The Evidence for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Congenital Neutrophil Disorders: A Comprehensive Review by the Inborn Errors Working Party Group of the EBMT.
ABSTRACT: Congenital disorders of the immune system affecting maturation and/or function of phagocytic leucocytes can result in severe infectious and inflammatory complications with high mortality and morbidity. Further complications include progression to MDS/AML in some cases. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for most patients with these diseases. In this review, we provide a detailed update on indications and outcomes of alloHSCT for congenital neutrophil disorders, based on data from the available literature.
Project description:Primary immunodeficiency disorders that predominantly affect immune regulation and mechanisms of self-tolerance have come into the limelight, because at least for a subgroup of monogenetic disorders, a targeted therapy has become available. Nevertheless, their management often involves the treatment of severely compromising, refractory, multi-organ autoimmunity, leading to further increased susceptibility to infections and complications of long-term immune suppressive treatment, including the risk of malignancy. While evidence for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) as a curative treatment option for severely affected patients by this disease category accumulates, clear indications, and guidelines for alloHSCT are lacking. Predictive and stratification-relevant tools such as disease activity scores are largely missing and often there is not a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation within the same family to facilitate the decision whether to transplant or not. In this review, we provide a literature-based update on indications and outcomes of alloHSCT for congenital immune dysregulative inborn errors of immunity according to the IUIS classification 2017.
Project description:This review offers an update on a group of inborn errors of metabolism causing severe epilepsy with the onset in pediatric age (but also other neurological manifestations such as developmental delay or movement disorders) with available effective or potentially effective treatments. The main pathogenic and clinical features and general recommendations for the diagnostic and therapeutic workup of the following disorders are discussed: vitamin B6-dependent epilepsies, cerebral folate deficiency, congenital disorders of serine metabolism, biotinidase deficiency, inborn errors of creatine metabolism, molybdenum cofactor deficiency, and glucose transporter 1 deficiency. Available treatments are more effective on epileptic manifestations (with the possibility of complete seizure control) and motor symptoms, whereas the benefits on cognitive outcome are usually minor.
Project description:Single gene disorders of the autophagy pathway are an emerging, novel and diverse group of multisystem diseases in children. Clinically, these disorders prominently affect the central nervous system at various stages of development, leading to brain malformations, developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, movement disorders, and neurodegeneration, among others. Frequent early and severe involvement of the central nervous system puts the paediatric neurologist, neurogeneticist, and neurometabolic specialist at the forefront of recognizing and treating these rare conditions. On a molecular level, mutations in key autophagy genes map to different stages of this highly conserved pathway and thus lead to impairment in isolation membrane (or phagophore) and autophagosome formation, maturation, or autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Here we discuss 'congenital disorders of autophagy' as an emerging subclass of inborn errors of metabolism by using the examples of six recently identified monogenic diseases: EPG5-related Vici syndrome, beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration due to mutations in WDR45, SNX14-associated autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia and intellectual disability syndrome, and three forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia, SPG11, SPG15 and SPG49 caused by SPG11, ZFYVE26 and TECPR2 mutations, respectively. We also highlight associations between defective autophagy and other inborn errors of metabolism such as lysosomal storage diseases and neurodevelopmental diseases associated with the mTOR pathway, which may be included in the wider spectrum of autophagy-related diseases from a pathobiological point of view. By exploring these emerging themes in disease pathogenesis and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, we discuss how congenital disorders of autophagy inform our understanding of the importance of this fascinating cellular pathway for central nervous system biology and disease. Finally, we review the concept of modulating autophagy as a therapeutic target and argue that congenital disorders of autophagy provide a unique genetic perspective on the possibilities and challenges of pathway-specific drug development.