Structural determination of Enzyme-Graphene Nanocomposite Sensor Material.
ABSTRACT: State-of-the-art ultra-sensitive blood glucose-monitoring biosensors, based on glucose oxidase (GOx) covalently linked to a single layer graphene (SLG), will be a valuable next generation diagnostic tool for personal glycemic level management. We report here our observations of sensor matrix structure obtained using a multi-physics approach towards analysis of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on graphene-based biosensor functionalized with GOx under different pH conditions for various hierarchical GOx assemblies within SLG. We developed a methodology to separately extract the average shape of GOx molecules within the hierarchical assemblies. The modeling is able to resolve differences in the average GOx dimer structure and shows that treatment under different pH conditions lead to differences within the GOx at the dimer contact region with SLG. The coupling of different analysis methods and modeling approaches we developed in this study provides a universal approach to obtain detailed structural quantifications, for establishing robust structure-property relationships. This is an essential step to obtain an insight into the structure and function of the GOx-SLG interface for optimizing sensor performance.
Project description:Micro-fabricated single-layer graphenes (SLGs) on a silicon dioxide (SiO2)/Si substrate, a silicon nitride (SiN) membrane, and a suspended architecture are presented for their use as temperature sensors. These graphene temperature sensors act as resistance temperature detectors, showing a quadratic dependence of resistance on the temperature in a range between 283 K and 303 K. The observed resistance change of the graphene temperature sensors are explained by the temperature dependent electron mobility relationship (~T-4) and electron-phonon scattering. By analyzing the transient response of the SLG temperature sensors on different substrates, it is found that the graphene sensor on the SiN membrane shows the highest sensitivity due to low thermal mass, while the sensor on SiO2/Si reveals the lowest one. Also, the graphene on the SiN membrane reveals not only the fastest response, but also better mechanical stability compared to the suspended graphene sensor. Therefore, the presented results show that the temperature sensors based on SLG with an extremely low thermal mass can be used in various applications requiring high sensitivity and fast operation.
Project description:Utilizing nanomachining technologies, it is possible to manipulate the heat transport in graphene by introducing different defects. However, due to the difficulty in suspending large-area single-layer graphene (SLG) and limited temperature sensitivity of the present probing methods, the correlation between the defects and thermal conductivity of SLG is still unclear. In this work, we developed a new method for fabricating micro-sized suspended SLG. Subsequently, a focused ion beam (FIB) was used to create nanohole defects in SLG and tune the heat transport. The thermal conductivity of the same SLG before and after FIB radiation was measured using a novel T-type sensor method on site in a dual-beam system. The nanohole defects decreased the thermal conductivity by about 42%. It was found that the smaller width and edge scrolling also had significant restriction on the thermal conductivity of SLG. Based on the calculation results through a lattice dynamics theory, the increase of edge roughness and stronger scattering on long-wavelength acoustic phonons are the main reasons for the reduction in thermal conductivity. This work provides reliable data for understanding the heat transport in a defective SLG membrane, which could help on the future design of graphene-based electrothermal devices.
Project description:The development of the basic understanding of the charge storage mechanisms in electrodes for energy storage applications needs deep characterization of the electrode/electrolyte interface. In this work, we studied the charge of the double layer capacitance at single layer graphene (SLG) electrode used as a model material, in neat (EMIm-TFSI) and solvated (with acetonitrile) ionic liquid electrodes. The combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and gravimetric electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements evidence that the presence of solvent drastically increases the charge carrier density at the SLG/ionic liquid interface. The capacitance is thus governed not only by the electronic properties of the graphene, but also by the specific organization of the electrolyte side at the SLG surface originating from the strong interactions existing between the EMIm<sup>+</sup> cations and SLG surface. EQCM measurements also show that the carbon structure, with the presence of sp<sup>2</sup> carbons, affects the charge storage mechanism by favoring counter-ion adsorption on SLG electrode versus ion exchange mechanism in amorphous porous carbons.
Project description:We numerically design and experimentally test a SERS-active substrate for enhancing the SERS signal of a single layer of graphene (SLG) in water. The SLG is placed on top of an array of silver-covered nanoholes in a polymer and is covered with water. Here we report a large enhancement of up to 2?×?10<sup>5</sup> in the SERS signal of the SLG on the patterned plasmonic nanostructure for a 532?nm excitation laser wavelength. We provide a detailed study of the light-graphene interactions by investigating the optical absorption in the SLG, the density of optical states at the location of the SLG, and the extraction efficiency of the SERS signal of the SLG. Our numerical calculations of both the excitation field and the emission rate enhancements support the experimental results. We find that the enhancement is due to the increase in the confinement of electromagnetic fields on the location of the SLG that results in enhanced light absorption in the graphene at the excitation wavelength. We also find that water droplets increase the density of optical radiative states at the location of the SLG, leading to enhanced spontaneous emission rate of graphene at its Raman emission wavelengths.
