time RT-PCR and ELISA analyses revealed that the HASC-derived EVs significantly suppressed the overexpression of MMP-1, -2, -3 and -9 induced by UVB irradiation and enhanced the expression of collagen types I, II, III and V and elastin. In particular, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, which are important factors involved in MMP suppression and ECM synthesis, were upregulated in EV-treated HDFs after UVB irradiation. Overall results suggest that diverse components that are enriched in HASC-derived EVs could act as a biochemical cue for recovery from skin photoaging.