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in young children can be a clinical manifestation of various primary immunodeficiency syndromes. Poor clinical outcome is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity from the complications of prolonged immunosuppressive treatment and malabsorption. In 2012, mutations in the lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) gene were identified as the cause of an autoimmunity and immunodeficiency syndrome. Since then, several LRBA-deficient patients have been reported with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations without reliable predictive prognostic markers. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) has been performed in a few severely affected patients with complete or partial response. Herein, we present a detailed course of the disease and the transplantation procedure used in a LRBA-deficient patient suffering primarily from infantile IBD with immune enteropathy since the age of 6?weeks, and progressive autoimmunity with major complications following long-term immunosuppressive treatment. At 12?years of age, alloHSCT using bone marrow of a fully matched sibling donor-a healthy heterozygous LRBA mutant carrier-was performed after conditioning with a reduced-intensity regimen. During the 6-year follow-up, we observed a complete remission of enteropathy, autoimmunity, and skin vitiligo, with complete donor chimerism. The genetic diagnosis of LRBA deficiency was made post-alloHSCT by detection of two compound heterozygous mutations, using targeted sequencing of DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood before the transplantation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASD) is a newly identified neurometabolic disorder characterized by severe congenital microcephaly, severe global developmental delay, intractable seizure disorder, and spastic quadriplegia. Brain MRI showed brain atrophy, delayed myelination, and simplified gyriform pattern. METHODS: We report ASD deficiency in a 2- and 4-year-old sibling. On them, we described clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings, and we compared our results with previously reported cases. RESULTS: We identified a homozygous novel missense mutation in ASNS gene in both probands and we demonstrated low CSF and plasma asparagine in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should suspect ASD deficiency in any newborn presented with severe congenital microcephaly followed by severe epileptic encephalopathy and global developmental delay. CSF asparagine level is low in this disorder while plasma may be low.
Project description:Background. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) involving skin is one of the most frequent complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), usually diagnosed based on clinical manifestations. So far, skin biopsy with histopathological evaluation is the only method to confirm the diagnosis. Objective. In this prospective study we monitored alloHSCT recipients by dermoscopy in order to assess its utility as an alternative noninvasive tool to early diagnose acute GVHD. Methods. Thirteen consecutive patients who received alloHSCT were examined clinically and dermoscopically towards aGVHD [days 28 (±7), 56 (±7), and 100 (±7)], as well as in each patient who developed cutaneous aGVHD diagnosed according to clinical criteria (Glucksberg scale). Results. Six patients (46%) developed symptoms of cutaneous acute GVHD (grade 1, n = 3; grade 2, n = 3). Dermoscopic evaluation revealed pinkish or reddish background and well-visible, multiple thin telangiectasias. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of dermoscopy to evaluate skin involvement in the course of acute GVHD suggesting its role as a diagnostic tool in follow-up of GVHD, which can be also used before clinical symptoms occur.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) remains the treatment of choice to consolidate remission in patients with poor-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With increasing alternative donors available, the preferred donor or stem cell source is debated. We set out to study outcome in recipients of alloHSCT with poor-risk AML in first complete remission (CR1) by donor type. A total of 6545 adult patients with poor-risk AML in CR1 receiving an alloHSCT using matched related donor (MRD, n = 3511) or alternative donors, including 10/10 (n = 1959) or 9/10 matched unrelated donors (MUDs, n = 549), umbilical cord blood (UCB) grafts (n = 333), or haplo-identical (haplo) donors (n = 193) were compared. Overall survival (OS) at 2 years following MRD alloHSCT was an estimated 59 ± 1%, which did not differ from 10/10 MUD (57 ± 1%) and haplo alloHSCT (57 ± 4%). OS, however, was significantly lower for 9/10 MUD alloHSCT (49 ± 2%) and UCB grafts (44 ± 3%), respectively (P < .001). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) depended on donor type and was estimated at 26 ± 3% and 29 ± 3% after haplo alloHSCT and UCB grafts at 2 years vs 15 ± 1% following MRD alloHSCT. Multivariable analysis confirmed the impact of donor type with OS following MRD, 10/10 MUD, and haplo alloHSCT not being statistically significantly different. NRM was significantly higher for alternative donors as compared with MRD alloHSCT. Collectively, these results suggest that alloHSCT with MRDs and 10/10 MUDs may still be preferred in patients with poor-risk AML in CR1. If an MRD or 10/10 MUD is not available, then the repertoire of alternative donors includes 9/10 MUD, UCB grafts, and haplo-identical donors. The latter type of donor is increasingly applied and now approximates results with matched donors.