Project description:Effect of two different antimicrobial materials, functionalized graphene oxide (GOX), and AGXX® coated on cellulose fibers, on the growth and transcriptome of the clinical MRSA strain S. aureus 04-02981. In addition, we investigated the effect of a third material as a combination of GOX and AGXX® fibers on S. aureus 04-02981
Project description:The extensive oxygen-group functionality of single-layer graphene oxide proffers useful anchor sites for chemical functionalization in the controlled formation of graphene architecture and composites. However, the physicochemical environment of graphene oxide and its single-atom thickness facilitate its ability to undergo conformational changes due to responses to its environment, whether pH, salinity, or temperature. Here, we report experimental and molecular simulations confirming the conformational changes of single-layer graphene oxide sheets from the wet or dry state. MD, PM6, and ab initio simulations of dry SLG and dry and wetted SLGO and electron microscopy imaging show marked differences in the properties of the materials that can explain variations in previously observed results for the pH dependent behavior of SLGO and electrical conductivity of chemically modified graphene-polymer composites. Understanding the physicochemical responses of graphene and graphene oxide architecture and performing selected chemistry will ultimately facilitate greater tunability of their performance.
Project description:The moisture barrier properties of stacked graphene layers on Cu surfaces were investigated with the goal of improving the moisture barrier efficiency of single-layer graphene (SLG) for Cu metallization. SLG with large grain size were stacked on Cu surfaces coated with CVD-SLG to cover the grain-boundaries and defective areas of the underneath SLG film, which was confirmed to be oxidized by Raman spectroscopy measurements. To evaluate the humidity resistance of the graphene-coated Cu surfaces, temperature humidity storage (THS) testing was conducted under accelerated oxidation conditions (85?°C and 85% relative humidity) for 100?h. The color changes of the Cu surfaces during THS testing were observed by optical microscopy, while the oxidized Cu into Cu<sub>2</sub>O and CuO was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results were accord with the results of first-principle simulation for the energetic barrier against water diffusion through the stacked graphene layers with different overlap. The results demonstrate the efficiency of SLG stacking approach against moisture for Cu metallization.
Project description:Continuous growth of high-quality single-layer graphene (SLG) is highly desirable in several electronic and optoelectronic applications. To fulfill such requirements, we proposed a low-cost, highly reproducible high-quality SLG synthesized by indigenously developed low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) setup. The quality of SLG is examined by Raman spectroscopy, where we have probed the I 2D/I G ratio for continuous 30 runs to assess the reproducibility and quality of single-layer using proposed indigenous LPCVD setup for device fabrication. The highest I 2D/I G ratio of SLG (5.82) was found with full width at half maximum values of 2D peak and G peak of ?30.10 cm-1 and ?20.86 cm-1, respectively. Further, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been performed to study the quality of SLG. Thickness measurement of graphene with graphene grain size is calculated from atomic force microscopy studies, and the average grain size is found to be 1-3 ?m. Moreover, I-V characteristics have also been investigated by the two-probe method to ensure the quality of SLG. The lowest resistance of the SLG (?387 ?) was found at room temperature. Thus, this new indigenously developed low-cost setup provides a novel alternative method to produce highly reproducible metrology-grade continuous SLG on Cu substrate for next-generation quantum devices.
Project description:A straightforward fabrication technique to obtain patterned substrates promoting ordered neuron growth is presented. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) single layer graphene (SLG) was machined by means of single pulse UV laser ablation technique at the lowest effective laser fluence in order to minimize laser damage effects. Patterned substrates were then coated with poly-D-lysine by means of a simple immersion in solution. Primary embryonic hippocampal neurons were cultured on our substrate, demonstrating an ordered interconnected neuron pattern mimicking the pattern design. Surprisingly, the functionalization is more effective on the SLG, resulting in notably higher alignment for neuron adhesion and growth. Therefore the proposed technique should be considered a valuable candidate to realize a new generation of highly specialized biosensors.
Project description:Heavy metal contamination in water is a serious risk to the public health and other life forms on earth. Current research in nanotechnology is developing new nanosystems and nanomaterials for the fast and efficient removal of pollutants and heavy metals from water. Here, we report graphene oxide-based microbots (GOx-microbots) as active self-propelled systems for the capture, transfer, and removal of a heavy metal (i.e., lead) and its subsequent recovery for recycling purposes. Microbots' structure consists of nanosized multilayers of graphene oxide, nickel, and platinum, providing different functionalities. The outer layer of graphene oxide captures lead on the surface, and the inner layer of platinum functions as the engine decomposing hydrogen peroxide fuel for self-propulsion, while the middle layer of nickel enables external magnetic control of the microbots. Mobile GOx-microbots remove lead 10 times more efficiently than nonmotile GOx-microbots, cleaning water from 1000 ppb down to below 50 ppb in 60 min. Furthermore, after chemical detachment of lead from the surface of GOx-microbots, the microbots can be reused. Finally, we demonstrate the magnetic control of the GOx-microbots inside a microfluidic system as a proof-of-concept for automatic microbots-based system to remove and recover heavy metals.