Project description:Individually, metabolic disorders are rare, but overall they account for a significant number of neonatal disorders affecting the central nervous system. The neonatal clinical manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are characterized by nonspecific systemic symptoms that may mimic more common acute neonatal disorders like sepsis, severe heart insufficiency, or neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Certain IEMs presenting in the neonatal period may also be complicated by sepsis and cardiomyopathy. Early diagnosis is mandatory to prevent death and permanent long-term neurological impairments. Although neuroimaging findings are rarely specific, they play a key role in suggesting the correct diagnosis, limiting the differential diagnosis, and may consequently allow early initiation of targeted metabolic and genetic laboratory investigations and treatment. Neuroimaging may be especially helpful to distinguish metabolic disorders from other more common causes of neonatal encephalopathy, as a newborn may present with an IEM prior to the availability of the newborn screening results. It is therefore important that neonatologists, pediatric neurologists, and pediatric neuroradiologists are familiar with the neuroimaging findings of metabolic disorders presenting in the neonatal time period.
Project description:This study reports on the use of whole exome sequencing (WES) to diagnose children with inborn errors of metabolism and other disorders in United Arab Emirates.From January 2012 to December 2014, 85 patients (46 % females) were seen in the metabolic center at Tawam Hospital (Abu Dhabi) and WES testing was requested because definitive diagnoses were not reached by conventional methods.Eighty (93 %) patients were <18 years old and 44 (52 %) were <5 years. Sixty-eight (80 %) patients had neurologic abnormalities. WES facilitated rapid diagnosis in 50 % of the patients, especially those with mitochondrial disorders. Yet, in most cases extensive investigation was required after the results were available. Most patients with confirmed molecular diagnoses had autosomal recessive disorders and were homozygous for the rare alleles. Most patients with autosomal dominant disorders and all patients with X-linked disorders had de novo mutations. WES results were negative (no pathogenic variants related to patient phenotype were identified) in six patients and incorrect in two patients. One patient had a reported "deleterious" hemizygous mutation in SLC35A2, c.617_620del (p.Q206fs), suggesting 'congenital disorder of glycosylation, TYPE IIm', but glycosylation studies were normal and healthy brothers had the same mutation. Another patient had "pathogenic" mutation in MCCC2, c.1015G?>?A (p.V339M), but urine organic acids was normal. WES confirmed inborn errors of metabolism (five mitochondrial diseases, three lysosomal storage diseases, and six other disorders) in 14 patients and genetic disorders (14 neurological diseases and three non-neurological diseases) in 17 patients. Variants of unknown significance were identified in 48 patients; 12 had "confirmed pathologic variants"and 12 had "likely pathologic variants", based on consistent phenotypes, biochemical/ segregation studies, or reported pathogenicity. In 24 patients, the variants were inconsistent with phenotypes or biochemical/ familial studies.Although WES provided molecular diagnoses, the results required careful interpretations and many patients required additional investigations. This tool is useful when conventional diagnostic methods fail. Staff competence in obtaining consent/ permission, interpreting the findings, and providing the proper counseling are essential before incorporating this technology into routine clinical practices.
Project description:Inherited neuromuscular disorders affect approximately one in 3,500 children. Structural muscular defects are most common; however functional impairment of skeletal and cardiac muscle in both children and adults may be caused by inborn errors of energy metabolism as well. Patients suffering from metabolic myopathies due to compromised energy metabolism may present with exercise intolerance, muscle pain, reversible or progressive muscle weakness, and myoglobinuria. In this review, the physiology of energy metabolism in muscle is described, followed by the presentation of distinct disorders affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle: glycogen storage diseases types III, V, VII, fatty acid oxidation defects, and respiratory chain defects (i.e., mitochondriopathies). The diagnostic work-up and therapeutic options in these disorders are discussed.